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Resident ContriTDutors 






New York 
94 Reade St. 


Edition Limited to 1600 Prints. 


H. W. BLAKE & CO. 


fA. H. Ritchie. 
Engravers, • Hazlett Gilmour. 
I A. C. Shipley. 

Artist, Frank M. Gilbert. 

Printer, J. Henry Probst. 

Binders, T. Russell & Son. 



HISTORY is a record of human experience. Human acts are its 
sources, its forces, its substance, its soul. Individual life is its 
unit; collective biography its sum total. This book is an effort to 
preserve some of the staple facts in the lives of the men and women 
of Kennebec county. Those who have attempted such work know 
its difficulties; those who have not cannot understand them. 

Early local history is, at best, but a collection of memories and tra- 
ditions, with an occasional precious bit of written data. Of necessity, 
such chains have many missing links. The questioner is so frequently 
told that had he but come ten— or twenty — years ago, such and such 
an one, now gone, could have told him so much. Those people then 
would surely have said the same of their predecessors. So if, for the 
printed page, we get what we can when we can, the reader has the 
best obtainable. 

Happily, both in character and extent, the matter here given 
greatly excels the original expectations and plans of the publishers. 
In addition to the historical matter, in which they take genuine pride, 
they regard as of great importance the genealogical and biographical 

The facts of life and generation are beyond question of superla- 
tive worth. There is no more significant tendency of civilization than 
the growing attention paid to making more detailed records of family 
statistics. Scarcely a New England family of long, vigorous con- 
tinuance can be found, some loyal member of which has not — at great 
cost of time and often of money— prepared an approximate genealogy. 
Every effort at local history puts in imperishable form the priceless 
annals of the past. The recollections and experiences taken from 
the lips of the aged is so much rescued from oblivion. Every promi- 
nent figure in the realms of business, science, art or profession has 


passed through the uneventful periods of childhood and youth, often 
in some obscure locality; and there is not a town in Kennebec county- 
whose pride in having produced and whose interest in watching or 
relating the careers of its honored sons and daughters do not still 
make its air richer and its sunshine brighter. 

While writing these last lines on a winter's day near the close of 
the second year of labor on the work in hand, we wish in behalf of 
their posterity, whom we have tried to serve, to thank the good people 
of Kennebec who have so kindly and faithfully cooperated with us in 
every way to make this volume worthy of its title. Besides to twenty 
writers whose names these chapters bear, we gladly acknowledge our 
obligation to more than twenty hundred who have, in personal inter- 
views or in correspondence, or both, done what they could to leave 
for coming times this record of their county's past — this monument 
to what it is. . 

Augusta, Me., c.,^^^>?z^ 

December, 1892. 



Chapter I. 
General View. By Hiram K. Mor- 

rell 1 

Chapter II. 
The Indians of the Kennebec. By 

Capt. Charles E. Nash 9 

Chapter III. 
Sources of Land Titles. By Len- 

dall Titcomb, Esq 73 

Chapter IV. 

Civil History and Institutions 78 

Chapter V. 

Military History 109 

Chapter VI. 

Military History (Concluded) 122 

Chapter VII. 

Industrial Resources 175 

Chapter VIII. 
Agriculture and Live Stock. By 

Samuel L. Boardman 187 

Chapter IX. 

Travel and Transportation 225 

Chapter X. 
The Newspaper Press. By Mr. 

Howard Owen 238 

Chapter XI. 
Literature and Literary People. 

By Thomas Addison 254 

Chapter XII. 
The Society of Friends. By Rufus 

M. Jones 269 

Chapter XIII. 
History of the Courts. By Judge 

William Penn Whitehouse 297 

Chapter XIV. 
The Kennebec Bar. By James W. 

Bradbury, LL.D 308 

Chapter XV. 
The Medi^ al Profession 347 

Chapter XVI. 
Augusta. By Capt. Charles E.Nash. 381 

Chapter XVII. 

Augusta (Continued) 405 

Chapter XVIII. 

Augusta (Concluded) 427 

Chapter XIX. 
Hallowell. By Dr. William B. 

Lapham 489 

Chapter XX. 
Town of Farmingdale. By A. C. 
Stilphen, Esq 517 

Chapter XXI. 
Town of Winslow. By Henry D. 
Kingsbury ' 537 

Chapter XXII. 
City of Waterville. By Henry D. 
Kingsbury 568 

Chapter XXIII. 
City of Waterville (Concluded) ... 580 

Chapter XXIV. 
The City of Gardiner 601 

Chapter XXV. 
Town of West Gardiner 668 

Chapter XXVI. 
Town of Litchfield. By H. D. 

Kingsbury 684 

Chapter XXVU. 

Town of Pittston 712 

Chapter XXVIII. 

Town of Randolph 738 

Chapter XXIX. 

Town of Chelsea 749 

Chapter XXX. 
Town of Monmouth. By Harry H. 

Cochrane 764 

Chapter XXXI. 
Town of Wayne 807 


Chapter XXXII. 

Town of Winthrop 826 

Chapter XXXIII. 

Town of Manchester 875 

Chapter XXXIV. 
Town of Readfield. By Henry D. 

Kingsbury 890 

Chapter XXXV. 

Town of Mount Vernon 9.S0 

Chapter XXXVI. 
Town of Fayette. By George Un- 
derwood, Esq 953 

Chapter XXXVII. 

Town of Vienna 974 

Chapter XXXVIII. 

Town of Rome 988 

Chapter XXXIX. 
Town of Belgrade. By J. Clair 
Minot 993 

Chapter XL. 

Town of Sidney 10.34 

Chapter XLI. 
Town of Oakland 1064 

Chapter XLII. 
Town of \^assalboro 1095 

Chapter XLIII. 
Town of China 1139 

Chapter XLIV. 
Town of Windsor 1172 

Chapter XLV. 
Town of Albion 1194 

Chapter XL\'I. 

Town of Benton 1218 

Chapter XLVII. 
Town of Clinton 1243 


Adams, Enoch, M. D 348 

Adams, Hermon H 1018 

Albion, Map of 1202 

Allen, E. C 452 

Asylum for Insane 96 

Augusta, Settlers' Map 387 

Ayer, John 1076 

Bailey, Hannah J., Residence 852 

Bailey, Moses 853 

Barnard, Mrs. Henrietta M., Res.. 648 

Barton, Asher H 1331 

Barton, Asher H. , Residence 1332 

Bassett, Alexander, Residence 1162 

Bassett, Jonathan 1163 

Bean, Emery O 316 

Benson, Benj. Chandler 1079 

Besse, Charles K 980 

Billings, Oliver 965 

Billings Homestead •. 965 

Blaine, James G 456 

Blaisdell, Elijah 1233 

Blake, Fred K., Residence 795 

Blake, Henry M 350 

Blake Homestead 795 

Blake, William P 1081 

Bodwell, Joseph R 185 

Boutelle, Nathaniel R 351 

Boutelle, Timothy 308 

Bowman, Sifamai 625 

Bradbury, James W 318 

Brooks, Samuel S 466 

Brown, Frederick 1 909 

Brown, Frederick I., Res. and Store. 908 

Brown, George 756 

Burbank, Silas 852 

Burleigh, Edwin C 82 

Bussell, John 1124 

Butman, James O., Farm Res 910 

Cabin, ' ' Uncle Tom's. " 705 

Capitol, at Augusta 80 

Carleton, Leroy T 324 

Carr, Albert C, Residence 855 

Carr, Daniel 833 

Chelsea, Settlers' Map of 750 

China, Sketch Map of 1140 

Christ's Church, Gardiner 630 

Cobb, Chandler F., Stock Farm. . . 311 

Cobbosseecontee Lake 880 

Coburn Classical Institute lOO 

Colby University 98 


Colcord, John B., Farm Residence. 1335 

Collins, Jason 234 

Collins, John 672 

Comfort Publishing House 443 

Cony, Daniel 469 

Cony High School 425 

Cony, Samuel 468 

Copsecook Paper Mills 615 

Cornish, Colby C 556 

Court House, Augusta 79 

Crooker, Leander J 354 

Crosby, George H., Residence 1309 

Cumston, Charles M 793 

Cumston, Charles M., Residence.. 792 

Cushnoc, Plan of 1761 387 

Dingley, J. B 647 

Dodge, Howard W 1260 

Doherty, Charles W 434 

Druillette's, Fr. Gabriel, Autogr'h. 83 

East Winthrop, Village Plan 849 

Eaton, Joseph 560 

Emerson, Luther D 1084 

Fairfax, Settlers' Map 1202 

Father Rale's Monument 65 

Faught, Albert, Residence 1052 

Fifield, Joseph S 883 

Fifield. Joseph S. , Farm Res 883 

Fogg, Samuel G.. Farm Res 912 

Fort Western, Vicinity of 392 

Friends' Meeting House, East Vas- 

salboro 376 

Friends' Meeting House, Winthrop. 293 

Gannett & Morse Concern 443 

Gardiner High School. . .-. 638 

Gardiner Savings Bank 627 

Giddings, Wooster P 358 

Giddings, Wooster P., Residence.. 358 

Giris' Reform School 104 

Gott, John M 824 

Gower, John 857 

Gray, Jo.shua 608 

Guptill. D. F 562 

Haley, Eben D 180 

Hallowell Social Library 502 

Hammond, Carlos 1054 

Hanscom, David 1237 

Hanson, James H 588 

Harlow, Henry M 95 

Harriman, Benjamin W 914 

Harriman, Benj. W., Residence. . . 915 

Harvey Homestead 917 

Harvey, William, Birthplace 917 

Hathaway, Charles F 589 

He wins, George E., Residence 472 

Hewins Homestead 472 

Hewins, Daniel 473 

Haynes, J. Manchester 470 

High School, Gardiner 638 

Hobbs, Josiah S 105 

Hodgdon, Elbridge G 1262 

Hodges, Albert .564 

Hodges, Albert, Residence 564 

Hodges, Bamum 564c 

Holway, Oscar 474 

Hopkins, Myrick 649 

Hopkins, Myrick, Homestead 648 

Howard, Oakes 860 

Hussey, Ben. G., Residence 1114 

Hussey, Orrett J., Residence 1128 

Industrial School for Girls 104 

Insane, Hospital for the 96 

Jail, Kennebec County 79 

Jewett, Hartley W 532 

Jones, Levi 863 

Jones Plantation, Plan of 1140 

Kendrick, Cyrus 363 

Kennebec Court House 79 

Kennebec County Jail 79 

Kent, Elias H., Residence 968 

Kents Hill Seminary 102 

Kilbreth, Sullivan 887 

Knight, Austin D 513 

Ladd, Harvey 919 

Lamb, William 1264 

Lane, Samuel W 476 

Lapham, Eliphalet H 731 

Lapham, William B 360 

Lawrence, Charles 618 

Lawrence, Sherburn 630 

Lawrence Homestead 619 

Lewis, Allen E 740 

Library, Hallowell 503 

Lithgow, L. W 439 

Longfellow, George A 864 

Loring. Henry S 1058 

MacDonald, Roderick 920 

Maine Wesleyan Seminary 103 

Manley, Joseph H 478 

Marston, David E 364 

Minot, George E 1034 

Minot, George E., Residence 1024 

Mitchell, Benjamin G 593 

Monument, Father Rale's 65 

Morrell, Arch 656 


Morrell, Hiram K 262 

Morrell, James S 1213 

Mt. Pleasant Stock Farm 211 

Nason, Charles H 445 

Nichols, Thomas B 1130 

North, James W 479 

Oak Grove Seminary 280 

" Oak Hill "— BiUings Homestead.. 96.5 

" Oak Trees "—Gov. Williams' Res. 487 

Owen, Howard, Cottage 880 

Packard, Henry 868 

Parsons, David E 366 

Rale, Fr. Seb., Autograph of .53 

Richardson, Alton 1268 

Robbins, George A 1134 

Robbins, George A., Residence 1134 

Rowell, Eliphalet .514 

Sampson, Thomas B 679 

Sanborn, Bigelow T 97 

Savings Institution, Gardiner 627 

Searls, William T 762 

Shores, George E 595 

Sidney, Sketch Map of 1035 

Small, Abner R 1089 

Smith, David T 704 

Smith, E. H. W 481 

Smith, William R 482 

Snell, William B 332 

Snow, Albion P . . .\ 371 

Springer, David S 706 

State House, Augusta 80 

St. Augustine Church, Augusta 436 

St. Joseph's Church, Gardiner 635 

St. Mary's Church, Augusta 432 

Stevens, Greenlief T 92 

Stevens Homestead 1028 

Sturgis, Ira I ) 484 

Strout, Albion K. P., Residence. . . 373 

Taylor, Joseph 1030 

Thayer. Frederick C 375 

"The Elms"— Res. Geo. H. Crosby. 1209 

Thing, Daniel H 949 

Thomas, Joseph B 736 

Tinkham, Andrew W 804 

Titcomb, Samuel 336 

Torsey, Henry P 926 

Towne, Benjamin F. , Residence . . 567 

Trott, Freeman 664 

"Uncle Tom's Cabin." 705 

Underwood, Joseph H 971 

Underwood Homestead 972 

\^assalboro, Plan of 1096 

Vining, Marcellus 1192 

Ware, John 598 

Webb, E. F 338 

West Gardiner Map 669 

Whitehouse, Seth C 486 

Whitehouse, William Penn 297 

Whitehouse Homestead 1137 

Whitmore, Chadbourn W 378 

Whitmore, Nathaniel M 342 

Whitmore, Stephen 376 

Whittier Homestead 984 

Williams, Joseph H 487 

Williams, Joseph H., Residence. . . 487 

Williams, Reuel 310 

Williams, Seth 166 

Winslow, Map of 538 

Winslow, Alfred 1092 

Woodbury, John 710 

Woods, Jacob S 986 



By Hiram K. Morrell. 

Geographical and Astronomical Position. — Rocks. — Fossils. — Clay-beds. — Drain- 
age. — Streams. — Ponds. — Hills. — Climate. — Karnes. — Shell Deposits. — Min- 
eralogy. — Primitive and Present Forests. — Landscapes. — Game. — Fishes. 

THAT portion of south-central Maine now embraced within the 
county of Kennebec — lying on either side of the Kennebec 
river and almost wholly drained by its tributaries — has an area 
of nearly a half million acres. Its southern boundary, thirty miles 
from the ocean, is in north latitude, 44°, whence it extends northward 
to 44° 31'. It is from twenty to thirty-five miles wide, lying between 
meridians 69° 20' and 70° 10', Its greatest diameter from north- 
east to southwest is 48.5 miles. With the ultimate purpose of tracing 
the course of human events within this territory, our more immediate 
purpose in this chapter is to consider the county as a physical struc- 
ture, regardless of its occupancy by man. 

The indications of a glacial period are probably as well shown in 
this county as anywhere in Maine. Underlying the modified drift 
are often found masses of earth and rocks mingled confusedly 
together, having neither stratification nor any appearance of having 
been deposited in water. These are the glacial drift, or ////. This 
drift frequently covers the slopes, and even the summits, of the 
greater elevations. It contains bowlders of all diameters up to forty 
feet, which have nearly all been brought southward from their native 
ledges, and can be traced, in some instances, for a hundred miles, 
southward or southeastward. Wherever till occurs, the ledges have 
mostly been worn to a rounied form, and, if the rock be hard, it is 
covered with long scratches, or striic, in the direction of the course 
taken by the bowlders. Geology now refers these to a moving ice- 
sheet which spread over this continent from the north, and was of 
sufficient thickness to cover even Mount Washington, to within 300 


feet of its top. This ice-sheet was so much thicker at the north than 
in this latitude that its great weight pressed the ice steadily onward 
and outward to the south-southeast. The termination of this ice-sheet 
in the Atlantic, southeast of New England, was probably like the 
present great ice-wall of the Antarctic continent. 

Of Maine as a whole the rocks are both vietaniorpliic {i. c, changed 
from the original sandstones, shales, conglomerates and limestones by 
the action of heat, water and chemical forces into other kinds of rock 
than their first character) slxiA fossi/ifcrous. These metamorphic strati- 
fied rocks occur: gneiss, mica schist, talcose schist, steatite, and ser- 
pentine, the saccharoid limestone, clay slate, quartz, and conglomer- 
ates, jasper, siliceous slate, and hornstone. The unstra'tified rocks are 
mostly granite, sienite, protogine, porphyry, and trap or greenstone. 

The fossiliferous rocks are Paleozoic, except some marine alluvial 
deposits, and represent the Lower Silurian, Upper Silurian, Devon- 
ian, and Drift and Alluvium groups. These formations have been 
studied but superficially, as yet, by .scientific men; Prof. C. H. 
Hitchcock, however, gives this arrangement: Champlain clays, terti- 
ary; Glacial drift, till; Lower Carboniferous or Upper Devonian; 
Lower Devonian, Oriskany group; Upper Silurian; Silurian and Cam- 
brian clay slates; Cambrian and Huronian with Taconic; Montalban; 
Laurentian; Granite; Trap and altered slates. The topographical 
survey by the government is not yet published, and Prof. W. S. 
Bayley, of Colby University, says that not even a nucleus of a repre- 
sentative collection of the minerals of the state exists anywhere in it, 
although Maine possesses unique minerals unknown elsewhere. 

The accepted theory of many geologists, among them Miller, 
Lyell and Darwin, is that there was a time during the Pleistocene 
period when most of this continent was under water; when the whole 
of Kennebec county was submerged; and that millions of immense 
icebergs were carried by the currents, bringing large bowlders frozen 
firmly to their bottoms. These, passing over the submerged ledge, 
ground to impalpable powder that which, precipitated in layers on the 
then ocean bottom, formed the clay layers of to-day. The subsequent 
gradual elevation of the eastern coast of this continent left above tide 
water many of the characteristics of the former ocean bottom, and 
now at various depths below the surface layers of marine shells may 
be found. 

The surface in many sections is of slate of the lower Silurian 
formation, which, having been ground «o a fine paste, makes the gray 
clay, frequently tinged with oxide of iron and containing fossil marine 
shells. Where these clay-beds are deepest the clay is very salt and 
sometimes contains water-worn pebbles, on some of which fossil 
barnacles have been found. Under the gray clays is the blue clay 
deposit, doubtless antedating them by many ages, and formed in part 


from the ocean ooze. These original day deposits are thirty, sixty, 
and in places, more than one hundred feet thick, through which the 
streams have cut deep channels, leaving the clay hills of irregular 

Of the county as a place of residence it hardly seems necessary 
to speak. Those who have always lived in it show, from that fact, 
their appreciation of it. Those who have gone from it have either 
come back, or intend to, if they can. Those who have been away from 
it and returned, think most of it. and the more they have traveled, 
the more they appreciate good " Old Kennebec " as a home. 

I was born in it and always lived in it except about two j^ears in 
Minnesota, aiid then I had a home here. I have been young and now 
I am old, yet never have I seen the Kennebecker forsaken, nor his 
seed begging bread — and never expect to — unless he is too lazy to 
work. I have traveled in twenty-six states, both of the Canadas, New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, and I honestly, after mature deliberation, 
believe that in no other land can one with honesty and thrift get more 
of the good things of life— of all that makes life enjoyable to the hon- 
est, intellectual man — than in Kennebec county. 

The county is one of the highly favored places of the world as to 
its water and drainage systems. The splendid water power at Water- 
ville, known as Ticonic (anciently spelled Teconnet) falls, is the head 
of navigation for large boats. 

The total fall of the Kennebec from the foot of Ticonic falls to 
Augusta is 36.6 feet. The dam at Augusta, which is passed by a lock, 
makes still water for several miles. Just below Ticonic falls the 
Sebasticook river, having drained Winslow, Benton and Clinton, and 
many towns in Somerset county, joins the Kennebec near the old Fort 
Halifax of 1746. The Messalonskee stream, having drained the lake of 
the same name and five towns and several large ponds, at Oakland tum- 
bles in a beautiful cascade of forty feet and soon enters the Kennebec, 
just below and opposite the mouth of the Sebasticook. , Several large 
brooks or streams, which would be called rivers in the western part of 
the state, enter the Kennebec between Waterville and Gardiner, where 
the Cobbosseecontee — the prettiest, merriest and busiest of streams — 
having drained the towns of Wayne, Winthrop, Monmouth, Litchfield 
and West Gardiner, in Kennebec county, and several in Androscoggin 
and Sagadahoc, after a vexed and troubled journey of a mile over 
eight dams, with a fall of 128 feet, laughingly and gleefully enters 
placidly the Kennebec. 

The Cobbossee is the outlet of Cobbossee Great pond, which re- 
ceives also the waters of Aunabessacook and Maranocook ponds. It 
also receives the discharge from Lake Tacoma, or " Shorey pond," 
Sand, Buker, Jimmy and Wood ponds, which are nearly on a level, and 
known on the map as Purgatory ponds. It is one of the best and most 


available water powers in the state. Worromontogus stream, the out- 
let of the pond of the same name — usually abbreviated to " Togus " — 
forms the line between Randolph and Pittston, where it forms a valu- 
able water power before its entrance into the Kennebec. The south- 
ern and eastern portions of Pittston are drained by the Eastern river, 
which joins the Kennebec at Dresden, opposite Swan island. Windsor 
is drained by the eastern branch of the Sheepscot. The towns in the 
extreme west of the county contain sixteen ponds which drain into 
the Androscoggin. As a whole, the water that falls on Kennebec 
county flows into the ocean through the Kennebec, for it receives all 
of the water of the Androscoggin at Merrymeeting bay. 

Of course this imperfect sketch of these leading drainage systems 
gives but a faint idea of the water system of the county. On Half- 
penny's atlas of Kennebec county, some seventy-five named ponds are 
laid down, which number of course does not include all. Some of 
these ponds, several miles in extent, would be called lakes in other 
places. Cobbossee Great pond forms the boundary, in whole or in 
part, of five towns; and there are several others nearly as large. I 
will not consider the water powers of these ponds and streams, but 
their natural beauties and attractions. I know them and love them, 
but it will take an abler pen than mine to picture even a small part of 
their loveliness. If I cared to tempt the hunter and fisherman — but I 
do not — I could tell wondrous tales, and wondrous because they are 
true, of the trout, black bass, white perch, pickerel, and many other 
kinds of fishes I have seen, which were taken from our beautiful 
brooks and ponds: and of the woodcocks, partridges, ducks and other 
game that others shot — others I say, for I never fired a gun in my life. 

One can hardly go amiss, who seeks for pleasure with the gun or 
rod in almost any town in the county. It is the sportsman's paradise. 
But to me, and such as I, her ponds and cascades, her placid streams 
and murmuring brooks, her ever-verdant fields and forest-clad hills, 
have a deeper and nobler attraction than merely as a haunt for the 
slayer. If everybody saw the natural beauties of Kennebec county, 
as the true lover of nature sees them, and enjoyed them as he enjoys 
them, the county would not be large enough for those who would 
want to live in it. She has no mountains to awe or weary the trav- 
eler and take up the room of better scenery, but she has picturesque 
hills and bluffs, overlooking smiling valleys, dotted with lovely vil- 
lages; hills from which Mounts Kearsage, Washington and the whole 
Presidential range may be seen, as well as Mt. Blue, Mt. Saddleback, 
Abraham, Bigelow and others. The views from Oak hill, in Litch- 
field, and from Monmouth Ridge and Pease's hill in Monmouth, Cross 
hill in Vassalboro, Deer hill in China and Bolton hill in Augusta, are 
as fine as one needs to see. 

The climate is the best abused thing in Maine, the abuse coming 


mostly from those who do not know what a good climate is. I used 
to think that Maine was hardly decent for any man to attempt to live 
in; but having spent three winters in Florida, and having sampled 
the winter climate of the much bepraised western highlands of 
Georgia, South Carolina and North Carolina, and spent nearly two 
years in Minnesota and Iowa, I have come to the conclusion that Ken- 
nebec county is the best county for me to live in, summer or winter. 
There are some days in dog-days, and perhaps some weather in March 
and November, that might be improved, but take it as a whole, one 
season with another, Kennebec has as good a climate as any place in 
the world; and her sons and daughters, physically, mentally and mor- 
ally, will compare favorably with the men and women of any land. 
We are too warm in winter, but the climate is not to blame for that. 
Maine people keep themselves warmer in the winter than in summer. 

We are far enough from the ocean to escape its damp, salt, chilly 
air, yet near enough to temper our summer heat with the sea breezes. 
For forty years our average annual rainfall, including melted snow, 
has been 43.24 inches, which is about '35 per cent, in excess of six 
other states west of Maine, where records have been kept. The mean 
rainfall in Kennebec county, between May 31st and September 14th, 
is 11.11 inches; the winter precipitation is 10.13 inches, and that of 
fall and spring 10.50 inches. (3ur rainfall is .so evenly distributed that 
the county rarely suffers from excessive storms, or from droughts. 
In fine, if one cannot live here to a good old age, he is likely to die 
young anywhere, and not necessarily because he is beloved of the 
gods either. Octogenarians are common, and centenarians are by 
no means rare. But one's life in Kennebec county, be it longer or 
shorter, is worth a good deal more than it would be anywhere else. 

While the chief industrial wealth of Kennebec county is in her 
agriculture and her varied manufactures noticed in subsequent chap- 
ters, she also utilizes her di.sadvantages, and her frozen river and her 
rocky hills become a source of employment for thousands, of business 
and revenue to many, and of general welfare to the whole community. 
Her ice business alone probably brings a million dollars a year to the 
county, while her granite quarries furnish work for scores of skilled 
laborers, and the leading cities of almost every state are proud of 
their architectural specimens of the enduring productions of Ken- 

In general the river banks along the Kennebec are high, the soil 
rocky or clayey, there being but few sections of alluvial soil along its 
banks, and these of small extent. The surface in Rome, Vienna, Mt. 
Vernon and Fayette is broken, the soils rocky and strong. In Wins- 
low the soil bordering the Kennebec and vSebasticook rivers is a fine, 
deep loam; while the eastern part of the town is ledgy. In Litchfield 
and West Gardiner are quite extensive tracts of light, plains land. 


Wayne abounds in large extents of blowing sands, soil largely com- 
posed of fine sand, not containing sufficient clay or aluminous matter 
to give them cohesion, and for years hundreds of acres of these shift- 
ing sands have been moved by the winds, covering up other hundreds 
of acres of valuable land. Her soils comprise specimens of almost 
everything. In the main they are strong rather than deep; in many 
sections ledgy, in some very rocky, in a few porous and light. In 
places, glacial deposits have formed kames,* horse backs, or ridges of 
sand. In others, fields buried in bowlders show where were ancient 
moraines of the glacial period. 

" Int all the regions which in .some former age were overrun by 
glaciers, there are found certain curious ridges of sand, gravel or 
pebbles, often in places where no ordinary stream could have flowed. 
Because of their remarkable shapes and situations they have always 
attracted attention wherever they are found, and hence they have re- 
ceived many local names. They are known as kames in Scotland, 
eskars in Ireland, aasar in Sweden, and in Maine they are called horse- 
backs, whalebacks, hogbacks, ridges, turnpikes, windrows and sad- 
dles. A kame often spreads out into a very broad ridge or plain, also 
into a series of ridges connected by cross ridges called plains or kame- 
plains. They frequently contain conical or rounded depressions called 
sinks, hoppers, pounds, kettles, bowls, punch-bowls, potash kettles, and 
one at Bryant's pond is known as the ' Basin.' The gravel stones 
and pebbles in these formations are more or less washed and rounded, 
like found on the sea beach or in the beds of rapid streams. The 
large pebbles are called cobble stones in the Middle states and pumple 
stones in the East. Often there are gaps in these ridges, but when 
mapped they are plainly seen to be arranged in lines or systems like 
the hills in a row of corn." 

One of these kames forms both sand hills and plains in Wayne; 
marked bluffs or hills of sand in Monmouth; and in Litchfield it forms 
what is known as " The Plains." Profe.ssor Stone mentions one kame 
as " the eastern Kennebec system, that extends through Mayfield, 
Skowhegan, Augusta, South Gardiner and beyond." There is no trace 
of it in Gardiner but a singular sugar-loaf shaped hill at South Gardi- 
ner. This was noticed;); by Reverend Mr. Bailey, of Pownalboro, over 
a hundred years ago, and also a similar one across the river, a short 
distance below. He thought they were the work of human hands. 
Professor .Stone's theory is that these kames are the old beds of rivers 
which ran on the surface of the ice in the glacial period, and formed 
by their deposits these various phenomena. His theory, I think, is 
generally adopted as the only one which accounts for them. 

In Wayne and Monmouth in some places these sands are shifted by 
the wind, and beds of simply barren sand occur. At Augusta and 

* The Kame theory was developed by George H. Stone, while a professor at 
Kents Hill Seminary. 

t Prof. George H. Stone, in Maine Farmer. 

\ Vide Frontier Missionary. 


Gardiner, along the river banks; in Winthrop and in other towns 
marine fossil shells of living species are found, some of which species 
are not now found so far south. 

A scallop — Pcctcn Is/aiidiats, a shell common to Newfoundland — has 
been found at Gardiner. I once bored through 72 feet of clay in 
Gardiner and struck what was undoubtedly river gravel. The line of 
these fossil shells is as much as 150 feet above the present level of the 
sea. These clay hills in many places have deep valleys between, 
doubtless eroded in glacial times. In all these river towns there are 
also high granite hills and bluffs, with the exception of Waterville, 
where the lower Silurian slates outcrop. The oldest and newest 
formations lie side by side, with no intermediate ones. 

Kennebec county has several kinds of minerals, of which a few 
may be mentioned. Litchfield, which is quite a place of pilgrimage 
for mineralogists, contains sodalite, cancrinite, elaeolite, zircon, spodu- 
mene, muscovite, pyrrhotite, hydronephelite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, 
lepidomelane, muscovite, jasper. Hydronephelite is a new mineral 
recently determined by F. W. Clarke, curator of the mineralogical 
department of the National Museum, Washington. The deep blue 
sodalite and brilliant yellow cancrinite of Litchfield and hydronephe- 
lite have never been found anywhere else in equally as fine specimens. 
A gold mine was opened a few years ago on the east side of Oak hill, 
in Litchfield, but it did not enrich its owners, although it is laid down 
on the atlas before mentioned. 

Monmouth produces actinolite, apatite, elseolite, zircon, staurolite, 
plumose mica, beryl, rulite. Pittston contains fine specimens of 
graphite and pyrrhotite. Several attempts at mining gold have been 
made there, and favorable assays published. In Waterville are found 
fine specimens of crystallized pyrite. Winthrop shows fine specimens 
of staurolite, pyrite, hornblende, garnet and copperas. Crystallized 
quartz, small garnets, tourmaline and traces of iron are common 
throughout the county. 

Dana, in his System of Mineralogy, says " gold has been found at 
Albion." This is doubtless an error into which the elder Dana wa-; 
led by Professor Cleaveland, of Brunswick, who was inveigled into 
investing by some crooks in a bogus gold mine in Albion. 

The original forest was largely of pme. as the gigantic stumps 
attest. Our forests are composed of the various species of pine, hem- 
lock, spruce, fir, hackmatack and cedar; birch, beech, oak, hornbeam, 
ash, elm, poplar, willow, cherry and basswood — in fact of about all the 
trees and shrubs of Maine. Her forests are her crowning glory, both 
when their leafage is coming out and in autumn, when their gorgeous 
coloring is the despair of the artist and the wonder of the world; for 
no other part of the earth claims to approach the beauty of the Maine 


woods. The man who has never stood, some lovely October day, on 
Oak hill, Monmouth ridge. Pease's hill, or some other hilltop over- 
looking- onr beautiful ponds, the mountains towering on our northern 
horizon; with the clear blue sky above him, and around hundreds of 
forest-clad hills, with all the gorgeous colorings of the rainbow — yes, 
with hundreds of tints and shades of colors— has yet to learn what it 
is to live, and what a lovely world this is. As the sun sinks slowly in 
the west, and gradually, gently and reluctantly draws the mantle of 
night over the earth, as though he hated to leave so much beauty, 
then one knows what a sunset is. Talk of skies! As Bryant says: 
The sunny Italy may boast 

The beauteous tints that flush her skies, 
And lovely round the Grecian coast 
May thy blue pillars rise ! 

I only know how fair they stand 
Above my own beloved land. 

Our ponds and streams have economic as well as esthetic excel- 
lence. Our ponds teem with good fish, while each week in the spring- 
time a new migratory fish makes its appearance. The purity of water 
in the Kennebec makes its fish, like its ice, the best of their kind. In 
winter the lower Kennebec swarms with smelts that used to come in 
millions to Gardiner and Hallowell— and would now if legally pro- 
tected; alewives come in early spring; then the .shad, the mackerel,- 
the striped bass; then cod, cusk, haddock, halibut and hake, all the 
year. Twenty years ago one could hardly look at the river in June 
without seeing the sturgeon jumping, but three years of fishing by a 
German company almost exterminated them. " Kennebec Salmon," 
always named on the bills in city restaurants, had been practically 
extinct for years, until recently some efforts have been made toward 
re-stocking the river. 

In several of the inland ponds are smelts. In Belgrade pond is a 
variety so large that naturalists have given it a special name. Lamprey 
and eels are plenty in the Cobbossee — the latter taken by tons — but 
the natives seldom eat them. 

Thus it would seem that nature has in every way made generous 
provision, in the valley of the Kennebec, for the welfare and happi- 
ness of man. Of course man here does not live forever, but it is a 
proportionately cheerful and pleasant place to die in. Skillful physi- 
cians and careful nurses smooth his pillow and ease his pains, till the 
grim messenger is almost tired of waiting; and when the inevitable is 
passed, genial and liberal clergymen will do the ver}^ best that can be 
done for him, and elegant undertakers will make his last ride the 
most expensive one he ever had; and when all is done a monument of 
Kennebec granite will rear its lordly head above his peaceful grave, 
and " after life's fitful fever he sleeps well." 



DuMont and Champlain. — The Popham Colony. -^Captain Gilbert's trip up the 
River. — Sebenoa the Sagamore. — Visit to the Indian Village. — Erection of 
the Cross of Discovery. — Visit of Biencourt and Father Biard. — Interviews 
with the Indians. — First Ceremony of the Mass on the Coast of Maine. — The 
French Mission at St. Sauveiir (Mt. Desert) destroyed with Bloodshed.— 
The Contest for Acadia begun.— Captain John Smith. — Samoset and Captain 
Leverett. — First Sale of Land by Indians. 

THE story of the aborigines of Maine blends inseparably with the 
history of the struggle that lasted for a century and a half be- 
tween France and England for supremacy in the New World. 
In the first decade of the 17th century, Henry IV of France and James 
I of England, grasped simultaneously as jewels for their respective 
crowns, the greater part of North America. Spain, the patron and 
the beneficiary of Columbus, had enjoyed exclusively for three gener- 
ations the wealth of the western hemisphere, whose productions of 
" barbaric pearl or gold " had spoiled the Spaniard to the point of sur- 
feit and effeminacy, and made him look lightly on all territory that 
was destitute of the glittering ores. Northward from Florida the 
latitudes were open to any nation that could maintain itself against 
the jealousy of its rivals. The mosses of an hundred years had gath- 
ered on Columbus' tomb before the impulse of his mighty achieve- 
ment aroused the statesmen of central Europe to schemes of empire 
on the continent to which he had shown the way across a chartless 
ocean. France took the initiative. Henry vaguely lined out as his own 
in 1603, by royal patent, the most of the territory of the present United 
States. James asserted a like claim to the same vast tract, with con- 
siderably enlarged boundaries. Frenchmen broke ground for coloni- 
zation at Passamaquoddy in 1604. Englishmen followed at the mouth 
of the Kennebec in 1607. Neither colony was successful, but the two 
begin the history of New France and New England, and introduce to 


US the Indians who inhabited the land in the shadow of the untrimmed 
forest. The claim of France to Acadia, whose western bound was de- 
fined by the Kennebec (where DuMont and Champlain raised the 
fleur-dc lis in 1605), and the counter-claim of the English to the Penob- 
scot (or actually to the St. George, where Weymouth erected his cross 
of discovery the same year), made the territory of future Maine from 
its earliest occupation by the whites the prolific source of interna- 
tional irritation and intrigue; and the theater of a series of sanguin- 
ary conflicts that ended only when New France was expunged from 
the map of America by the fall of Quebec in 1759. Ancient Acadia 
passed nine times between France and England in the period of 127 
years. In this eventful contest — the issue of which left North 
America to the English people — the uncivilized red men in their 
native wilds were prominent participants — the dupes and victims of 
the one side and the other — until the tribes were decimated and one 
by one extinguished. It is our present task to study the history of 
the famous tribe that dwelt in the valley of the Kennebec. 

On Wednesday, the 23d day of September, 1607, Captain Gilbert 
and nineteen men embarked in a shallop from the new fort of the 
Popham colony, at the mouth of the Kennebec, " to goe for the head 
of the river; they sayled all this daye, and the 24th the like untill six 
of the clock in the afternoone, when they landed on the river's side, 
where they found a champion land [camping ground], and very fer- 
tile, where they remayned all that night; in the morning they de- 
parted from thence and sayled up the river and came to a flatt low 
island where ys a great cataract or downfall of water, which runneth 
by both sides of this island very shold and swift. . . They haled 
their boat with a strong rope through this downfall perforce, and went 
neare a league further up, and here they lay all night; and in the first 
of the night there called certain savages on the further side of the 
river unto them in broken English; they answered them againe and 
parled [talked] long with them, when towards morning they departed. 
In the morning there came a canoa unto them, and in her a sagamo 
and four salvages, some of those which spoke to them the night be- 
fore. The sagamo called his name Sebenoa, and told us how he was 
lord of the river Sachadehoc. They entertayned him friendly, and 
took him into their boat and presented him with some trifiiing things, 
which he accepted; howbeyt, he desired some one of our men to be 
put into his canoa as a pawne of his safety, whereupon Captain Gil- 
bert sent in a man of his, when presently the canoa rowed away from 
them with all the speed they could make up the river. They followed 
with the .shallop, having great care that the sagamo should not leape 
overbourde. The canoa quickly rowed from them and landed, 
and the men made to their howses, being neere a league on the 


the land from the river's side, and carried our man with them. The 
shallop making good waye, at length came to another downfall, which 
was soe shallow and soe swift, that by no means could they pass any 
further, for which. Captain Gilbert, with nine others, landed and tooke 
their fare, the savage sagamo, with them, and went in search after 
those other salvages, whose howses, the sagamo told Captain Gilbert, 
were not farr off; and after a good tedious march, they came indeed 
at length unto those salvages' howses wheere [they] found neere fifty 
able men very strong and tall, such as their like before they had not 
seene; all newly painted and armed with their bowes and arrowes. 
Howbeyt, after that the sagamo had talked with them, they delivered 
back againe the man, and used all the rest very friendly, as did ours 
the like by them, who .showed them their comodities of beads, knives, 
and some copper, of which they seemed very fond; and by waye of 
trade, made shew that they would come downe to the boat and there 
bring such things as they had to exchange them for ours. Soe Cap- 
tain Gilbert departed from them, and within half an howre after he 
had gotten to his boat, there came three canoas down unto them, and 
in them sixteen salvages, and brought with them some tobacco and 
certayne small skynnes, which were of no value; which Captain Gil- 
bert perceaving, and that they had nothing else wherewith to trade^ 
he caused all his men to come abourd, and as he would have put from 
the shore; the salvages perceiving so much, subtilely devised how 
they might put out the tier in the shallop, by which means they sawe 
they should be free from the danger of our men's pieces [firelocks], 
and to perform the same, one of the salvages came into the shallop 
and taking the fier-brand which one of our company held in his hand 
thereby to light the matches, as if he would light a pipe of tobacco, 
as sone as he had gotten yt into his hand he presently threw it into 
the water and leapt out of the shallop. Captain Gilbert seeing that, 
suddenly commanded his men to betake them to their musketts and 
the targettiers too, from the head of the boat, and bade one of the men 
before, with his target [shield] on his arme, to stepp on the shore for 
more fier; the salvages resisted him and would not suffer him to take 
any, and some others holding fast the boat roap that the shallop could 
not put off. Captain Gilbert caused the musquettiers to present [aim] 
their peeces, the which, the salvages seeing, presently let go the boat 
rope and betook them to their bowes and arrowes, and ran into the 
bushes, nocking their arrowes, but did not shoot, neither did ours at 
them. So the shallop departed from them to the further side of the 
river, where one of the canoas came unto them, and would have ex- 
cused the fault of the others. Captain Gilbert made show as if he 
were still friends, and entertayned them kindly and soe left them, re- 
turning to the place where he had lodged the night before, and there 


came to an anchor for the night. . . Here they sett up a crosse, 
and then returned homeward."* 

This graphic and artless account of the earliest recorded visit by 
white men to the region above Merrymeeting bay, was apparently 
copied with but few changes from Captain Gilbert's log-book, made 
by the scribe of the Popham colony, who probably was one of the 
party. The facts and circumstances lead irresistibly to the conclusion 
that the Kennebec (and not the Andro.scoggin) was the river which 
the colonists explored. fThe camping place at the close of the second 
day after leaving the fort may have been the plateau where now the 
village of Randolph stands, or that other one two miles above in 
Chelsea, nearly opposite Loudon hill, in Hallowell. The boatmen 
encountered the next day, a few miles above their camping place, 
" a flat low island in the midst of a great downfall of water," This 
felicitously described the Kennebec at the place where the Augusta 
dam now stands, before the peculiar features of the spot were obliter- 
ated by the building of that structure (1835-7). The rapid and island 
are unmistakable features of identification. The island has disap- 
peared by the building of the dam and the rapid has become an arti- 
ficial cascade for the uses of civilized industry, yet the transformation 
of the river at this place since that early day, has scarcely been greater 
than in many other places along its course. 

The next camping place was about a league above the island, 
where first the natives accosted them, shyly, hallooing in shibboleth 
through the darkness. The place was probably the intervale that is 
now divided into portions of several farms, near Gilley's point, where 
there are still many vestiges of Indian encampments. The next morn- 
ing, after exchanging hostages, the explorers continued their journey 
until their boat grounded on shallows. This may have been in the 
swift water since that day known as Bacon's rips, in the course of 
which the river has a natural fall of about thirteen feet. The farthest 
point reached by Gilbert in his wood-tramp was a wigwam village 
about a league from the river, within the limits of the present town 
of Vassalboro, or of Sidney. Night found the party reunited at the 
last camping place. There, the next morning (Sunday, September 
27), they performed the ceremony of taking possession of the country 

* Historic of Travaile into Virginia, by William Strachey, Gent. Maine His- 
torical Society's Collections, Vol. Ill, pp. 304-307. 

+ The Androscoggin theory was first advanced by able students of Maine 
history, but it meets many obstacles in Strachey's account. The Kennebec 
theory meets with but few difficulties and harmonizes rationally with the record. 
See Remarks on Waymouth's Voyage, by John McKeen, Vol. \, Me. Hist. Soc. 
Coll. Rev. WilHam S. Bartlett, same series, Vol. HI, p. 304. Dr. William B. 
Lapham in Daily Kennebec journal, December, 1889. For description of the 
'■flat low island." see North's History of Augusta, pages 4.)0-4r)8. 


for their king, by erecting in his name the cross of Christianity at the 
place where they had twice lodged. Then leaving the sacred emblem 
standing as the official vestige of their visit, they departed. It would 
be interesting to know precisely the spot where the cross was planted, 
and how long it remained as an object of awe to the savages. We 
never hear more of Sebenoa; he was the first in the long line of Ken- 
nebec chiefs whose names have been preserved in the white man's 
annals; his dust, with that of his bedizened warriors who posed so 
grandly before their visitors, has long mingled with the mold of the 
forest where he reigned, but his peaceful welcome to the white 
strangers who earliest set foot on the soil of the capital of Maine, in- 
vests his name with a charm that will preserve it while the language 
of the race that has supplanted his own is spoken or read. 

Captain Popham died before the winter bad passed; and in the 
spring, leaving the dismantled fort to be his sepulcher, the homesick 
colonists fled back to England. Father Pierre Biard, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary, visited the vSagadahoc (Kennebec) three years later (October, 
1611): he accompanied an expedition under Biencourt, then vice- 
admiral of New France, on a cruise from the eastward along the coast 
to the western boundary of Acadia, in quest of food for the French 
colony at Port Royal (now Annapolis). The Father says his own rea- 
sons for the journey were, first, " to act as spiritual adviser [chaplain] 
to Sieur de Biencourt and his crew, and, second, to become acquainted 
with and learn the disposition of the natives to receive the gospel." 
He gives a few interesting glimpses of scenes on the lower Kennebec 
281 years ago. The vessel entered the river by way of Seguin, and 
the party eagerly landed to inspect the vacant fort, which they thought 
was poorly located, and which Father Biard intimates, with a half- 
secular chuckle, redoubtable Frenchmen could have easily taken. He 
says the departed Popham colonists treated the natives with cruelty, 
and were driven away in retaliation. This was the boastful statement 
of the Indians themselves to the willing ears of the French, who were 
fain to believe it; but the testimony is too biased and shadowy to be 
accepted as true. 

After a delay of three days at Popham's fort, by reason of adverse 
winds, Biencourt abandoned his purpose of sailing further westward, 
and turned the prow of his vessel up the river; after going with the 
tide about nine miles, a party of Indians came into view; they be- 
longed either to the later named Kennebec or Androscoggin tribe; 
Biard calls them Armouchiquoys; he says: " There were twenty-four 
people, all warriors, in six canoes; they went through a thousand an- 
tics before coming up to us; you would have rightly likened them to 
a flock of birds, which wishes to enter a hemp-field, but fears the scare- 
crow. This amused us very much, for our people needed time to arm 


themselves and cover the ship. In short, they came and went, they 
reconnoitered, they looked sharply at our muskets, our cannon, our 
numbers, our everything; and the night coming on, they lodged on 
the other bank of the river, if not beyond the range, at least beyond 
the sighting of our cannon. All that night there was nothing but 
haranguing, singing, dancing; for such is the life of these people when 
they assemble together. But since we presumed that probably their 
songs and dance were invocations to the devil, and in order to thwart 
this accursed tyrant, I made our people sing a few church hymns, such 
as the Salve Regitia, the Ave Mari's Stella and others; but being once 
in train, and getting to the end of their spiritual .songs, they fell to 
singing such others as they knew, and when these gave out they took 
to mimicking the dancing and singing of the Armouchiquoys on the 
other side of the water; and as Frenchmen are naturally good mimics, 
they did it so well that the natives stopped to listen; at which our 
people stopped, too; and then the Indians began again. You would 
have laughed to see them, for they were like two choirs answering 
each other in concert, and you would hardly have known the real 
Armouchiquoys from the sham ones." * 

Biencourt had impressed into his service at the river St. John two 
Maoulin (Etechemin) savages, as interpreters on his journey. He 
caused them to be taught a smattering of the French language, and 
then used them as a means of conversation between himself and their 
fellow-savages along his route. At that time the tribes of New 
England spoke a common tongue, which was varied and enlarged by 
local dialects. Biencourt's Etechemin captives from the vSt. John 
could talk readily with the natives of the Sagadahoc. On the morn- 
ing after the singing and dancing, the Frenchmen resumed their 
journey up the river; the Indians, in a rabble, accompanied them, and 
were soon coaxed to terms of familiarity. They told the strangers 
that if they wanted sovn.& piousqiionin (corn) they need not go further 
up the river, but by turning to the right, through an arm of the river 
that was pointed out, they could in a few hours reach the tent of the 
great sachem Meteourmite, whom they themselves would do the 
honor to visit at the same time; Biencourt cautiously followed their 
guideship; he passed his vessel through the strait that is now spanned 
by a highway bridge between Woolwich and Arrowsic, and entered 
what Biard calls a lake, but what is now named Pleasant cove (or 
Nequasset bay); here he found the water shallow, and he hesitated 
about venturing further; but Meteourmite, having been informed of 
the approach of the ship, was hastening to meet it; he urged the 
Frenchmen to proceed, which they did. Presently their vessel be- 
came subject to the sport of the dangerous currents of the Hellgates. 

* Pioneers of France in the New WorUI, by Francis Parkman, p. 292. 


Biard says: "• We thought we should hardly ever escape alive; in fact, 
in two places, some of our people cried out piteously that we were all 
lost; but praise to God, they cried out too soon." 

Biencourt ptit on his military dress and visited Meteourmite, whom 
he found alone in his wigwam, which was surrounded by forty young 
braves, "each one having his shield, his bow and his arrows on the 
ground before him." The sachem having led the Frenchmen to visit 
him by promising to sell them corn, now confessed that his people did 
not have any to spare, but that they would barter some skins instead. 
Biencourt, with a mind for business, was ready to trade, and a truce 
for barter was agreed upon. When the time arrived, Biard says, 
'■ our ship's people, in order not to be surprised, had armed and barri- 
caded themselves. The savages rushed very eagerly and in a swarm 
into our boat, from curiosity (I think), because they did not often see 
such a spectacle; our people, seeing that notwithstanding their remon- 
strances and threats the savages did not cease entering the procession, 
and that there were already more than thirty upon the deck, they 
imagined that it was all a clever trick, and that they were intending 
to surprise them, and were already lying upon the ground prepared 
to shoot. M. Biencourt has often said that it was many times upon 
his lips to cry, ' Kill ! Kill f ! ' . . Now the savages themselves, 
perceiving the just apprehensions which their people had given our 
French, took it upon themselves to retire hastily and brought order 
out of confusion." Father Biard says the reason why Biencourt did 
not order his men to shoot was because he (Father Biard) was at that 
hour upon the land (an island), accompanied by a boy, celebrating the 
holy mass; if any savage had been hurt, the priest would have been 
massacred. Father Biard says " this consideration was a kindness to 
him, and saved the whole party, for if we had begun the attack it is 
incredible that one could have escaped the fierce anger and furious 
pursuit of the savages along a river that has so many turns and wind- 
ings and is so often narrow and perilous." * 

Father Biard appeared before the savages twice in the character 
of officiating priest. The rude altar improvised by him was the first 
one ever erected for the Catholic service on the Kennebec (or Sheep- 
scot, near which he seems to have been). He says he " prayed to God 
in their [the Indians'] presence, and showed them the images and 
tokens of our belief, which they kissed willingly, making the sign of 
the cross upon their children, whom they brought to him that he 
might bless them, and listening with great attention to all that he 
announced to them. The difficulty was that they had an entirely dif- 
ferent language, and it was necessary that a savage [one of the St. 
John captives] should act as interpreter, who, knowing very little of 

* Relation lie la Nouvellc France, \o\. I, Chap. XVII. p. 36. 


the Christian religion, nevertheless acquitted himself with credit 
toward the other savages; and to see his face and hear his slow 
speech, he personated the Doctor [Biard] with dignity." The natives 
seem to have had great admiration for the Father, whose priestly at- 
tire and non-combative character made him conspicuous among his 
countrymen; speaking of one occasion, he says: " I received the larger 
share of the embraces; for as I was without weapons, the most distin- 
guished [Indians] forsaking'the soldiers, seized on me with a thousand 
protestations of friendship; they led me into the largest of all the 
huts, which held at least eighty people; the seats filled, I threw my- 
self on my knees, and having made the sign of the cross, recited my 
Pater, Ave, Credo, and some prayers; then, at a pause, my hosts, as 
though they understood me well, applauded in their way, shouting, 
' Ho, ho, ho!' I gave them some crosses and images, making them 
understand as much as I could." ■•■ It is not possible to identify pre- 
cisely the place where these interviews and proceedings occurred; it 
was in the vicinity of the mouth of the Sheepscot and not distant from 
the lower Hellgate, which the French at that time called one of the 
mouths of the Quinibequi (Kennebec). After sojourning about a 
week, Biencourt, finding out that the natives had little surplus food 
for themselves and none to sell, hoisted sail for Port Royal. 

Two years later (1618) we see Father Biard, with Ennemond Masse 
and two other Jesuits, in the retinue of M. de LaSaussaye, on the 
island of Mount Desert, planting a mission colony by the name of St. 
Sauveur. The settlement was hardly established when Captain Argal, 
from the English colony in Virginia, sailed up to the little village and 
destroyed it, killing one of the missionaries and two other French- 
men. This was the beginning of bloodshed between the English and 
French on this continent. Brother Gilbert du Thet was the first 
Jesuit martyr. He was buried by his sorrowing black-robed brethren 
at the foot of the great cross that stood in the center of the ruined 
mission, where in the thin soil, by the surf -washed shore, his dust 
.still reposes. Father Masse afterward labored in Canada, where he 
died and was buried in the mission church of Saint Michael at Sillery, 
in 1646. Father Biard, after many other adventures and perils, finally 
returned to France, where he died in 1622. He was the first to lift 
the cross before the aborigines of Maine. 

The next well-identified visitor to the Kennebec was Captain John 
Smith, in 1614, eight years after his life was so gracefully saved, as 
he tells us, by Pocahontas. He cruised the coast for peltry, was agree- 
able to the Indians, and filled his ship with merchandise that brought 
riches in Europe. He found Nahanada (one of Weymouth's returned 
captives), '' one of the greatest lords of the country." About this time 

* Letter of Father Biard, 1611. 


Samoset, afterward the benefactor of the Pilgrims, was taken from 
his tribe and carried to Europe. He appears to have been a Wawe- 
nock. The circumstances of his capture are unknown. His notable 
visit to the Plymouth colony was in March, 1621; two years later he 
seems to have been at home (as much as a wandering Indian can be) 
at Capemanwagan (Southport), whence Captain Christopher Leverett 
met him with his family: he showed his liking for Leverett by offer- 
ing his new-born son as a perpetual brother in moitcliickc-leganiatch 
(friendship) to the son of the Englishman. Leverett describes him as 
" a sagamore that hath been found very faithful to the English, and 
hath saved the lives of many of our nation, some from starving, others 
from killing." * The last glimpse we have of this ideal savage, whose 
character ennobles in a degree his humble and benighted race, is when 
he joined his fellow-sagamore LTnongoit in deeding to John Brown of 
New Harbor (afterward of the Kennebec), a tract of land at Pemaquid, 
July 25, 1625. f He had been the first to welcome the Englishmen to 
his country, and he was the first to supplement the greeting by sharing 
with them his hunting grounds. The deed was acknowledged before 
Abraham Shurte, the worthy magistrate of Pemaquid, who fifty-one 
years afterward ascended the Kennebec to Teconnet (Winslow) as 
peacemaker to the then angry chiefs. 


The English Names of the Maine Tribes. — The French Names of the same 
Tribes. — Origin of the Name of the Kennebec River. — The Indians' mode of 
Life. — Vestiges of their Villages. — Their Language and the Names derived 
from it. — Present Indian Names of Places on the River. — The Plymouth 
Trading Post at Cushnoc (Koussinok). 

When the aboriginal people of Maine first came into historic 
view, we find them grouped by the English into five tribes and 
occupying several principal river valleys. The Tarratines dwelt on 
the Penobscot; the Wawenocks from Pemaquid to Sagadahoc (Ken- 
nebec); the Sohokas (Sacos) from the Saco to the Piscataqua; the 
Androscoggins lived on the river that has taken their name; atid the 
Canibas (Kennebecs) from Merrymeeting bay to Moosehead lake. 
In the beginning of Indian history a personage called the Bashaba 

* Leverett' s Voyage into New England. Me. Hist. Soc. Coll.. Vol. II, pp. 
87, 93. 

\ Ancient Pemaquid, by J. Wingate Thornton. Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. V. 
pp. 188-193. Journal of the Pilgrims, by George B. Cheever, D.D., pp. 41-43. 
Bradford says Samoset ' ' became a special instrument sent of God for their [the 
Pilgrims'] good beyond their expectation." See Popham Memorial, p. 297. 


presided on the Penobscot: Champlain (1605) met him there with 
Cabahis, a chief of less dignity; Manthoumermer ruled on the 
Sheepscot; Marchim on the Androscoggin, and Sasanoa on the vSaga- 
dahoc. Champlain's guides, whom he took at the Penobscot, deserted 
his vessel at the St. George, " because the savages of the Quinibequy 
were their enemies." At Saco Champlain bartered a kidnapped 
Penobscot boy " for the products of the country." Three years after- 
ward (1608) he was founding Quebec* The English names and 
grouping of the tribes differed from those of the French. The early 
French visitors used the name Armouchiquoys to designate the na- 
tives of Acadia westward of the St. Croix. They soon discarded it for 
the more comprehensive name of Abenaquiois (Abenakis) — meaning 
people of the east, easterners — which included all the natives between 
Nova Scotia and the Connecticut river. This great tribe was divided 
by the French into seven sub-tribes, three of which were in the terri- 
tory of Maine, namely — the Sokwakiahs or Sacos, the Pentagoets or 
Penobscots, and the Narhantsouaks or Norridgewocks (called also 
Canibas or Kennebecs). As the French influence declined in Acadia, 
the name Abenaquiois lost its wide application, and finally became 
limited to the Indians who lived on the Kennebec. It was a common 
French soubriquet for a century and a half before its use became 
familiar to the English. As gradually the tribes broke up, those sur- 
vivors who sought refuge on the Kennebec, and mixed with the 
Abenakis, came under the ancient name. 

The name borne by the Kennebec river is another enduring trace 
of the Frenchman as well as of the Indians. Champlain was the first 
(1605) to receive from the Indians the word Quinibequi (or Kinibeki), 
which, it seems, they associated with the narrow and sinuous, though 
now much traveled, passage between Bath and Sheepscot bay. Then, 
as to-day, the water there boiled and eddied as the tides ebbed and 
flowed through the ledgy gates. It was a place of danger to the native 
navigators in their frail canoes; they had no understanding of the 
real causes of the manifestation; they knew nothing of natural laws, 
but believed all physical phenomena to be the work of genii or demons 
and the expression of their caprices and ever varying moods. In their 
mythology they peopled the water, forest and air with gross gods who 
ruled fhe world; their name for serpent or monster was Kiiiai-hik, an 
Algonquin word that has the same meaning among the kindred Chip- 
pewas to-day .f Obviously as given to Champlain it referred to the 
mighty dragons that lay coiled in the mysterious depths about the 

* Champlain's Exploration of the Coast of Maine in 1605, by Gen. J. Marshall 
Brown. Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. VII. 

^Language of the Abanaquies, by C. E. Potter of New Hampshire. Me. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., Vol. IV, p. 190. H. R. Schoolcraft's American Indians, part 3, p. 465. 


Hellgates; whose angry lashings or restless writhings made the waters 
whirl and foam in ceaseless maelstrom. The evil reputation of the 
locality yet survives in the word Hockomock (the Indian bad place), 
a name borne by a picturesque headland at the upper gate. 

Champlain explored to Merrymeeting bay, where he ascertained 
that his Ouinibequi came from the northward. Father Biard followed 
Champlain's chart, and in speaking of the Ouinibequi, remarks that it 
has more than one mouth. The Indians had no geographical desig- 
nations, but named spots and places only; they had no name for any 
river as a whole, and it is a mistake to suppose that they did more in 
the naming of the Kennebec than to furnish from their mythological 
vocabulary the word which the French explorer caught from their 
lips and wrote upon his map.* The English having named the river 
Sagadahoc (from Sunkerdahunk), called it by that name below Merry- 
meeting bay for more than a century. Above Merrymeeting Cham- 
plain's Quinibequi (with changes in orthography) was never dis- 
placed, but became permanent. After the successive wasting by the 
Indians of the settlements on the banks of the Sagadahoc, that vener- 
able name, as applied to any part of the river, faded out, and by un- 
conscious popular selection the one given by Champlain was restored 
to its place. Some writers have fancied that the river was named by 
Canibas, a chief, whose habitat was on Swan island, but long before 
that personage had entered upon his sachemship Quinibequi had been 
written indelibly on the French map of Acadia. 

The memory of the Abenakis or Kennebec tribe of Indians will 
endure as long as the Kennebec shall continue to flow. We get our 
first glimpse of these savages in the visit of Captain Gilbert; the pic- 
ture is momentary and faint, yet real. Sebenoa and his warriors are 
dimly seen in the shadow of their native forest, among their people. 
Up to that moment their tribe has no history; it is not for us to know 
how long their ancestors had dwelt upon the river, nor to inquire 
whether they were of a race that was in the process of evolution from 
a lower state, or descending in reversion from a higher. We find 
them here, a little branch of the human family, in possession of the 
river valley. They gleaned their subsistence from forest and stream. 
The river was their highway and its banks their home. Their lives 
were spent in seeking the means of existence. They obeyed the mi- 
gratory impulse of the seasons like their not yet extinct contempo- 
raries, the moose, deer and caribou. In the winter they moved north- 
ward to hibernate with the game in the recesses of the upper Kenne- 
bec and Moosehead lake. There they kept the wolf from the door by 
snaring him in his lair, and chasing through the snows the fiounder- 

* Champlain wrote Quinibequy and Quinebeque; Lescarbot wrote Kinibeki; 
Jean de Laet wrote Quinibequin; on Dutch map of 1616 it is written Qui-mo- 


ing moose and more helpless deer, and by catching through the ice of 
the lakes the gorgeous trout, whose descendants the sportsmen of to- 
day delight to capture. In the spring, when the lengthening days had 
melted the snow and cleared the rivers, and the nobler game that had 
sought the secluded valleys began to disperse to browse on the swell- 
ing buds and springing grasses, the Indians, too, would leave their 
winter haunts and migrate southward. Trimming with squaw and 
papooses their skin-laden canoes to even keel, they glided down the 
swollen river toward new supplies of food. They were accustomed 
in their migrations to tarry, according to mood or circumstance, for 
days or weeks at sundry places — at the mouths of tributary streams 
and at the falls where the migrating sea fishes congregated in great 
numbers during their passage to their native beds. These fishes — • 
the salmon, shad and alewives — have, like the Indian, now disappeared 
from the river. These general migrations sometimes extended to the 
sea, but usually no further than Merrymeeting bay, where other tribes 
assembled, and all had merrymeeting. 

The Indians were truly children of the wilderness; they lived close 
to nature; the chemistry of food and climate had brought them in 
complete rappoj-t with their surroundings. The forest had assimilated 
them to itself; they were of its growth, like the pines and ferns. The 
harsh conditions of their existence sharpened their senses and intensi- 
fied their instincts. Their lives were of the utmost simplicity. Their 
weapons were stone-headed clubs and bows and arrows. Their work- 
ing tools were of stone, flint and bone; their clothing was the skins of 
beasts and plaited grasses and even boughs. As the bee makes its 
perfect cell at the first attempt, and the beaver is an accomplished 
engineer from its youth, so the Indian, without apprenticeship or 
master, fashioned with his flint knife and bone awl the ideal boat — 
the bark canoe {agivideii). It was adapted to his needs; without it he 
could not have lived his nomadic life — which, amid his environments, 
was the only mode of existence possible to him. The trackless forest 
on either side, like a hedge, kept him near the river's bank; he must 
needs roam for his food and raiment; this his canoe enabled him to 
do; it would glide over shallows and shoot rapids, and could be taken 
upon his shoulders and carried around dangerous cascades; in it he 
traversed lakes and rivers with ease and speed, and in it he made all 
of his long journeys, both of peace and war. The white man has 
copied its model for three centuries, but has not been able to improve 
it. In the winter his snow-shoes (angemaK) were of an importance 
equal to that of the canoe in summer; they were the sole means by 
which the hunter could pursue the game through the deep snows. 

Their fishing and hunting encampments were the nearest approach 
to their villages; their dwellings, constructed of poles and bark, were 
only huts of shelter, and could not be called houses; they were aban- 


doned when the builders removed to another spot, and soon tumbled 
in decay, leaving no trace save that of the fires. But the sites of many 
of their principal camps can be identified at the present day, both by 
the vestiges of their fires and the debris of their weapon and tool 
makers. Flint and stone chippings, with arrow-heads and other arti- 
cles in all stages of manufacture, are found mixed with the soil where 
their wigwams stood. Unlike the white man's metals, the material 
composing these relics defies the corroding power of time, and .some 
of the articles are as bright and perfect as when centuries ago they 
left the hands of the dusky artisans. The prevailing substance is the 
silicious slate or hornstone of Mt. Kineo, from whose rugged cliffs it 
was quarried. Many spots where wigwam fires once glowed are yet 
marked by burned and crumbling stones and by fragments of the 
earthen vessels in which the feasts were cooked. These relic places 
abound all along the Kennebec, from Popham beach to Moosehead 
lake, but they are almost continuous on the alluvial banks between 
Augusta and Waterville, which seems to have been a favorite resort 
or metropolis of the tribe. The plow of civilization has been obliter- 
ating for five generations these vestiges of a vanished people. 

We first see the Indian as the proprietor of all these lakes and 
rivers, and hills and meadows; his subjects were the beasts and birds 
and fishes; his scepter was the tomahawk, his chariot was the bark 
canoe; from Moosehead to the waters of the sea he exerci.sed his sov- 
ereignty, and, monarch like, made progress through his forest realm, 
levying tribute according to his humble needs. His language had 
never been spelled into words and written in books; it was the artless 
tongue of the realm of nature. Philologists have written learnedly 
upon it, and exhibited specimens of it in dictionaries, but like the 
people who spoke it, it eludes domestication, and like them it has 
passed away. Many fragments, however, have been saved in the form 
of names attached to the rivers, lakes and mountains of our state; they 
were caught from the closing lips of a departing race; the nomencla- 
ture of the Kennebec valley is greatly enriched by them. In the ab- 
sence of geographical names, a river to the Indians was a series of 
places where food could be procured at certain moons or in a special 
manner; a range of mountains was divided by them into the abodes 
of different genii. A river was named only in places or in sections; 
we have seen that it fell to the white man to confer upon the Kenne- 
bec its name as an hydrographic unity. What our form of expression 
makes it convenient to call Indian names were not, in fact, originally 
names at all.* They were laconic descriptions of the physical or 

*That accomplished Abenakis scholar, Rev. C. M. O'Brien, says: "To 
understand Indian names it must always be borne in mind that they rarely, if 
ever, gave names to territories large or small, but only to spots."— Letter to 
Hon. James P. Baxter, quoted in Trelaivnev Papers, p. 325. Note (Me. Hist. 
Soc. Coll.. 3d series. Vol. HI). 


mystical characteristics of the places referred to, which the white man 
has softened and changed by his cultured tongue, and converted into 
permanent names as his reparation and memorial to the race which he 
has driven from the earth. 

Among the earliest names derived from the Indian tongue on the 
Kennebec, we find Sagadahoc and Sabiiio; they were both associated 
with the mouth of the river; Sabino referred to the peninsula where 
the Popham colony located. Erascolicgan was the present Georgetown: 
Arro7vsic is the ancient name of the island adjoining; other familiar 
names in the same region are. IVimiegancc (Bath), Ncquasset (Wool- 
wich) and Qiiabacook (Merrymeeting bay). The Indians invariably 
designated the mouths of rivers and tributary .streams by mentioning 
some characteristic peculiar to each. Thus, Nahiinikcag (in Pittston) 
means the place where eels can be caught; Cobbosseecontee (Gardiner), 
sturgeon-place; Sebasticook (Winslow) is a comparatively modern 
Indian corruption of the French pronunciation of St. John the Bap- 
tist's place (or the place where an Indian lived who had been chris- 
tened St. John the Baptist). The original meanings of many, and in- 
deed of most of the Indian names, have been lost. The best students 
of the tongue seldom agree in their analyses and definitions, and 
usually confuse more than they explain. Names derived from the 
Indians have attached to all the considerable streams that feed the 
Kennebec. Beside those already mentioned there are the Worronion- 
togus (at Randolph); Kedumcook (Vaughan brook, Hallowell); Cuslicnoc 
(Bond brook, Augusta); Magorgooniagoostick (Seven-mile brook, Vassal- 
hoxo); Messeclo7iskce (Emerson stream, Waterville); Wesserjinsett (in 
Skowhegan); Norridgcwock (Sandy river, at Old Point); Carrabassctt 
(at North Anson). Mecseccontee applied to Farmington falls, on the 
Sandy river. The Kennebec, falling 1,()5() feet between Moosehead 
and the tide at Augusta, is a remarkably swift river, full of rapids 
and falls, which the Indian canoeists well knew how to shoot or when 
to avoid. All of these places bore appropriate designations, such as 
Teconiiet at Waterville, Skozv/ugan at the village of that name, and 
Carrattink at Solon. Above Carratunk only a few Indian names sur- 
vive. Moxa mountain was named for a modern Indian hunter. At 
Moosehead lake, where the shores are rich with relics of the Indians, 
Kineo is the only ancient name that remains. Ongueclwnta was the 
name of Squaw mountain, when Montressor passed by its massive 
slope on his way from Quebec to Fort Halifax, about the year 1760. 
This dearth of Indian names in a region where once they must have 
been very numerous, is explained by the fact that the river was de- 
populated of natives and their local names on its upper waters forgot- 
ten, before the white men had pushed their settlements so far inland 
as to learn and preserve them. 


The next recorded visit by white men to the Kennebec Indians 
after Captain Gilbert had erected a cross among them, was by Edward 
Winslow and a few others of the Plymouth colony, in the fall of 1625. 
During twenty-two years great events had taken place in New Eng- 
land — and among them was the landing of the Pilgrims, who, having 
founded a settlement, were now struggling for its continuance. At 
first they sought among the Indians only a market for their surplus 
corn in exchange for peltry, but they found the region .so rich in the 
latter commodity that they presently applied for and obtained from 
their English patrons a patent or deed of about 450 square miles of 
territory in the center and best part of the Kennebec valley. They 
established (in 1628) a trading house at Cushnoc (now Augusta), and 
there trafficked with the natives for a period of thirty-four years. 
Singularly enough during this era of intimate and friendly relation- 
ship with the Pilgrim fathers, when the means were excellent for pre- 
serving information, the Kennebec tribe is nearly destitute of any 
history. The names of its chiefs, the places of its villages, its rela- 
tions with neighboring tribes, its grand hunts and councils, and a 
thousand incidents illustrating the Indians' mode of life, were consid- 
ered too trivial for the white traders to record; perhaps as business 
men in the pursuit of gain, they preferred that the public should not 
know much about the affairs of the patent. They made no effort 
toward ameliorating the hard condition of their Indian wards; they 
gave them no teachers, either secular or religious, but looked upon 
them much as they did upon the other inhabitants of the wilderness. 
When trade ceased to be profitable they abandoned them. 


The first Mission in Canada.— Father Masse at the Residence of St. Joseph of 
Sillery.— Father Druillettes among the Algonquins.— Intercourse between 
the Kennebec and St. Lawrence. — St. Lawrence Indian killed on the Kenne- 
bec— Treaty between the Algonquins and Abenakis.— The Latter ask for 
a Missionary.— Father Druillettes sent to them.— His Visit to Pentagoet.— 
Chapel built near Cushnoc and named the Mission of the Assumption.— 
Father Druillettes' return to Quebec. 

It was left to the people of the French nation, who once dis- 
played the symbol of Christianity to the Indians on the lower Ken- 
nebec (1611), to undertake the conversion of the Abenakis. The first 
missions on the St. Lawrence were begun in 1614, under the patronage 
of Champlain; they were reinforced in 1625 by the arrival of three 
Jesuits, one of whom was Father Ennemond, who was driven 
by Argal from St. Sauveur with Father Biard twelve years before. 


Quebec was captured by Englishmen in 1629, when Father Masse 
was again expelled from the country, with his associates. Three 
years later (1632) France by treaty resumed dominion over both 
Canada and Acadia; the suspended missions were immediately re- 
vived, and a system of evangelizing labor was soon established, under 
which in a few years heroic priests had carried the gospel to the na- 
tives of every part of New France. Quebec was the central radiating 
point. By the shore of the St. Lawrence, about four miles above 
Quebec and nearly opposite the mouth of the Chaudiere, there was an 
Indian village (called Ka-miskoua-ouangachit'), where the missionaries 
built a church; in 1637 Father Masse became a resident pastor there; 
two years later (1639) the mission was endowed by a gift of twenty 
thousand livres by a converted French courtier, and in honor of its 
benefactor was given the name of the Residence of St. Joseph of Sil- 
lery. The establishment became the seminary of the missionaries, 
for the acquiring of the various Indian languages, preparatory to 
their going forth to their fields of labor. To this place came in 1648, 
Father Gabriel Druillettes, the first regular missionary to the Kenne- 
bec. He first essayed to learn the tongue of the Algonquins or St. 
Lawrence tribe, and soon went among them. The smoke of the wig- 
wams inflamed his eyes and made him blind; he was led about in his 
helplessness by an Indian boy; he implored his neophytes to join him 
in offering prayer for his recovery; this they did and his sight was 
from that hour restored! He ever after believed that his cure was a 
miracle in answer to the prayers of his converts. Weakened by the 
sufferings attending his first year's labors, he was given the second 
year a less exacting service near the mission of Sillery. The gently- 
bred scholar and priest was seasoning and hardening for the wonder- 
ful apostolic career that was before him. 

There can be no doubt that long before the written history of the 
Indians begins there were occasional exchanges of visits between the 
natives on the St. Lawrence and those who lived in the valley of the 
Kennebec. It is said in the Jesuit Relations that in the year 1637 a 
party of Abenakis (Kennebecs) Indians went to Quebec to buy beaver 
skins to sell to the English traders; a jealous Montanais (mountaineer) 
chief denounced them before the French governor, Montmagny, and 
offered to go and shut the rivers against their return to their country. 
The governor forbade bloodshed, but allowed the mountaineers to rob 
the strangers and send them home. In 1640 an English trader (prob- 
ably one of the Plymouth colony's men) accompanied by twenty Ken- 
nebecs, undertook the journey from Maine to Quebec. After he had 
reached the St. Lawrence, the French governor ordered him to return 
immediately; but this he could not do as the rivers were low and some 
of the streams were dry; so, without allowing him to visit Quebec, the 


governor sent him down to Tadoussac (at the mouth of the Saguenay) 
from whence he was shipped to Europe. The same year an Algon- 
quin (St. Lawrence) Indian named Makheabichtichiou, came to the 
Kennebec with his family, to escape the reproaches of the missionaries 
for his persistency in continuing his heathen practice of polygamy. 
In the course of the winter following he was killed by a drunken 
Abenakis; while his two widowed wives were journeying back to their 
kindred in Canada, one died miserably of grief and famine. Under 
the Indian code the tragedy was liable to be avenged on the whole 
tribe — to avoid which two chiefs were sent to Canada to announce the 
affair with the regret of their people, and to offer satisfaction in the 
form of presents to the parents of the deceased. It seems probable 
that the ambassadors would have been summarily tomahawked in 
retaliation for the deed they had come to excuse, if John Baptist 
Etiuechkawat and Christmas Negabamat, two baptized chiefs of Sil- 
lery, had not interceded eloquently for them. It was declared that 
the murder was not committed by the tribe, which on the contrary 
wholly disapproved of it, but that it was the act of an individual san- 
nup while frenzied by the English traders' fire-water. Finally the 
exasperated tribesmen and bereaved relatives were soothed by words 
and gifts, and a treaty of friendship was made between their tribe 
and the Abenakis, which was never broken. Thereafter the two 
tribes were inseparable allies in peace and war. Father Marault 
says in his Histoirc dcs Abenakis, that thenceforth the latter, until their 
final emigration to Canada and extinction on the Kennebec, annually 
sent envoys to Quebec to renew and celebrate this alliance. 

In the fall of 1643 a Christianized St. Lawrence Indian named 
Charles Mejachkawat, came from Sillery to the Kennebec, and passed 
the winter among the Abenakis. He seems to have been sent pur- 
posely to extol on the Kennebec his conception of the gospel which 
the missionaries were preaching on the St. Lawrence. His visit 
aroused the interest or curiosity of many in the mysterious ceremonies 
of baptism and the mass, which he described. During his stay he 
visited the English trading house at Cushnoc (Augusta), and there 
had occasion to defend his faith with spirited words against the 
humorous raillery of the Puritan heretics. He returned to Sillery in 
the spring (1641), accompanied by one of the chiefs who, three years 
before, had been sent to requite the killing of the refugee. The life 
of this chief had been saved with that of his associate, and war averted 
by the good offices of the proselytes of Sillery, whom he had prom- 
ised in the fullness of his gratitude to join in accepting the religion of 
the Black-gowns; he was now going to Sillery to crave baptism. The 
rite was duly administered by the priest in the Sillery chapel, Gov- 
ernor Montmagny acting as his godfather; the church christened him 


John Baptist, but his Indian name is not recorded. He was the first 
Kennebec chief on whom holy water was placed. He started alone 
on his journey back to his people, and sad to relate, fell into the hands 
of a party of the merciless Iroquiois and was cruelly killed. 

The history of the Jesuit missions shows the remarkable fact that 
while most tribes received the missionaries with indiiference or 
apathy, and some murdered them, the Abenakis asked for them. The 
frequent visits between the Kennebec and the St. Lawrence that fol- 
lowed the treaty of 1641, brought favorably to the attention of the 
Abenakis the meek and peace-loving Black-robes, who, unlike other 
white men, did not greedily grasp their beaver, but appeared to be 
unselfishly anxious for their comfort and welfare. In the .spring of 
1646, several Abenakis returned to the Kennebec from Sillery, full of 
enthusiasm which the Fathers' zeal had inspired in them for the 
Christian faith. After having visited the families and chiefs of their 
tribe, they journeyed back to Sillery, bearing the request of their 
people for a missionary. They arrived at Sillery on the 14th of 
August; the next day, after participating in the celebration of the 
Assumption, they went before an assembly of the Fathers and in the 
customary Indian form of proceeding in council, delivered an oration. 
They said that their tribe on the Kennebec had been deeply moved 
by the kindness of Noel (Christmas) Negabamat; that the treaty of 
friendship which had been made would end with this earthly life; 
that the bond of faith would continue after death eternally; that they 
had been told of the beauties of heaven and the horrors of hell; that 
thirty men and six women of their tribe, having already endorsed 
the new belief, now begged for a Father to come from Quebec to in- 
struct and baptize them, and that the ears of the chiefs and people 
would be open to the preaching of the gospel. The record says: 
" The Fathers acceded to the pious desire of these good Christians, 
and selected Father Gabriel Druillettes to go and establish a mission 
on the river Kennebec." "•'" 

Father Druillettes accepted the choice of his brethren as the voice 
of God, and prepared for his journey; he had little to do to make 
ready. Besides the parcels containing the missal and crucifix, his 
outfit consisted of only a few articles of priestly apparel, a little box 
of medicines and some bread and wine for the mass — made into a 
pack that could be slung on the shoulders or laid in the canoe. On 
the 29th of August, he started with the Christianized chief Negaba- 
mat, and a few Abenakis who were to be his guides. He ascended the 
rapid Chaudiere about ninety miles, to its source in Lake Megantic; 
from the waters of that lake he followed the trail that led across the 
divide through swamp and logan to the waters of the Kennebec; these 
*Re/atioiis of the Jesuits in New Fraiiee for the year IQ.'fC.. Chap \\ p. 19. 


he descended to the main river, and by the middle of vSeptember 
reached the upper village of the Abenakis (probably Nanrantsouack 
— now called Old Point, in Norridgewock). Here he seems to have 
tarried for a week, and then resumed his journey down the river, call- 
ing at the different villages and conferring with the chiefs and people 
about their souls' salvation. By the end of September he had pro- 
gre.ssed as far as the Plymouth trading post at Cushnoc, where he 
called and was kindly received by John Winslow, the agent, who in- 
vited him to become his guest. The missionary gladly accepted the 
Pilgrim's hospitality, and enjoyed for a few days the comforts of the 
trading house, which, though few and humble, were great in contrast 
with those found in the huts of the natives. The Father was the first 
white man who had ever entered the Kennebec from Canada and ap- 
proached the trading house from the north. He was a Frenchman, 
and neither he nor Winslow could converse in the language of the 
other, but by signs and pantomimes and the spirit of Christian kind- 
ness that knows all languages, the host and guest soon became mu- 
tually intelligible, and by the help of Indian interpreters were able to 
understand each other. 

Father Druillettes remained a few days as the distinguished guest 
of the Pilgrim trader, and then went back to the cabins of the Indians, 
where he found pressing employment in the nursing of the sick, the 
baptizing of the dying, and the instructing of the living. In about 
two weeks, partly to finish his reconnaissance of the country, but 
chiefly to confer with some fellow-missionaries of the Capuchin order 
on the Penobscot, Father Druillettes started in a canoe with a native 
guide down the river, and went along the sea-coast to Pentagoet (now 
Castine), " visiting seven or eight English habitations on the way." 
Father Ignace de Paris, the superior at Pentagoet (which was then a 
French post), " saluted him lovingly," and approved of the planting of 
a Jesuit mission on the Kennebec — which river was then regarded by 
Frenchmen as the western boundary of Acadia. Father Druillettes 
soon started on his return, encouraged in his heart by the benediction 
of his brother missionary, and the courteous treatment given him at 
the English habitations, where he again called as a wayfarer for 
nightly shelter and rest. At one of these—" Mr. Chaste gave to him 
food abundantly for his voyage and some letters for the English at 
Kennebec [Cushnoc]. In these he protested that he had seen nothing 
in the Father which was not praiseworthy; that he carried nothing to 
trade. The savages gave him this testimony: that he labored only 
for their instruction; that he came to procure their salvation at the 
risk of his life; and that, in a word, he admired his courage." '-^ 

*Who this kind "Mr. Chaste " was we do not know; we like to believe the 
name is a misspelled rendering of Mr. Shurt — good Abraham Shurt of Pemaquid 


The priest, with his dusky guide, paddled back to the Plymouth 
trading- house at Cushnoc; he presented his letters to Winslow, and 
then showed his commission as missionary from the Jesuit superior at 
Quebec; the commission was in French and the Englishman could 
not read it, but with his own hand carefully made a copy to carry to 
Plymouth. He then extended to the Father all the kindness in his 
power; he consented to the planting of a mission within the Plymouth 
jurisdiction, and gave his active assistance to the undertaking. Father 
Druillettes then chose for his mission a place near the river a league 
above the trading post, in the vicinity of what has since been named 
Gilley's point in Augusta; his record says " the savages had there as- 
sembled to the number of fifteen large cabins," and that there " they 
made for him a little chapel of planks built in their own fashion " [ils 
luy bastirent une petite cliapelle de planches, faite d leur mode). He be- 
stowed upon this chapel the name selected for it by the Fathers at 
Siller}' — The Mission of the Assumption on the Kennebec {La Mission de 
I'Assoinption au pays des Abnaquiois).* It v.'as on the anniversary of the 
Assumption (August 15) that Father Druillettes arrived in Canada, 
and on the same calendar day he had been assigned to the Kennebec 
by his brethren, who, in compliment, gave him a name for his mission 
to commemorate those events. "It was there that the Father, acquiring 
sufficiently their [the Indians'] language, instructed them zealously: 
making them listen to the subject that kept him with them, and telling 
them of the importance of confessing Him who had created them and 
who punished or blessed them according to their deeds." His humble 
parishioners appear to have been willing listeners and docile pupils, 
for he says: " Seeing that a large part professed to love the good news 
of the gospel, he [the missionary] demanded of them three things, as 
tokens of their good will and desire to receive the faith of Jesus 
Christ. The first was to leave the beverages of Europe [the brandy 
of the traders], from which followed much drunkenness among the 
savages; secondly, he asked them to live peaceably together and to 
put an end to the jealousies and quarrels which were often occurring 
between them and members of other tribes; thirdly, he required that 
they throw away their Manitous or demons or mysterious charms; 
there were few young men who had not some stone or other thing 

—whose long life was full of deeds of kindness toward the Indians, and who, if 
satisfied that the priest was their real friend, would have written such a letter. 
The Father must have met some French and English speaking person by whom, 
as interpreter, his character as a missionary could be expressed in English as 
certified by "Mr. Chaste." Of the " seven or eight English settlements " along 
the route, Pemaquid was the oldest and largest: the others may have been 
Pejepscot, Sagadahoc, Sheepscot, Capenewaggen, Damariscotta, New Harbor 
and St. George. 

* Jesuit Relations for the year 1G],7, Chap. X, p. 52. 


which they held as a propitiation to their demon for his kindness in 
the chase or the games, or in war; it is given to them by some sor- 
cerer [medicine man] or they dream that they found it, or that the 
Manitou gave it to them. . . Many who had charms or Manitous 
drew them from their pouches — some threw them away and others 
brought them to the Father. Some sorcerers or jugglers burned their 
drums and other implements of their trade; so that no longer were 
heard in their cabins, the yellings, and cries and hubbub which they 
made around their sick, because the greater part protested stoutly that 
they wanted refuge in God. I say the greater part, but not all; some 
never liked the change, so they carried a sick man to be whispered 
and chanted over by cheats. But the poor man, being well pre- 
pared for heaven, said that if he recovered his health he would hold it 
as a gift from Him who alone can give and take away as it pleases 
Him. The Father stayed among these fifteen cabins, teaching in 
public and private, making the savages pray, vi.siting, consoling and 
relieving the sick; with much suffering it is true, but tempered by a 
blessing and inspiration from heaven which sweetens the most bitter 
trials. God does not yield; He scatters his blessings as well upon the 
cross of iron as upon the cross of silver and gold. It is not a small 
joy to baptize thirty persons prepared for death and paradise. The 
Father had not yet wished to entrust the holy waters to those who 
were full of life; he only .scattered them upon the dying, some of 
whom recovered, to the surprise of their comrades." * 

In the month of January (1647) the Father went with the Indians 
on their winter hunt to Moosehead lake, where, " being divided into 
many bands, they wage war against deer, elk and beaver, and other 
wild beasts;" the Father stayed with one party, " following it in all its 
journeys." In the spring, " the chase ended, all the savages reassem- 
bled upon the banks of this great lake [Moosehead] at the place where 
they had stopped [before the dispersion]. Here the sorcerers lost 
credit, for not only those who prayed to God had not encountered 
misfortune but the Father and his company had not fallen into the 
ambush of the Iroquiois, but instead had been favored with a fortu- 
nate chase, and some sick persons separated from the Father, having 
had recourse to God in their agonies, had received the blessing of a 
sudden return to health." The reassembling of the tribe at the close 
of the hunt was at the outlet of the lake and such occasions were cele- 
brated by feasting and dancing, until the canoes were ready for the 
descent of the river. When Father Druillettes arrived with his com- 
pany at the place of the mission house, he found that Winslow had 
already reached the trading house three miles below. Winslow had 
spent the winter in Plymouth and Boston; he told the missionary that 
* Jesuit J^c/atioiis, 1647, Chap. X. pp. o;^-o4. 


he " had shown the letter of Mr. Chate to twenty-four persons of im- 
portance in New England, atnong whom were four famous ministers; 
and that they all approved his plan, saying boldly that it was a good 
and praiseworthy and generous action to instruct the savages, and 
that God must be praised for it. ' The gentlemen of the Kennebec 
company [the Plymouth colony] charged me,' said Mr. Houinslaud 
[Winslow], ' to bring you [Father Druillettes] word that if you wish 
for some French to come and build a house [mission establishment] 
on the Kennebec river, they will gladly allow it; and that you will 
never be molested in your ministry; if you are there,' added he, 
' many English will come to visit you;' giving us to understand that 
there are some Catholics in these countries. The Father, having no 
orders on this proposition, replied to Winslow that he would write to 
him soon if the plan was judged practicable." * 

Father Druillettes left the Mission of the Assumption on the 20th 
of May, 1647, " going to visit all the places where the savages were, 
baptizing the sick and thus rescuing those beyond all hope. . . 
There were neither small nor great who did not express sorrow at the 
departure of their Patriarch " (the name of endearment which the 
missionary's neophytes had given him). Thirty Indians accompanied 
him to Quebec, where he arrived on the 15th of June " full of health." 
The disciples who escorted him besought him to return with them 
after eleven days' rest, " but the Jesuit Fathers for sufficient reasons, 
did not grant their request, and the savages returned to their country, 
afflicted by the refusal." 


The Kennebec Mission Field reopened. — Iroquiois Enemies. — Scene at the 
Cushnoc Trading House. — Father Druillettes and Negabamat go to Boston 
and Plymouth.— The Father meets the Governors.— He visits John Eliot 
and John Endicott. — Resumes Labor in his Mission. — Returns to Quebec. — 
Sent back to New England.— Lost in the Forests on the St. John.— Reaches 
Nanrantsouak. — Welcomed with Joy.— Visits the four Colonies.— Last Labors 
on the Kennebec. — Painful Journey to Quebec. 

The next year (1648) the neophytes of the Kennebec went to Que- 
bec and repeated their request for the return of Father Druillettes, 
but the Jesuit Fathers, thinking that the distant Abenakis could be 
sufficiently ministered unto by the Capuchins of Pengbscot, and hav- 
itig great need in Canada of all of the missionaries of their own 
society, did not yield to the petition. The next year (1649) the .same 
request was made with the same result; but in 1650, the persistency 

* /fsiat Relatiotis, 1647, Chap. X, p. 56. 


and earnestness of the appeals, supported by a letter from Father 
Come de Mante of the Pentagoet mission, were sitccessful. Father 
Druiliettes was appointed to reopen his Kennebec mission. He left 
Quebec (or Sillery) September 1st, accompanied by his faithful disci- 
ple and constant companion, Noel Negabamat. On reaching the Ken- 
nebec, he visited hastily the several villages, and received the joyful 
welcome of his former pupils. On St. Michael's eve (September 29) 
he arrived at the Plymouth trading house, at Cushnoc. To his great 
pleasure he there met again his foi'mer friend, " the agent, by name 
Jehan Winslau [John Winslow], a citizen merchant of Plymouth." 

At the time of Father Druiliettes' first labors on the river four 
years before, there was a feeling of unrest among the Abenakis arising 
from the dread of their enemies, the Mohawks (one of the celebrated 
Iroquiois tribes), whose raids from their country beyond the western 
highlands had reached even to the Kennebec. Since 1646, six French 
missionaries* had been massacred by the Mohawks and their kindred 
tribes, and marauding parties were yearly roaming the banks of the 
St. Lawrence, with hatchets and knives bought of the Dutch and 
English traders on the Hudson. The governor of Canada (D'Alli- 
boust), to protect his own people and the far more numerous friendly 
natives of his domain, sought to repel the invaders; and he gave to 
Father Druiliettes on his departure for the Kennebec, " a letter of 
credit to speak on behalf of Sieur d'AUiboust to the governor and 
magistrates of said country " (New England). It was therefore in the 
dual capacity of missionary and envoy that Father Druiliettes made 
his second visit to the Abenakis. The then existing colonies (Ply- 
mouth, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut,) had formed (in 
1643) a confederation to promote their common interests, and espe- 
cially to enable them to deal as a unit with the neighboring Dutch 
and French colonies. This confederacy — the embryo of our great 
republic— prohibited the individual colony from going to war alone 
and from concluding a peace without the consent of the others. 

Before 1650, this confederacy had proposed a system of commer- 
cial reciprocity between New England and New France. Father 
Druiliettes was now instructed to agree on behalf of his government 
to the proposed treaty, provided New England would unite with 
Canada in keeping the Iroquiois from the war path against the tribes 

* They were all of the Society of Jesus. Father Isaac Jogues (killed October 
18, 1646) was sent to the Mohawk country at the same time that Father Druil- 
iettes was ordered to the Kennebec. The two Fathers received their assign- 
ments on the same day. The other victims to Iroquiois cruelty were: Fathers 
Antoine Daniel, killed July 4. 1648; Jean de Brebeuf, March 16, 1649; Gabriel 
Lallemant, March 17, 1649; Charles Gamier, December 7, 1649; Noel Chobanel, 
December 8, \&i^.—Al>ri(fgeJ Relations of the Missions of the Jesuits in New 
Fiance. By Father P. F. J. Bressani, 16.53. Montreal, 1853. 


that were friendly to the French. In the light of these facts we can 
understand the proceedings at the Kennebec trading house on the 
30th of September, 1650. Father Druillettes, with Negabamat and a 
throng of Indians who had followed them from the different villages, 
met with ceremony the representative of the colony of Plymouth at 
the trading house. Negabamat, addressing John Winslow and hand- 
ing to him a bundle of beaver skins, said in his mother tongue (the 
Algonquin, and interpreted into French for us by the missionary): 
" The governor of the river St. Lawrence, by the Father who stands 
here, to those of your nation, and I as ally join my word to his; Not 
to speak to thee alone, but rather to tell thee to embark my word, that 
is to say my present [the beaver skins], to carry it to the governor of 
Plymouth." Winslow answered that he would do with the governor 
and magistrates all that could be expected from a good friend; where- 
upon Negabamat and the other Indians asked that the Father should 
go with him (Winslow) to present in person d'Alliboust's letter and 
" explain his intentions according to the letter of credit which he had, 
and to bear the words of the Christians of Sillery and the catechumens 
of the river Kennebec." Winslow replied: " I will lodge him in my 
house, and I will treat him as my own brother; for I well know the 
good that he [the missionary] does among you, and the life that he 
leads there." The record adds: " This he said because he had a par- 
ticular zeal for the conversion of the Indians." 

Thus accredited by the Kennebec Indians as well as by the Cana- 
dian governor, to negotiate against the Iroquiois, the missionary-envoy 
started about the 20th of November for Boston; he says: " I left Cous- 
sinoc by land, with the said agent [Winslow], inasmuch as the vessel 
that was to carry us had some cause for delay in waiting for the In- 
dians; and fearing to be surprised by the ice, we were therefore 
obliged to go ten leagues, to embark by sea at Marimiten [Merry- 
meeting], which the Indians call Nassouac. This was a painful march, 
especially to the agent, who is already somewhat in years [born in 
1597] and who assured me that he would never have undertaken it if 
he had not given his word to Noel " (Negabamat). They embarked 
at Tameriskau (Damariscove ?) on the 25th, but the winds and storms 
drove them ashore at Cape Ann, from whence " partly by land and 
partly by boat," they reached Boston on the 8th of December. The 
incidents of this embassy were quite fully recorded by Father Druil- 
lettes, '•■■ but it would be apart from the present purpose to recite them 
all. He was blandly received by the principal personages of Boston, 

* " Narrative of a voyage, made for the Abenaquiois mission and information 
acquired of New England and the magistrates of that republic, for assistance 
against the Iroquiois. The whole by me, Gabriel Druillettes, of the Society of 
Jesus."— Trans, from the original MS. by John Gilmary Shea. Coll. New York 
Hist. Society (2d series), Vol. Ill, part 1. 


■who, because he was a foreign envoy, did not inflict upon him the 
execution which one of their laws made the earthly doom of a Jesuit. 
After receiving many courteous attentions and an audience and din- 
ner with the governor (Thomas Dudley) and magistrates, he was at 
last told that in consequence of the character he had assumed as am- 
bassador of the Kennebec Indians, Boston had no interest in the sub- 
ject; and he was referred to Plymouth. He then went to Plymouth 
(December 21-22), and saw the Pilgrim fathers at their homes. The 
Father says: "The governor of the place John Brentford [William 
Bradford] received me with courtesy, and appointed the next day for 
audience, and then invited me to a dinner of fish which he had pre- 
pared on my account, seeing that it was Friday. I met with much 
favor at this settlement, for the farmers [lessees of the Plymouth 
patent], and among others Captain Thomas Willets, spoke to the gov- 
ernor on behalf of my negotiation. . . The governor . . with all 
the magistrates, not only consents but presses this affair in favor of 
the Abenaquois. The whole colony has no trifling interest in it, be- 
cause by its right of seigniory, it annually takes the sixth part of all 
that arises from the trade on that river Quinebec; and the governor 
himself in particular, who with four 

other of the most considerable citi- S*'^'>'i^A' 'iVi>-i^f<^es SecJ-J"- 
zens, are as it were, farmers of this 

trade, who lose much, losing all hope of the commerce of the Kenne- 
bec and Quebec, by means of the Abnaquiois, which will soon infalli- 
bly happen, if the Iroquois continues to kill and hunt to death the 
Abenaquiois as he has done for some years past." 

The sanguine Father returned to Boston, where he wrote to Gov- 
ernor d'Alliboust his official report, from which the last few preceding 
lines are copied. He had the faith of the enthusiast that the purpose 
of his embassy would be accomplished. It was winter and the season 
when vessels seldom ventured along the coast; consequently his de- 
parture was delayed a few days, during which time he was the guest 
of distinguished people, one of whom was John Eliot, the Protestant 
Indian apostle, at Roxbury, who hospitably invited him to stay at his 
house all winter. On the 5th of January he embarked on " a vessel 
clearing for the Kennebec;" bad weather stopped it for a week or 
more at Marblehead; the envoy improved the time by going up to 
Salem, to see John Endicott, " who," says the Father, " seeing that I 
had no money, defrayed my expenses." * On the 24th of January the 
bark reached Piscataqua, and on the 7th of February anchored at 
Tameriskau. The next day the missionary reached the Kennebec, up 

* Which kind act gives us a rare glimpse into the inner nature of the man 
who soon after as governor was led by his infuriated zeal for Puritanism, to have 
Quakers tortured and put to death. 


which on its frozen and snow covered surface he laboriously tramped 
to resume his interrupted labors. From the comforts of guest cham- 
bers and the luxuries of governors' tables, he returned unflinchingly 
to the squalid huts, and pitiful, uncertain fare of the savages, whom 
he had been called to serve. In the spring, on his return to Cushnoc 
with the tribe from the winter hunt at Moosehead, he found John 
Winslow had returned from Plymouth, bringing the message that " all 
the magistrates and the two commissioners of Plymouth have given 
their word, and resolved that they must press the other colonies to 
join them against the Iroquiois in favor of the Abnaquiois, who are 
under the protection of the colony of Plymouth." This cheering re- 
sponse to the Father's visit to Plymouth was supplemented by letters 
brought to him by Winslow from men in Boston, representing the 
common opinion to be that " if the republic will not undertake this 
aid against the Iroquiois . . individuals are ready as volunteers for 
the expedition." With these hopeful assurances, Father Druillettes, 
taking affectionate leave of his neophytes, returned in the month of 
June (1651) to Quebec, and reported in person to his government the 
apparent result of his embassy. 

But so active and malignant was the enemy and so unhappy the 
outlook, that after a rest of only fifteen days Father Druillettes and 
Negabamat were sent back to the Kennebec, " Negabamat being com- 
missioned as before by the Algonquins of the Great River [St. Law- 
rence], and the Father by both the governor of Canada and the good 
Abenaquiois catechumens." This last trip of Father Druillettes was 
exceedingly painful — almost tragical in its beginning and ending — and 
bitterly disappointing in its political result. He was accompanied by 
one Frenchman (Jean Guerin) and several Abenakis, who had fol- 
lowed him to Quebec. In the hope of finding a shorter route than the 
usual one up the Chaudiere to Lake Megantic. the guides took one 
with which they were not acquainted; " after having rowed and walked 
for fifteen days by torrents and through many frightful ways," they 
saw with dismay that they had mistaken the river down which they 
should have glided, and that instead of being in the country of the 
Abenakis they were at Madawaska (on the St. John). But a worse 
feature of their condition was food-famine. The provisions taken for 
the two weeks' journey to the Kennebec were exhausted; the com- 
pany were weak from hunger and unable to perform the labor of 
stemming the current of the river which they must ascend before 
they could reach the route to their destination. In this dark hour 
Father Druillettes piously re.sorted to the resources of his religion; in 
the solitude of the immense forest he proceeded to offer the sacrifice 
of the holy mass for relief and deliverance. He had just concluded 
the ceremony when one of the Indians came running to the spot with 
the joyful news that the party had killed three moose. The lives of 


the famishing- wanderers were thereby saved. The Father deemed it 
the visible interposition of God as he did the restoration of his eye- 
sight seven years before. 

After having restored their strength with the miraculously sent 
moose meat and preserved by the process of smoking enough to last 
until some could be procured in the ordinary way, the party started 
to return up river. There were rapids, falls and difficulties number- 
less; one of the Indians — an Etechemin from the St. John — attributed 
all of the party's bad luck to the presence of the Black-robe; some of 
the streams were too low to float the canoes, so the Father prayed for 
rain — which came and the water rose; but the ill will and persecu- 
tions of the savage compelled the Father to cast off his luggage in 
order to lighten the boat, and finally to separate himself from the 
party and grope his way in loneliness among rocks and windfalls and 
dismal stretches of swamp; be " rose at break of day and traveled till 
night without eating; his supper was a little piece of smoked meat 
hard as wood, or a small fish if he could catch it, and after having said 
his prayers the earth was his bed, his pillow a log." * At last, after 
twenty-two or twenty-three days from Quebec, the party reached Nan- 
rantsouak (Norridgewock). The chief, Oumamanradock, welcomed 
the Father with a salute of musketry, and embraced him, saying: " I 
see now that the Great Spirit who rules in heaven has looked upon us 
with a kind eye since he has sent us our Patriarch again." The chief 
inquired of the attendants if the Father had been well and well treated 
on the journey, and when told of the harsh conduct of the Etechemin, 
he berated the fellow roundly, saying: " If you were one of my sub- 
jects or of my nation, I would make you feel the grief which you have 
caused the whole country." The culprit admitted his guilt and con- 
fessed — " I am a dog to have treated the Black-gown so badly." The 
rec6rd says, " there was no man, woman or child who did not express 
to the Father the joy that was felt at his return; there were feasts in 
all the cabins: he was taken possession of and carried away with love." 
It was probably about this time that " in a great meeting " they 
" naturalized and admitted the Father to their nation." Subsequently, 
when he was at the village near Cushnoc, an attache of the trading 
post, who had entered a wigwam where the priest was conversing, re- 
ported to Winslow his employer, that the missionary was declaiming 
against the English. This offended Winslow, but the Indians went 
to the trading house and declared that the tattler lied— that he did not 
understand the Abenakis tongue from which he pretended to quote, 
and in their resentment of the injustice done to their missionary, 
said: " We have adopted him for our comrade, we love him as the 
wisest of our captains, . . and whoever assails him attacks all the 

* Jesuit Relations for 1002, Chap. VII, p. 23. > _m ^ Q^^'^OQ 


Father Druillettes' third arrival on the Kennebec caused a round 
of profound welcome and rejoicing. Friends old and new flocked 
from all sides to see him; he made a tour of the " twelve or thirteen 
villages which are ranged partly upon the river Kennebec, and partly 
upon the coast of Acadia. . . He was everywhere received as an 
angel from heaven." The warmth of his reception impressed him, 
and in alluding to it he wrote: " If the years have their winter they 
have also their spring-time; if these missions have their afifiictions, 
they are not deprived of their joys and consolations. I have felt more 
than I can express, seeing the gospel-seed which I have sown for four 
years, which produced in the ground in so many centuries only briars 
and thorns, bring forth fruit worthy of the table of God. . . One 
captain [chief] broke my heart; he repeated to me often in public and 
private that he loved his children as himself; ' I have lost two of them 
since your departure; their death is not my greatest sorrow, but you 
had not baptized them; that is what distresses me. It is true that I 
have done for them what you recommended me to do, but I do not 
know whether I have done well, or if I shall ever see them in heaven; 
if you had baptized them I would not grieve for them; I would not be 
sorry for their death, on the contrary I would be consoled; at least if 
to banish my sorrow you will promise not to think of Quebec for ten 
years, and will not depart during that time, you will see that we love 
you.' Besides he led me to the graves of his two children, upon which 
he had erected two beautiful crosses, painted red, which he came to 
salute from time to time in sight of the English at Koussinok [Cush- 
noc], where the cemetery of these good people is, because they hold at 
this place two great meetings, one in tine spring and the other in the 
autumn." * children were probably buried in ground that had 
been consecrated for burial purposes by Father Druillettes during one 
of his previous visits. Its location was probably near the Mission of 
the Assumption. Ancient human skeletons were plowed up by the 
early settlers in the vicinity of Gilley's point, where the chapel must 
have stood, f 

After Father Druillettes had spent several weeks " in instructing 
the villages that were farther inland and more remote from the 
English, he took with him Noel Negabamat and went down to New 
England." This time, besides visiting Boston and Plymouth, they 
went to the two other colonies (New Haven and Connecticut), implor- 
ing for their people protection from the Iroquiois; but the fervent de- 
sire of Plymouth to save the inhabitants of its domain on the Kenne- 
bec from the Mohawk hatchet was neutralized by Massachusetts' 
indifference and the reluctance of the other colonies toward disturb- 

* Jesuit Relations, 1G52, Chap. VII, p. 25. 

t This fact was communicated by the late Mrs. Robert Dennison, an aged 
lady of North Augusta, who died in the early part of 1892. 


ing the relations that existed between themselves and the Dutch in 
the territory that is now the state of New York. So the tremendous 
and patient labors of the embassy were fruitless. Christian New 
England would not be aroused to protect the Christianized Indians of 
the Kennebec. Father Druillettes returned with his companion to 
the mission field in the depths of the wilderness, where he passed the 
dreary winter among his neophytes, destitute of every physical com- 
fort, the menial servant of savages, the target of the jealous jugglers' 
spite; tramping from village to village at the call of the sick and 
dying; always preaching by act and word the sublime gospel of divine 
humanity. At the beginning of March (1652) he departed wearily for 
Quebec. The hardships of his journey hither were far exceeded by 
those of his return. The party started on snow-shoes; we are not told 
their route. The time occupied was more than a month. The supplj' 
of food gave out, and some of the Indians died of exhaustion. All of 
the company expected to perish with hunger and cold. Father Druil- 
lettes and Negabamat were without food for six days following the 
fasting season of Lent. Finally they were obliged to boil their moc- 
casins, and then the Father's gown (camisole) which was made of 
moose skin; the snow melting, they boiled the braids of their snow- 
shoes. On such frail broth they kept sufficient strength to finally 
reach Quebec on Monday after Easter (April 8), " having no more 
courage or strength than zeal for the salvation of souls can give to 
skeletons." With a pale, thin face, and worn body, the intrepid, de- 
vout and half-martyred Druillettes closed his labors with the Indians 
of the Kennebec* 


English and French irritation in Acadia. — Alienation between the Indians and 
the EngHsh.— Afifinity between the Indians and the French.— Phihp's War 
reaches to Maine.— Kennebecs disarmed.— Robinhood makes Treaty of 
Peace.— Outrageous Affront to the Saco Chief. — War begins at Merrymeet- 
ing Bay. — Parley at Teconnet. — Hammond's Fort at Woolwich, and Clark & 
Lake's Fort at Arrowsic, captured. — Dreadful Massacres.— Kennebecs return 
Captives and ask for Peace. — Treaties of Casco and Portsmouth. 

The history of the Indians on the Kennebec is nearly a blank for 
a quarter of a century after the retirement of Father Druillettes. The 
feeble mission of the Capuchins on the Penobscot was broken up by 
the Huguenot Frenchman, La Tour, in his quarrel with his Catholic 

* Father Druillettes was born in France in the year 1393. After his retire- 
ment from the Kennebec he was constantly with the Montagnais, Kristineaux, 
Papinachois, and other tribes. In 1661 he ascended the Saguenay, in the attempt 
to reach Hudson's bay. He went West in 1666 with the celebrated Marquette, 
and labored at Sault Ste. Mary till 1679, when he returned to Quebec, and there 
died on the 8th of April, 1681, after a missionary career of nearly forty years. 


countryman, D'Aulnay, and the semi-Christianized tribes of Maine 
were left for awhile to revert to their primeval heathenism. The 
English traders had for twenty-five years been annoyed by the French 
occupation of the country from the Penobscot eastward, and in 1654, 
the confederated colonies seized with force and arms all Acadia, dis- 
possessing the French and sending- them home or driving them in 
their poverty to seek subsistence among the Indians, and frequently 
adoption into the tribes. The natives had learned to confide in the 
French and distrust the English. The Kennebecs had found out that 
the English cared only for their furs; to add to their jealousy they 
believed that their missionary had been driven away from them. 
They attributed all of their woes to the Englishmen. Mohawk parties 
came oftener, spoiling the villages and infesting the hunting grounds. 
As the hunters could get but few skins, the traders finally ceased 
coming to Cushnoc. In 1661 the Iroquiois war-whoop echoed along 
the vSt. Lawrence from Montreal three hundred miles to the mouth of 
the Saguenay, carrying dismay to all Canada. A party penetrated to 
the Kennebec and surprised a village near the outlet of a lake; all the 
people were massacred, save one old chief whom the murderers led 
home as a trophy, and afterward tortured to death.* This cruel event 
may have given origin to the tradition among the Maine Indians in 
after generations, of an Iroquiois victory on the shores of Moosehead 
lake. There was no historian to describe for us the Indian battles on 
the Kennebec; the only record ever made was the one which was 
deftly woven by dusky fingers into symbolic figures on the sacred 
wampum belt, that the duty of vengeance might not be forgotten by 
warriors yet unborn. 

Most of the causes that alienated the Kennebec Indians from the 
English were the same that drove the other tribes of New England 
into a pitiless war upon the settlements. The French never had war 
with their Indian subjects, but kept their loyalty by flattery, charity 
and religious ceremonials. The English used no such arts; Puritan- 
ism, whatever its triumphs, was a failure with the Indians; it neither 
converted nor attracted them; it was too metaphysical for their appre- 
hension — they preferred their Manitous and medicine men. On the 
contrary, Catholicism with its symbols, and gilded images displayed 
by disciplined, skillful and enthusiastic priests of philanthropic lives, 
impressed them strongly, and took the place of their own materialistic 
heathen superstitions. So the French in their long struggle to hold 
Acadia had the natives with them. When the irritations and wrongs 
of half a century of English occupation came to be avenged by the 

* Histoire des Abeiiakis. By Father J. A. Marault. Sorel, Canada, 1866. At 
the time Father Marault wrote his history he had been for nineteen years a mis- 
sionary among the Indians at St. Francis, where nearly all of the living descend- 
ants of the Kennebec tribe reside. 


Indians there was no bond of religion or humanity to stay the hatchet 
and scalping knife. The catastrophe of Philip's war (1675-8) had 
long been portending; its immediate exciting cause was the execution 
by Plymouth of three of Philip's subjects for having, by Philip's 
order and according to Indian law, inflicted the punishment of death 
upon an Indian traitor. Philip, as leader, was suppressed in fourteen 
months — his head cut off and carried to Plymouth, there to dangle 
from a gibbet for twenty years; but the cause to which he had called 
his race to rally did not die with him. 

The first victim in what has been named King Philip's war was an 
Indian who was shot while marauding with his fellows in a settler's 
pasture, for food (at Swansey, June 24, 1675). His death was avenged 
the same day by the killing of three white persons. Then followed 
alarm and consternation throughout the colonies. In a few weeks the 
trader-settlers on the lower Kennebec were anxiously astir. Captains 
Lake, Patteshall and Wiswell had been appointed by the general 
court a committee of safety for " the eastern parts." This committee 
met at the house of Captain Patteshall (on the island that for many 
years bore his name, but which is now called Lee's island, in Phipps- 
burg), and after consulting with the settlers concluded to disarm the 
natives.* A party ascended the river for the purpose, and meeting 
five Andro-scoggins and seven Kennebecs, persuaded them to surren- 
der their guns and knives. During the proceeding, a Kennebec 
Indian named Sowen struck at Hosea Mallet, a bystander, and would 
have killed him had not the savage been seized; the other Indians 
admitted that the assailant deserved death, yet they prayed for his re- 
lease, offering a ransom of forty beaver skins and hostages for his 
future good behavior. The proposal was accepted and Sowen was 
released. The traders then treated the Indians with food and tobacco, 
and solemnly promised them protection and favor if they would con- 
tinue peaceable. The principal sagamore in the party was Mahoti- 
wormet {alias Damarine), called by the English Robinhood, who lived 
in Nequasset (Woolwichj. The next day he assembled as many of 
his tribe as possible and celebrated the treaty of peace with a great 
dance, t 

* Williamson's History of Maine, Vol. I, p. 519. 

tThis chief, who was a Wawenoc, had been intimate with the English during- 
his whole life, and never so far as we know became their enemy. He sold in 
1639, to Edward Butman and John Brown (who bought Pemaquid of Samoset 
and another), the territory of the present town of Woolwich (then called Nequas- 
set); he also sold in 1649, to John Parker, the island of Georgetown (Erascohe- 
gan), and to John Richards, the island of Arrowsic; also in 16.58, to John Parker, 
2d, the territory that now makes the town of Phippsburg as far south as "Cock's 
high head;" and in 1661, to Robert Gutch, the territory now included within the 
limits of Bath. The memory of Mahotiwormet is preserved by his English nick- 
name in Robinhood's cove, the long arm of Sheepscot bay that nearly severs the 
island of Georgeto'wn. Hopegood, the warrior, is said to have been his son. 


The Indians on the Sheepscot were likewise prevailed upon to 
yield up their arms, and there seemed to be good reason to hope that 
Philip's influence might not reach disastrously to the province of 
Maine. But at this critical hour an incident occurred which neutral- 
ized all the efforts that had been made to stay the spreading of 
Philip's conflagration. A chief of the Sacos, named Squando, had 
suffered an outrage that sank deep into his heart. Two rollicking 
sailors jocosely threw his little child into the water to see if it could 
swim instinctively, like an animal. Though the infant was rescued 
alive it soon died. From that moment the grief stricken father be- 
came the inveterate enemy of the English; no overtures could reach 
him, no gifts placate him. He called the neighboring tribes to war 
councils, and being a chief of great influence, war dances began. Set- 
tlers from the Merrimac to Pemaquid saw with grave forebodings 
the changed behavior and increasing insolence of the Indians. The 
first overt act was by a band of twenty Indians, who sacked the house 
of Thomas Purchase at the mouth of the Androscoggin, on the 4th or 
5th of September (1675). Purchase had lived there and cheated the 
Indians for fifty years. A few days later (September 12), the first 
Indian massacre in Maine took place — that of Thomas Wakeley and 
his family of eight persons at Falmouth on the Presumpscot river. 

During the next three months seventy-two other barbarous mur- 
ders were committed between Casco and the Piscataqua. This series 
of tragedies was mostly the work of the Sacos and Androscoggins. 
The traders of Sagadahoc (on the lower Kennebec) were putting forth 
their utmost endeavors to prevent the terrible contagion from spread- 
ing to their river. They employed the services of their venerable 
trading neighbor of Pemaquid, Abraham Shurte, who by his rugged 
honesty and kind heart, had won the confidence of the Indians. He 
invited some of the sagamores to Pemaquid; they told him their 
grievances; they said some of their innocent friends had been treach- 
erously seized and sold as slaves under the pretext that they were 
conspirators or manslayers. " Yes," added they, " and your people 
frightened us away last fall [1675] from our cornfields about Kenne- 
bec; you have since withholden powder and shot from us, so that we 
have not been able to kill either fowl or venison, and some of our 
Indians, too, the last winter, actually perished of hunger." Shurte 
assured them that all of their wrongs should be righted if they would 
remain friendly. They gave him a wampum belt to denote their de- 
sire for peace, and a captive boy to be returned to his family. This 
parley was soon followed by an invitation to Mr. Shurte to meet the 
sachems of all the tribes in council, to make a general treaty of peace. 
The message was borne to Pemaquid by an Indian runner from 
Teconnet, where the council was to be held. Shurte fearlessly started 


on his errand, probably sailing in his own boat from Pemaquid along 
the coast and into the Kennebec. At Sagadahoc he took council with 
the committee of safety, who selected Captain Sylvanus Davis to 
accompany him. The two a.scended the river to Teconnet (now 
spelled Ticonic) where they found a large number of Indians awaiting 
them. Five chiefs were there: Assiminasqua and Wahowa {alias 
Hopegood) of the Kennebecs; Madockawando and Mugg of the 
Penobscots, and Tarumkin of the Androscoggins; but Squando of the 
Sacos was ominously absent. 

The commissioners were welcomed by a salute of musketry, and 
conducted into the great wigwam where the chiefs were seated, each 
attended by his people. Assiminasqua opened the proceedings, say- 
ing: " Brothers, keep your arms, they are a badge of honor. Be at 
ease. It is not our custom like' the Mohawks to seize the messengers 
coming unto us; nay, we never do as your people once did with four- 
teen of our Indians, sent to treat with you; taking away their arms 
and setting a guard over their heads. We now must tell you, we have 
been in deep waters; you told us to come down and give up our arms 
and powder or you would kill us, so to keep peace we were forced to 
part with our hunting-guns, or to leave both our fort and our corn. 
What we did was a great loss; we feel its weight." To this Mr. 
Shurte replied: " Our men who have done you wrong are greatly 
blamed; if they could be reached by the arm of our rulers they would 
be punished. All the Indians know how kindly they have been treated 
at Pemaquid. We come now to confirm the peace, especially to treat 
with the Anasagunticooks [Androscoggins]. We wish to see Squando 
and to hear Tarumkin speak." Tarumkin responded: " I have been 
westward, where I found three sagamores wishing for peace; many 
Indians are unwilling. I love the clear streams of friendship that 
meet and unite. Certainly, I myself, choose the shades of peace. My 
heart is true, and I give you my hand in pledge of the truth." Seven 
Androscoggins echoed the sentiments of their chief, while Hopegood 
and Mugg, representing two other tribes, likewise declared for peace. 
But the absence of the childless chief of the Sacos was fatal; no gen- 
eral treaty could be made without him. The commissioners were dis- 
appointed and anxious, and even suspicious of the fidelity of the 
tribes present. The Indians had parted with their guns and knives; 
they were unable in their life as hunters to gain their sub.sistence 
without them; no substitute by which they could obtain 'food was 
given in recompense; they were now pinched with hunger and threat- 
ened with starvation; some they declared had thus died already. They 
now asked for their weapons that they might legitimately follow the 
game of the forest. The cominissioners could not conceal their mis- 
trust that the implements might be misused. Madockawando then 


speaking abruptly, said: " Do we not meet here on equal ground? 
Where shall we buy powder and shot for our winter's hunting, when 
we have eaten up all our corn? Shall we leave Englishmen and turn 
to the French? or let our Indians die? We have waited long to hear 
you tell us, and now we want Yes, or No." The commissioners could 
no longer hide in diplomatic words the unhappy condition of affairs; 
they said: " You may have ammunition for necessary use; but you say 
yourselves, there are many western Indians [the Sacos] who do not peace. Should you let them have the powder we sell you, 
what do we better than cut our own throats? This is the best answer 
we are allowed to return you, though you wait ten years."* The 
chiefs would neither hear more nor talk longer; they rose abruptly 
and ended the parley, their flashing eyes announcing to the assembly 
the hopeless answer of the English. The commissioners, discomfited,, 
withdrew to their boat and embarked for home with painful appre- 

The condition of the Indians was pitiable. In their destitution 
and wretchedness they had vainly asked for the restoration of their 
hunting outfits. The alternative of starvation or war was now be- 
fore them. If the forests could not be made to furnish them food 
should not the plenty of the white man's .settlements? Emis.saries 
and refugees from Philip's shattered band — each on.e an incendiary, 
and murderer of Englishmen — were deploying eastward and mixing 
with the tribes. They recounted by many a lodge fire the deeds of 
Philip's warriors and awakened in the hearts of their excited listeners 
the wild thoughts of English extermination. The time had come 
when the Kennebecs could sit peacefully on their mats no longer. 
The pangs of hunger and impending famine made them desperate, 
and impelled them to the war path for self-preservation. 

A few weeks after the parley at Teconnet some Kennebecs in alli- 
ance with some Androscoggins formed their first war party. On the 
13th of August (1675) they went forth in cruelty against the trading 
fort of Richard Hammond, that stood at the head of Long Reach, just 
below the chops or outlet of Merrymeeting bay f (in the present town 
of Woolwich). Hammond had aforetime kept a temporary trading 
post at Teconnet; the Indians said he had made them drunk and then 
cheated them. They ruthlessly killed him and two of his men — 
Samuel Smith and John Grant — and took sixteen persons captive, 
among them Francis Card and his family. A brave young woman 
e-scaped from the bloody scene and fleeing in the darkness of night 
across the country to Sheepscot, alarmed that settlement and saved it 

* Williamson's History of Maine, Vol. I, pp. 539, 533. 

t Problem of Hammond's Fort. By Rev. H. O. Thayer, in Collections of the 
Maine Historical Society. Quarterly series No. 3, 1890. 


from surprise. After supplying themselves with food and plunder, 
and burning the buildings, some of the Indians returned up river 
with their captives, while others in the night stole down to Clark & 
Lake's trading place on Arrowsic island; they adroitly entered the 
fort through the gate behind the sleepy sentinels as they were retir- 
ing from their posts at daybreak. The consternation of the inmates 
of the garrison, thus aroused from slumber in the early morning, was 
indescribable. In their helplessness they could make no resistance 
to the fearful onslaught; a few ran out of the fort and escaped. Thirty- 
five persons were either killed or captured. Among the slain was 
Captain Lake, a member of the committee of safety, and one of the 
wealthy proprietors of the establishment. Among the wounded was 
Captain Davis, one of the recent peace messengers to Teconnet, who 
barely escaped capture and death by hiding in the clefts of the rocks 
by the water's edge until the savages had departed. The destruction 
of these forts, which was only a small part of the general devastation 
that presently marked the entire coast from Piscataqua to Pemaquid, 
drove all the English settlers from the Kennebec. 

Of the Indians concerned in the sacking of the Nequasset and 
Arrowsic forts, there is reason to believe that the Kennebecs were 
less fierce and brutal than their fellows; indeed, there is no evidence 
that the Kennebecs, like some of their allies, ever tortured a white 
captive. This omission of a diabolical superstitious requirement is 
traceable to the teaching of Father Druillettes, and the softening in- 
fluence of the missionaries with whom the tribe had contact by its 
intercourse with Quebec. Many of the unhappy captives who were 
led away from the ruins of Sagadahoc, never returned, and their sad 
fate can only be conjectured. But in June of the next year (1677) the 
Kennebecs sent back a company of twenty, as is shown by a letter 
from the chiefs " to the governor of Boston," borne by Mrs. Ham- 
mond, the widow of the trader. This unique document, illiterately 
written by some captive sitting abjectly among the chiefs who dic- 
tated it, is a valuable souvenir of the comparative humanity of the 
tribe. The chiefs say they have been careful of the prisoners; that 
Mrs. Hammond and the rest " will tell that we have drove away all 
the Androscoggin Indians from us, for they will fight and we are not 
willing of their company. . . We have not done as the Androscog- 
gin Indians who killed all their prisoners. . . We can fight as well 
as others, but we are willing to live peaceable; we will not fight with- 
out they [the settlers] fight with us first; . . We are willing to trade 
with you, as we have done for many years; we pray you send us 
such things as we name: powder, cloth, tobacco, liquor, corn, bread — 
and send the captives you took at Pemaquid. . . Squando is minded 
to cheat you, . . and make you believe that it is Kennebec men 


that have done all this spoil." The names of eleven Indians are 
appended: William WoumWood, HenNwedloked, Winakeermit, 
Moxus, Essomonosko, Deogenes, Pebemowoveit, Tasset, John, Shyrot, 
Mr. Thomas.* These are some of the actors in the Sagadahoc trage- 
dies, who were anxious to make it appear that their tribe had not for- 
feited all claim to English reconciliation. As a chief had said at 
Teconnet, they loved " the clear streams of friendship that meet and 
unite;" they had tasted of war and were now anxious for peace; early 
in the strife they had mostly withdrawn into the distant forest, and 
left their allies to murder and pillage alone. They tardily and reluct- 
antly broke with the English, and they were the first to suggest a 
return to peace. 

A full account of the first Indian war in Maine, covering a period 
of about three years, belongs to the general history of the state, and 
cannot here be given. It makes a dreadful chapter of surprisals, mas- 
sacres and conflagrations, in which nearly three hundred English 
people were killed or died in captivity. The region was made deso- 
late. The losses and sufferings of the tribes can never be told. 
Finally, after a mutual cessation of hostilities for a few months, the 
Kennebec sagamores gladly joined with those of the Androscoggin, 
Saco and Penobscot, in meeting English commissioners at Casco, to 
make a treaty of peace (April 12, 1678). All surviving captives were 
restored. It was a day of rejoicing. The settlements that had been 
destroyed soon began to revive, and returning prosperity gradually 
cheered again the coast of Maine. But the tribes were broken and 
their condition changed. The Mohawks had long been the scourge of 
the Kennebecs and other tribes, the English had ever refused pro- 
tection against them; in the late war they had been employed to kill 
and torture by the side of the English; they continued their warfare 
in vagrant bands after the treaty of peace. The crippled tribes asso- 
ciated these raids with English perfidy. The terror from these 
Mohawk parties was finally allayed by the governor of New York 
(Edmund Andros) forbidding his friends and allies up the Hudson 
from further molesting the conquered subjects of his master's eastern 
dukedom of Pemaquid. A second treaty was made at Portsmouth in 
1685 (and signed on behalf of the Kennebecs by Hopegood), wherein 
for the first time the English agreed to protect the tribes of Maine so 
long as they were peaceable, from their Mohawk enemies. Notwith- 
standing all outward promises of peace, the Indians' nature, their 
mode of life, and the bitter memories of the past, made the treaties 
little else than temporary truces. The two races were mutually 

*Rev. H. O. Thayer in article on Hammond's fort, quoting Mass. Archives, 
Vol. XXX: 241, 242. 



Indian Refugees in Canada.— New Mission established for them.— Fathers 
Jacques and Vincent Bigot on the Kennebec and Penobscot. — Castine 
inspires the Tribes to avenge his Wrong. — King William's War begtui. — 
French Intrigue with the Indians. — Father Rale sent to the Kennebec. — 
Bomaseen Imprisoned. — Treaties of Ryswick and Mare-point. — Third Indian 
War. — Parley at Casco. — Bounties for Scalps. — Arruawikwabemt Slain. — 
Rebekah Taylor rescued by Bomaseen. — Acadia ceded to England.— Treaties 
of Utrecht and Portsmouth. 

In a few years following the war, the Kennebec refugees, mixing 
with the Canada Indians, so overcrowded the Sillery mission, that in 
1685 it was removed to the opposite side of the St. Lawrence, a few 
miles up the Chaudiere. The new village, composed mostly of 
fugitives from the Kennebec, was named the Mission of St. Francis 
de Sales, and given to the care of two brothers and Jesuit fathers 
named Jacques and Vincent Bigot. The instruction given by Druil- 
lettes on the Kennebec a generation before had nearly if not quite 
faded out, and the new missionaries, like their predecessor, had to 
begin their labors by teaching the mere rudiments of their faith. 
But they found their flock of five or six hundred souls altogether 
attentive and docile to priestly influence; they endeavored to Christ- 
ianize anew the whole tribe; they visited the head-waters of the 
Chaudiere and the Kennebec, where many Kennebecs and other Maine 
Indians had permanently collected for fishing and hunting, in their 
northward hegira from their English neighbors. The two Fathers 
extended at different times their wandering labors down the Kennebec 
to Nanrantsouak (Indian Old Point), and even as far as Pentagoet 
(Castine), where, under the patronage of the half Indianized French- 
man, Castine, Father Jacques laid the foundation of a church in 1687. 
The two brothers toiled among the Maine Indians for more than 
twenty years, principally in the villages of the refugees on the St. 
Lawrence.* Their visits to the Kennebec were few and comparatively 
brief. It appears that a chapel was built by them at Old Point; they 
revived the mission that had been closed for thirty years, and pre- 
pared the way for a permanent successor to Father Druillettes, who 
finally came in the remarkable person of Father Sebastian Rale. 

The first war in Maine had been wholly between the natives and 
the; no boundary line of Acadia was involved. The French 
were inactive spectators, harmlessly sympathizing, for national reasons, 
with the Indians. But ere a decade had passed, events were leading 
to a war in which all of the natives of Maine were to be the helpers 
of France in a national struggle. The first provocation for trouble 

* Relation of Father Jacques Bigot. 


was given as usual by the English. It was the rifling by Governor 
Andres of the house of Baron St. Castine at Pentagoet (in the spring 
of 1688), under the pretext that the Penobscot was in the king's 
province, and that Acadia did not extend westward of the St. Croix. 
The haughty governor cared as little for human rights as his royal 
master (James II), whom he fancied he was pleasing by the outrage. 
The deed brought bitter retribution. Castine was a naturalized tribes- 
man, and a personage of unsurpassed eminence among the Penob- 
scots.* He easily aroused his followers to war, and in a few months 
he led them remorselessly against the English settlements. But 
Castine's personal quarrel soon became lost in the greater one between 
his king and William III of England. James II had been driven 
from his throne (1688); fleeing to France in his distress he received 
the aid of Louis XIV. The war that immediately opened extended to 
the French and English possessions in America. In Maine history it 
has been called King William's or the second Indian war. It was a 
series of dreadful massacres and reprisals — largely predatory on the 
part of the Indians, who marshalled by French ofScers, issued in 
bands from Canada to rob, murder or capture the English. Every 
settlement had to be provided with a fortress or defensible place into 
which the inhabitants could quickly gather. Such an one was at 
Pemaquid, garrisoned by Captain Weems and fifteen men; it was sur- 
prised and captured in August, 1689, and the place made desolate; 
another at Berwick was attacked on the 28th of March following, 
when thirty-four persons were slain and many more than that num- 
ber captured; another (Fort Loyal) was at Falmouth (now Portland, on 
the site of the Grand Trunk railroad station); the place was attacked 
May 26, 1690, by a force of five hundred French and Indians; after 
four days the inhabitants were forced to surrender only to be toma- 
hawked, and their mutilated bodies left unburied as prey for the wild 
beasts. These are only instances of the sufferings that were inflicted 
upon the English during a period of ten years. Warriors from all the 
tribes participated. 

It was the policy of the French, when they saw their ancient Acadia 
passing into the possession of the English, to seek to draw into Canada 
through the missionaries the discontented natives of Maine. The 
Kennebecs had been attracted to St. Francis de Sales. The Sacos 
emigrated nearly en masse within one or two years after Philip's war, 
and assembled in Canada near the mouth of the St. Francis river, 
down which from their deserted Saco they had reached the St. Law- 
rence. They were soon gathered into the parish of St. Francis. Their 
warriors, like those of the Kennebecs in the Chaudiere village, were 
utilized by the French to fight both the troublesome Iroquiois and the 

*///j-/(VV of Aidi/ia, by James Hannay. pp. 215-216. 


hated English. It. was for this purpose rather than from a sentiment 
of philanthropy, that French statesmen and Canadian governors had 
sought through the machinery of the church to manipulate the tribes 
of Maine. But many families still clung to the Androscoggin and 
Kennebec. With the design of collecting these fragments and mak- 
ing them useful against the English, the Canadian rulers had encour- 
aged the sending of the Fathers Bigot to the Kennebec to reconnoiter 
for a new mission. 

Thus it was amid the throes of war and for reasons more political 
than religious, that Father Rale was sent to the Kennebec to re- 
occupy the old mission-field of Druillettes. He came in 1693, by the 
well traveled route that had been followed by his predecessor in 
1646; he lingered on the way among the wigwams at Lake Megantic 
•(from Namesokantik — place where there are many fishes), and the 
neighboring waters; in 1695 we find him at Nanrantsouak, which he 
■chose for the center of his field of labors. Already schooled in the 
arts of savage living, he here drew by the persuasives of a trained 
and cultured enthusiast, the remaining families of the shattered tribes 
west of the Penobscot. The history of his mission is the remaining 
history of the Indians on the Kennebec — who from the location of the 
village which he founded, thenceforward bore the Anglicised name 
of Norridgewocks. The Kennebec was again a Canadian parish, and 
a semi-military outpost of New France. Of the three or four Indian 
routes of travel between the St. Lawrence and the Atlantic coast, none 
was more direct or easy than the one up the Chaudiere and down 
the Kennebec; the portage between the waters of the two rivers was 
.sometimes made from an upper tributary of the Chaudiere to one 
•of the Penobscot and from thence to Moosehead lake, but usually from 
Lake Megantic to the nearest stream that runs into Dead river. It 
was by this thoroughfare that the little Catholic village of Nanrant- 
souak maintained its communication with the diocese of Quebec. In 
war it was often the route of the French captains with their trains of 
scarcely more savage and cruel allies. Nanrantsouak was a village 
site of great excellence; the circling river, foam-laden from the wild 
falls above, almost surrounds it; it is in the midst of hundreds of acres 
-of mellow land suitable for corn raising; it was secluded from the 
English, while the Sandy river made it accessible from the Andros- 

The tribal distinctions of the natives of Maine began to dis- 
appear during the common cause against the English; soon after 
the coming of Father Rale the shreds of the tribes that had lingered 
on the Saco and Androscoggin, united with the Kennebecs as the 
Wawenocs had done before. The Penobscots, under the lead of the 
elder and younger Castine, maintained themselves as a tribe and so 


remain to this day. We do not know the nature or extent of Father 
Rale's influence over his people in reference to the war in which he 
found them involved. If he exerted any*it may have been in the 
direction of peace; for on the 11th of August, 1693 (the year of his 
earliest intercourse with the Abenakis), thirteen sagamores appeared 
at Pemaquid and offered the submission of their tribes to the English 
government; among them were Wassabomet, Ketteramogis, Wenob- 
son. and Bomaseen from the Kennebec. The resident Indians were 
ready for peace, but the French, on whom the war pressed less sorely, 
were not; they ignored the treaty which their allies had made; and as 
a part of their endeavor to repossess themiselves of Acadia, which had 
been taken from them by Governor Phipps in 1690, they sent a party 
against the New England settlements in 1694; as Cotton Mather says: 
" What was talked at Quebec in the month of May, must be done at 
Oyster river [in New Hampshire] in the month of July." Several 
dreadful massacres were committed, and all the settlements were 
again filled with horror and fear. 

That Bomaseen, the Kennebec chief, was an accomplice in those 
deeds was never known; but the public exasperation was so great, and 
the possibility of other butcheries so imminent, that the authorities 
felt justified in seizing and imprisoning every prominent or doubtful 
Indian it could lay hands upon. Bomaseen was seized November 19, 
1694, at Pemaquid garrison, whither he had gone with a flag of truce 
in apparent confidence that his professions of regret at the recent 
tragedies would relieve both himself and tribe from blame. He pro- 
tested his innocence, and showed that he felt his arrest to be an act 
of perfidy. Cotton Mather says, " he discovered a more than ordi- 
nary disturbance of mind; his passions foamed and boiled like the 
very waters of the fall of Niagara." The sagamore was immediately 
transported to Boston and there put in prison. The injustice of his 
treatment — hardly ever questioned by dispassionate Englishmen — 
turned his followers back to their French alliance and to a renewal of 
the war from which the treaty at Pemaquid a year before had freed 
them. The Norridgewock warriors returned to the war path, and two 
years later (1696) helped the French to overawe and capture even the 
proud Fort William Henry of Pemaquid, whose walls had been the 
prison of Bomaseen. The French participation in the war closed 
with the treaty of Ryswick in 1697, but the Indians, cherishing new 
as well as old resentments, remained in hostility two years longer. 
The last to desist from their attacks and acquiesce in a treaty with 
the English, were the Kennebecs, whose kidnapped sagamore was 
fretting behind prison bars in Boston. But finally, on the 7th of 
January, 1799, at Mare point (in Brunswick) Moxus and his lieuten- 
ants of the Kennebec, united with the sachems of the other tribes in 


humble submission to King- William III. Bomaseen was then and 
there restored to his people, and the latter returned as many of their 
English captives as Avere able to make the terrible journey in the cold 
and snow of winter from Nanrantsouak to Casco bay. Little had 
been accomplished between France and England, for Acadia reverted 
by treaty to the former, while the Indians were left in reduced num- 
bers and more forlorn and miserable than before. 

The treaty of Mare point was a truce, that lasted only until another 
war broke out between England and France. So subtle were the re- 
lations of France with its allies in the new world that a royal wish 
expressed in the Tuilleries could reach the low-browed savages at their 
camp fires, and excite them into the frenzy of the war dance. The 
exiled James II died September 16, 1701, leaving a son — nicknamed 
the Pretender — to be placed by the power of France if possible on the 
throne. William III died March 8. 1702; Anne, the Protestant daugh- 
ter of James, was given the English crown; she immediately declared 
war against France, and asserted sovereignty over Acadia to the St. 
Croix. The inevitable result of another war in America followed. 
The Indians on the Kennebec were again the supple instruments of 
France. Father Rale had lived in companionship with them for ten 
years — ministering to their ailments of sickness and wounds, attach- 
ing them to his person and faith, and trying ever to better their 
earthly condition and save their souls. His influence over them was 
great; he followed and yet he led them — sometimes yielding to their 
inconstant humors, yet always holding them loyal to France and con- 
formable to the wishes of the Canadian governors. 

The warlike premonitions that followed the crowning of Queen 
Anne, led the governor (Joseph Dudley) of Massachusetts to solicit a 
personal conference with the Maine tribes, to renew the last treaty 
(of Mare point). The Indians responded with alacrity, and assembled 
in large numbers at Casco (now Portland), June 20, 1703, to meet the 
governor and his suite. It was agreed with great ceremony that peace 
should continue (in the language of Bomaseen) " so long as the sun 
and moon shall endure." Moxus and a new chief named Captain 
Sam, with Bomaseen, were of the delegation from Nanrantsouak. 
Father Rale was present, but stayed in the background until his 
identity was accidentally discovered by the governor, who then showed 
signs of annoyance that the Indians should have in their interest a 
diplomat as watchful and suspicious as himself. But the treaty, 
though it was celebrated with more pomp than any .similar one ever 
made in Maine, could not long be kept. The pressure of French poli- 
tics was too strong for the morally weak Indian to resist. In less than 
two months after the treaty was made, the dogs of war were let loose 
from Canada, and stealing through Maine with increasing numbers, 


they rushed upon the English settlements for booty and scalps. This 
was the beginning of Queen Anne's or the third Indian war in Maine. 
It was instigated m Canada and carried on by the French with such 
aid as their Indian allies would give them. 

It was a war of many revolting features. In the winter of 1705, 
an English party of 270 men under Colonel Hilton went on snow- 
shoes to Nanrantsouak, but the village was deserted. The " large 
chapel with a vestry at the end of it," which Father Rale had built for 
his people, was set on fire and destroyed. At Casco, in January, 1707, 
the same officer with two hundred men, killed four Indians and cap- 
tured a squaw and child, whereupon the woman, to save her own life, 
conducted the party to a camp of eighteen sleeping Indians, seventeen 
of whom they killed. The savages themselves could not have been 
guilty of a more wanton stroke of butchery. It was a war of exter- 
mination. The government offered a bounty for scalps. In 1710 
Colonel Walton with 170 men, surprised a company of Indians on the 
clam beds at the mouth of the Kennebec; Arruawikwabemt, a Nor- 
ridgewock sachem, was captured; Penhallow says he was " an active, 
bold fellow, and one of unbounded spirit; for when they asked several 
questions he made no reply, and when they threatened him with 
death, he laughed at it with contempt; upon which they delivered 
him up unto our friend Indians [Mohawks], who soon became his 
executioners."* The French are known to have barbarousl}' surren- 
dered English captives to a similar fate. But in the dreadful chapter 
of this ten years' war, one act of Indian compassion shines through 
the smoke and gloom of ruined settlements, and makes us grateful to 
the grim warrior whose heart is shown to have been human and could 
be touched with pity for his enemy's suffering child. It was in 1706 
that Rebekah Taylor was made captive by a huge savage, who, while 
making the journey to Canada to sell her for a French ransom, be- 
came enraged at her exhaustion, and untying his girdle from his body 
wound it around her neck and hung her to a tree; the weight of the 
captive broke the cord; the fiend in his diabolism was again hoisting 
his victim to the limb, when Bomaseen, the sachem of the Kennebecs, 
came by chance upon the scene, and by overawing the executioner, 
prevented the consummation of the tragedy. Rebekah was afterward 
returned to her friends, and her own lips related the story of her 
deliverance, f 

After ten years, England and France settled their dispute by the 
treaty of Utrecht (March 30, 1713), in which it was agreed that 
" Acadia with its ancient boundaries . . are resigned and made 
over to the crown of Great Britain forever." Thus the contest for 

* History of the Wars of New England. By Samuel Penhallow, pp. 65-66. 

\ Idem, p. 47. 


Acadia that was begun with bloodshed at St. Sauveur just one hun- 
dred years before (1613) was ended. Four months after the treaty of 
Utrecht, the Indians of Maine sent their sachems to Portsmouth, 
-where a treaty was made with the provincial government July 13, 
1713; it was signed in behalf of the Kennebecs with the respective 
totem characters of Warrakansit, Bomaseen and Wedaranaquin. 
Moxus was present, but for some reason did not place his hand to the 


Settlements at Sagadahoc— Pejepscot Land Company.— Conference at Aitow- 
sic. — Wiwurna's Anger.— Fort Richmond built.— Father Rale with an Indian 
Embassy at Arrowsic— First Attempt to seize Father Rale.— Warriors make 
Captures at Merrymeeting. — Captain Sam slain. — Harmon's Massacre. — War 
declared.— Arrowsic burned.— Bounty of $1,000 for Father Rale.— Second 
Attempt to Capture him.— Mohawks invited.— Skirmish above Fort Rich- 
mond. — Third Attempt to Capture Father Rale. 

The conquest of Acadia and the treaty of Portsmouth gave confi- 
dence to New England that her Indian troubles were ended. As a 
result the abandoned frontier settlements were revived and new ones 
begun. Nowhere were the happy effects of peace manifested more 
strongly than in Maine, where the suffering and desolation had been 
the greatest. The lower Kennebec (or Sagadahoc) was perhaps the 
first devastated region that rang to the cheery echoes of returning 
civilization. The heirs and assigns of early proprietors came to claim 
their estates. John Watts, whose wife (as granddaughter of Captain 
Lake, .slain in Philip's war) inherited a good part of the island of 
Arrowsic, came to the Kennebec in 1714, and settled at a place now 
called Butler's cove; he built a fine dwelling and a defensible house 
or fort, and by the next year had drawn hither fifteen families. Soon 
following the Watts enterprise were various others in the same 
region, and in 1716, Georgetown was incorporated. The heirs and 
assigns of other land claimants through ancient Indian deeds, organ- 
ized themselves into the Pejepscot Company, to grasp with the 
strength of a giant's hands their vague heritage on the Androscoggin. 
This territory, like that of the lower Kennebec, had suddenly become 
of great prospective value by the treaties of Utrecht and Portsmouth. 
It was, however, all-important to the land company that the Indians 
should be kept peaceable. To learn their temper and test their 
amiability the device of a conference between them and the governor 
was hit upon. 

The suggestion met with official favor, and in the summer of 1717, 
■Governor Shute attended by his councilors and other important gen- 


tlemen, sailed from Boston to the Kennebec in the royal ship The 
Squirrel. The gallant ship, with her colors gaily flying, arrived on 
the morning of August 9th opposite the Watts settlement and there 
dropped anchor. The Indians were already at their rendezvous on 
Patteshall's island. They sent a message asking his excellency when 
it would be his pleasure for them to attend him; he replied at three 
o'clock that afternoon, " when he would order the Union flag to be 
displayed at the tent erected near Mr. Watts, his house," and ordered 
a British flag to be delivered to the Indians " for them to wear when 
they came, in token of their subjection to his majesty King George " I; 
" at the time appointed, the flag being set up, the Indians forthwith 
came over, with the British flag in their headmost canoe." Eight 
sagamores filed up the bank to the great tent where the governor and 
attendants had assembled to receive them. They " made their rever- 
ence to the governor, who was pleased to give them his hand." John 
Gyles and Samuel Jordan were sv/orn as interpreters; the governor 
addressed the interpreters and they repeated his remarks in the 
Indian tongue to the sachems. In his opening speech the governor 
said that he was glad to find so many of them in health; since the 
good treaty of Portsmouth King George had happily ascended the 
throne and by his gracious command they were favored with the 
present interview; France was at peace with him and desired his 
friendship; the Indians were his subjects like the English, and they 
must not hearken to any contrary insinuation; they would always find 
themselves safest under the government of Great Britain; he would 
gladly have them of the same religion as King George and the Eng- 
lish, and therefore would immediately give them a Protestant mission- 
ary and in a little while a schoolmaster to teach their children; he 
naively remarked that the English settlements lately made in the 
eastern parts had been promoted partly for the benefit of the Indians, 
and that he had given strict orders to the English to be very just and 
kind to them; if any wrong was done them it should be reported to 
his officers, and he would see that it was redressed; he wished them 
to look upon the English government in New England as their great 
and safe shelter; he took in his hands two copies of the holy Bible, 
one printed in English and the other in the Apostle Eliot's transla- 
tion, and gave them to the chiefs for use by their new minister, ]SIr. 
Baxter, whenever they desired to be taught. 

Wiwurna was the Indian spokesman; he arose from his seat and 
responded to the courtly governor in uncultured but appropriate 
phrase. His people, he said, " were glad of the opportunity to wait 
upon the governor; they ratified all previous treaties; they hoped all 
hard thoughts would be laid aside between the English and them- 
selves, so that amity might be hearty; but other governors had told 


them that thej' were under no government but their own; they would 
be obedient to King George if they liked the terms made to them — 
if they were not molested in their lands; if any wrong happened to 
them they would not avenge themselves, but apply to the governor 
for redress; this place [Arrowsic] was formerly settled and was then 
being settled by their permission, but they desired there be no more 
settlements made; it was said at Casco treaty [1713] that no more forts 
should be made; they would be pleased with King George if there 
was never a fort in the eastern parts; they were willing the English 
should possess all they have occupied except forts; they did not wish 
to change their ministers or their religion; God had already given 
them teaching; they did not understand how their lands had been 
purchased — what had been alienated was by gift only." 

The governor thereupon triumphantly exhibited the so-called deed 
of sale of lands on the Kennebec and Androscoggin rivers, made by 
six sagamores July 7, 1684, on which the Pejepscot Company based 
their claim. The Indians could have as easily understood the docu- 
ment if it had been written in Greek; it was, however, to their appre- 
hension possessed of a mysterious power which they could not ques- 
tion: they knew not how to meet such a form of argument; they were 
dazed and dumfounded; the plot to usurp their lands by the use of 
dingy papers, and fence them with forts was revealed. The angered 
chiefs sprang to their feet, and without obeisance sullenly withdrew 
from the audience tent, leaving in disdain their English flag and the 
inexorable but discomfited governor. In a few hours they returned 
from their camp with a letter to his ex- ^^ /9 .^ m a/7-^^ 

cellency from Father Rale, that quoted S^e^. ^^i„.^L_ ^^-f 
the French king as saying he had not 

given to the English by the cession of Acadia any of the Indians' land, 
and that he was ready to succor the Indians if their lands were en- 
croached upon. It was now the governor's turn to be angry, as he 
saw that the sachems had a friend who was able to cope with him in 
Indian diplomacy; he scornfully threw' the letter aside and made 
preparations to depart for home. 

The next morning he had entered into his ship and ordered the 
sails to be loosed, when two Indians hastily came alongside in a canoe 
and climbed on board; they apologized for the unpleasant behavior 
of the sachems, and begged that the parley might be reopened. The 
governor said he would grant the request if the sachems would aban- 
don " their unreasonable pretensions to the English lands, and com- 
plied with what he had said, but not otherwise;" to this condition the 
messengers agreed, and asked that the deserted flag be given again 
to decorate the Indian embassy. At six o'clock in the evening the 
sachems and principal men once more crossed the river from their 


island camp to Arrowsic and sat down in council. Querebennit was 
their speaker in place of the too spirited Wiwurna, who had been dis- 
gracefully left at camp, in courtesy to the English. The Indians' de- 
sire for peace was overmastering; it made them capable of submitting 
to any terms which the English might dictate; they did not again 
venture to oppose the land scheme or the forts, but yielded in their 
hopelessness to such an agreement as the governor was pleased to 
have prepared, when " they all readily and without any objection 
consented to the whole." * Then all the chief Indians shook hands 
with the governor, who made them presents of food and ammunition; 
and the young men came over from the island and danced before the 
assembly in honor of the occasion. 

This so-called treaty of Arrowsic exacted the acknowledgment that 
the English might enjoy both the lands which they formerly pos- 
sessed, " and all others which they had obtained a right unto " — leav- 
ing the English to decide that they were entitled to all territory that 
was ever included in pretended sales by debauched and tribeless saga- 
mores. The Pejepscot people went resolutely forward to develop 
their property; timber cutters, mill builders and settlers flocked 
rapidly to Georgetown and the Androscoggin: Robert Temple brought 
five ship-loads of people from the north of Ireland to the Kennebec; 
settlements multiplied, and each one in fear of the Indians had its 
fort or place of possible refuge. In the guise of a trading house for 
the accommodation of the Indians, the government built Fort Rich- 
mond in 1718-19 (opposite the head of Swan island — the present town 
of Perkins); it was really built for the protection of the Pejepscot 
frontier. Fort George was built about the same time at Brunswick, 
for the same purpose. Before 1720 fifteen public forts and many more 
private ones had risen between Kittery and Pemaquid. The Indians 
could see in the enterprise of the white men only trouble and distress 
for themselves; their game was stampeded, their fishing places 
usurped, and their camping grounds plowed over. But the forts were 
peculiarly hateful to them; the frowning walls were proof against 
their tiny artillery, and the tactics of stealth and ambuscade that ex- 
celled in forest warfare, failed utterly before fortifications. Every 
new fort, therefore, was to them another menace and exasperation; it 
meant additional conquest of their territory. 

The treaty of Arrowsic had not been the cordial act of the Indians: 
* This submission was signed (August 13) by the following named Kennebec 
Indians: Moxus, Bomaseen, Captain Sam, Nagucawen, Summehawis, Wegwaru- 
menet, Terramuggus, Nudggumboit, Abissanehraw, Umguinnawas, Awohaway, 
Paquaharet and Csesar. It was also signed by Sabatus and Sam Humphries of 
the Androscoggins; Lerebenuit, Ohanumbames and Segunki of the Penobscots; 
and Adewando and Scawesco of the Peqwakets. Wiwurna's name does not ap- 
pear. For treaty entire, see Article XII, Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., pp. 361-37.5. 


the land company through the governor had overawed the sachems 
and extorted assent to conditions whicli they abhorred. The unhesi- 
tating appropriation of the disputed lands, and the blockading of the 
rivers above them with forts, were proceedings which the weaker side 
could not endure with composttre. There soon began to be signs of 
irritation. The government, while claiming the Indians to be .sub- 
jects of the king equally with the English, felt called to favor and 
protect only the latter; and in 1720 it sent two hundred .soldiers to 
guard the frontier of Maine. In May, 1721, as reparation for cattle 
killing and other misdeeds by some vagabond Indians, the Kennebecs 
promised the English two hundred beaver skins, and gave in hand 
four comrades as hostages; the hostages were sent to Boston and kept 
as prisoners. It is apparent that Father Rale labored indefatigably 
to save to his people the lands which in his view the English had un- 
justly seized. One result of his efforts was the awakening in Canada 
of a lively interest in his cause. In the summer of 1721, with a Cana- 
dian official named Crozen and Father de la Chasse of the Penobscot 
mission, he organized a grand embassy- composed of delegations from 
the villages of St. Francis, Becancourt, Penobscot and Norridgewock, 
to remonstrate with the English, and as Governor Vaudreuil of 
Canada said, " dare let them know that they will have to deal with 
other tribes than the one at Norridgewock if they continue their en- 

On the first day of August, the startled inhabitants of Arrowsic 
and vicinity beheld approaching with the tide a fleet of ninety canoes 
filled with stalwart Indians and two or three pale faces; two of the 
latter wore the conspicuous habit of the Jesuits. The French flag 
was flying in the foremost canoe. The mysterious flotilla landed on 
Patteshall's island, and soon sent a message to the captain of the 
Watts garri.son, inviting him to an interview; that officer, through 
fear, refused to the river, whereupon the Indians launched their 
canoes and paddled to Arrowsic, led by Fathers Rale and de la Chasse 
and Monsieur Crozen. They respectfully sought the English repre- 
sentative, who, with trepidation, came forth from the fort to receive 
them. The details of this conference were not preserved. It was an 
occasion of great moment, and had been planned with infinite labor 
as a last appeal before a resort to arms, yet only a passing record was 
made of it. The Indians presented in the names of all the tribes a 
manifesto addres.sed to Governor Shute, warning the settlers to re- 
move in three weeks, else the warriors would come and kill them, 
burn their houses and eat their cattle, adding — " Englishmen have 
taken away the lands which the great God gave to our fathers and to 
us." The deputation, having thus given according to ancient Indian 
custom due notice of war, retired peacefully. 


The writing to the governor, with an account of its delivery at 
Georgetown, was immediately forwarded to Boston, where it excited 
great alarm. The response was prompt and vigorous. The general 
court on August 23d ordered the equipment of three hundred men to 
prosecute the eastern Indians for the crime of rebellion; it demanded 
that they forthwith deliver to the English Father Rale and any other 
Jesuit who might be among them; if the tribes neglected to so purge 
themselves, Indians were to be seized indiscriminately and imprisoned 
at Boston. Under this order, Castine, the unresisting chief of the 
Penobscots, was taken captive soon after his visit to Arrowsic with the 
great embassy. It was a time of great public unrest, and many cruel 
imprudencies were committed. In November (1721) the general 
court resolved upon the removal of Father Rale, who it assumed was 
the mainspring of all the portending trouble. In December, after the 
streams had frozen over. Colonel Westbrook led a battalion of 230 men 
on snow-shoes up the Kennebec to Nanrantsouak, with orders to make 
the priest a prisoner. When the party after a laborious journey had 
reached the village, the leader was chagrined to find the missionary's 
dwelling deserted and the intended captive hiding in the mazes of the 
forest. In his hasty flight Father Rale had left his books and papers 
and humble treasures unconcealed. These were all summarily seized 
and carried away as booty. Among them was the Abenakis diction- 
ary in manuscript, which had been compiled with great care and labor 
by the industrious Father as an aid in his pastoral work; also the 
curious " strong box," divided and subdivided into compartments, in 
which the owner kept the sacred emblems of the church while roving 
with his people; a letter in French from the Canadian governor, en- 
couraging the Norridgewocks in their contest with " those who would 
drive them from their native country," was found, and interpreted as 
rank treason in him who received it. 

This attempt to kidnap Father Rale with the accompanying rob- 
bery, was felt by the Indians as a blow on themselves, and a cause for 
war. Up to that hour they had committed no like act against the 
English. The mischiefs by hungry poachers had been compounded 
with beaver skins and hostages still languishing in prison. The tribe 
was now bitterly incensed. The government itself, fearing that it 
had been hasty, suddenly softened, and tried the policy of pacification. 
Luckily no blood had been shed to make such a plan seem hopeless. 
So a few weeks after the rifling of Rale's hut, the governor sent a 
present to Bomaseen and a proposal to the tribe for a conference; both 
were rejected with derision. On the 13lh of June following, sixty 
warriors in twenty canoes, descended to Merrymeeting bay, and rang- 
ing the northern shore took captive nine English families; after 
selecting five of the principal men as indemnities for the four Indians 


held as hostages in Boston, they released the others uninjured. A few 
days later, the Norridgewock chief, Captain Sam, with five followers, 
boarded a fishing smack off Damariscove, and in revenge for some 
English act, lashed the captain and crew to the rigging, and proceeded 
to flog them; breaking from their bonds, the fishermen turned furiously 
on their tormentors, killing two and pitching one overboard. We 
hear no more of Captain Sam's exploits, and he was probably one of 
the slain. 

Fort St. George (Thomaston) was the next place of hostile demon- 
stration. About the first of July Fort George (Brunswick) was at- 
tacked, and the village that had risen from the conflict of the Pejep- 
scot company, was burned to ashes. Thereupon the elated enemy 
went down to Merrymeeting, to enjoy their plunder and celebrate 
their success with demoniacal orgies. An English captive — Moses 
Eaton of Salisbury — appears to have been on this occasion the 
wretched victim of death torture. The raid on Brunswick aroused 
the people on the neighboring Kennebec; Captain John Harmon and 
thirty-four other soldiers hastily started in boats from one of the gar- 
risons to patrol the waters of the Kennebec. While scouting in the 
night they saw the gleam of a waning fire near the shore of Merry- 
meeting bay; while landing in the darkness to learn its origin they 
discovered eleven canoes; then they stumbled upon the recumbent 
bodies of about a score of savages who, in their exhaustion from their 
revelry, were dead in sleep. "••■ It was easy to slay them all in their 
helplessness, and the deed was quickly done. Harmon and his men 
carried away the guns of fifteen warriors as trophies of their ten min- 
utes' work. They found the mutilated body of Moses Eaton, and gave 
it respectful burial. The operations of the Pejepscot proprietors had 
incited a similar land on the ancient Muscongus patent, 
eastward, and in 1719-20, a fort was built by the Twenty Associates 
at Thomaston on the St. George river. The Penobscots looked upon 
St. George fort with the same feeling of indignation that the Kenne- 
becs did the forts on their own lands. Two or three days after the 
burning of Brunswick, a party of two hundred Indians surrounded 
Fort St. George; they burned a sloop, killed one man and took six 

The conciliatory policy— adopted too late— could not undo the 
lamentable effects of earlier intolerance and the attempted capture of 
Father Rale. After releasing the four hostages and sending them to 
their tribe as possible emissaries of peace, the truth began to dawn 
upon the authorities that they had indeed, as prophesied by Vaudreuil 
in his letter to Rale, "other tribes than the Norridgewocks to deal 

* Tradition says this traged)^ was at Somerset point on Merrymeeting bay, 
and the late Mr. John McKeen so locates. Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. Ill, pp. 


with." All the tribes eastward of the Merrimac had listened to the 
story of the Norridgewocks and were developing warriors for their 
cause. Many in the St. Francis and Becancourt villages were of the 
same blood and naturally looked upon the grievances of the Kenne- 
becs as their own. There were many reflective people who believed 
that the Indians — especially the Kennebecs — had been maltreated, 
and that the prevailing troubles were only the fruitage of injustice 
and broken promises. This sentiment had influenced the government 
in its later policy, but after the destruction of Pejepscot (Brunswick) 
and the outrages at St. George, there seemed to be no reason to hope 
longer for reconciliation. 

On the 26th of July, 1722, Governor Shute made proclamation, 
declaring the eastern Indians (those of Maine, New Brunswick and 
Nova Scotia), " with their confederates to be robbers, traitors and 
enemies to the King;" the legislature promptly provided money to 
pay an army of a thousand men, and elaborated a scale of bounties 
for Indian scalps, with a view to equity whether torn off by a duly 
enlisted and paid soldier, or by a volunteer civilian. The theater of 
war extended from New Hampshire to Nova Scotia; in distributing 
its forces the government stationed 25 men at Arrowsic, and 25 at 
Richmond fort; 400 were appointed to range by land or water between 
the Kennebec and Penobscot; 10 were placed at Maquoit, 20 at North 
Yarmouth, 30 at Falmouth (Portland), and 100 at York. 

On the morning of the 10th of September, thirteen months after 
the great deputation had delivered its message at the Arrowsic garri- 
son, a swarm of stranger Indians, estimated to number between four 
and five hundred, poured from the eastward upon the shores of George- 
town, in hostile array. Fortunately the inhabitants got timely warn- 
ing and all safely reached the shelter of the fort; but presently thirty- 
seven of their dwellings were in flames, and most of their cattle 
slaughtered for food. The accounts say that one Englishman — Samuel 
Brookings — was killed in the fort by a bullet shot by an Indian 
marksman through a port-hole. A similar body of Indians — and 
probably the same one — had appeared before St. George fort August 
29th, and beseiged it without success for twelve days. In their dread 
of fortifications, they did not assail Arrowsic garrison, but after feast- 
ing sufficiently on their plunder, suddenly disappeared in the night; 
some paddled up the Kennebec; where, after mortally wounding Cap- 
tain Stratton of the province sloop, they menaced Fort Richmond as 
they scowlingly passed by it on their way to Norridgewock and Canada. 

The settling of the Pejepscot lands was fatally checked by these 
Indian forays. The Scotch-Irish immigrants, brought by hundreds in 
the ships of Robert Temple, and located on the shores of Merrymeet- 
ing bay, took flight to New Hampshire and Pennsylvania, and save 


the forts at Richmond and Brunswick, the region was again a soli- 
tude. Father Rale was conceived by the English to be the powerful 
genius whose malign influence had brought all the disaster and rum. 
The government finally announced a special reward of two hundred 
pounds ($1,000) for his body dead or alive. Permission had been given 
by the legislature for such an expenditure of money two years before. 
The act was in harmony with the stern policy shown in extravagant 
rewards for Indian scalps. With the allurements before them of 
money and glory, 120 men, led by Captain Harmon, undertook the 
enterprise of removing Father Rale in the winter of 1723. The party 
started from Fort George (Brunswick) for Nanrantsouak, on the 6th 
of February, equipped with arms, rations and snow-shoes — taking as 
a measure of secrecy the unfrequented route via the Androscoggin 
and Sandy rivers. After accomplishing about half of the journey, the 
party was stopped by a thaw that softened the snow and flushed the 
rivers, and made further advance impos.sible. The expedition was a 
complete failure. The following summer the authorities invited a 
delegation of Mohawks to Boston, and tempted them with bribes ($500 
a scalp) to fall upon the Indians of Maine, and hunt them down as in 
former times; but now the Iroquiois were at peace with their old ene- 
mies and concluded as a tribe not to take up the white man's quarrel, 
but allowed their young men to sell their services if they so wished. 
Only a few entered into public service. Two were assigned to Fort 
Richmond, and soon after arriving there were sent by Captain Heath 
on a scout with three soldiers under an ensign named Colby. The 
party had gone less than a league, when the Mohawks said they 
smelt fire, and refused to expose themselves further unless reinforced; 
a messenger was hastily sent back to the fort, who returned with thir- 
teen men; the whole party presently meeting thirty Indians killed 
two and drove the others to their canoes in so much haste that they 
left their packs; Colby was slain and two of his men wounded. "•■■ This 
skirmish must have occurred in the vicinity of the place that is now 
South Gardiner. The two Mohawks were by their first experience 
sickened of war, and returned ingloriously to Boston. 

The government, worried by the distresses of the people, used 
every expedient to annihilate the stealthy and capricious enemy. A 
month's seige of Fort St. George (on St. George's river), begun Decem- 
ber 5, 1723, provoked the authorities to make another attempt to take 
Father Rale. Accordingly a special party was equipped to march to 
Nanrantsouak; it was led by Captain Moulton, in mid-winter, on snow- 
shoes, up the Kennebec. On reaching the village the soldiers found 
the huts empty and the snow untracked. The missionary, aware that 
a price had been offered from the public treasury for his head, had 

*W\\\\ams,o-a's History of Afaine, Vol. II, p. 133. 


gone with his people for the winter to a safer place. His hut was 
again ransacked for trophies, which consisted of a few books and 
papers and another letter from the Canadian governor, exhorting him 
" to push on the Indians with all zeal against the English." No in- 
jury was done to the chapel or dwellings, in the hope that the for- 
bearance might be imitated by the owners when making similar in- 


Indian Assassinations. — Massacre on the St. George. — Fourth Expedition to 
Nanrantsouak. — Bomaseen and Family surprised. — Daughter and Father 
killed. — The Indian Village surprised.— Massacre of the Inhabitants.— Father 
Rale killed at the Mission-cross. — His Burial. — Monument over his Grave. — 
Dispersion of his Flock to Canada.— Treaty of Falmouth.— Father DeSirenne 
at Nanrantsouak.— The French Monarch's Gift.— Final Extinguishment of 
the Mission. 

In the spring of 1724 the Indians resumed their warfare with 
increased virulence. On the 17th of April they shot William Mitchell 
at Scarboro', and led his two boys captives to Nanrantsouak; John 
Felt, William Wormwell and Ebenezer Lewis were killed while at 
work in a saw mill on the Kennebec. On the 24th of April Captain 
Josiah Winslow and seventeen men fell into an Indian ambush on St. 
George river, a few miles below their fort, and all except four were 
killed. Captain Winslow's death was lamented throughout New Eng- 
land. He was a great-grandson of Edward Winslow, who came in 
the Mayfloivcr, and the great-grandnephew of John Winslow, whom the 
patient reader of these pages has seen as the friend of Father Druillettes 
at the Cushnoc trading house; his distinguished lineage, character and 
acquirements gave great prominence to the tragedy in which he 
bravely perished. This massacre was the burning memory that 
nerved the hearts and steeled the sensibilities of men for the aveng- 
ing blow that was soon to follow, and which the savages themselves 
could not have given with less mercy. 

Three expeditions had been sent forth expressly to capture or 
slay Father Rale. The errand was still unperformed; it had always 
been attempted in the winter, when the snow might show the tracks 
of lurking enemies, and the leafless forest could less securely hide the 
dreaded ambuscade. It was determined to make a fourth attempt in 
the summer time, and brave all increased perils. Thirty persons had 
been killed or captured in Maine since early spring; the exigency was 
great and popular vengeance could be appeased only by the blood of 
Father Rale. Ca,ptain Moulton, who had once been to Nanrantsouak 
and knew its topography, was selected to go again; his associate was 


Captain Harmon, whom we saw one night at Somerset point, and later 
on a futile march up the Androscoggin; there were two other captains 
— Bourne and Beane — and a total force of 208 men. Two or three 
decorated Mohawks were welcomed by the company with their free- 
lances. Appropriately enough. Fort Richmond, in whose erection 
Father Rale had presaged the doom of his flock, was the rendezvous 
of the companies on their way to the fated village. The troops em- 
barked at the fort landing in seventeen whaleboats, on the 19th of 
August, and pulled lu.stily for Teconnet, 36 miles, where they arrived 
the next day; there the boats were tethered and forty men detailed 
to guard them and the surplus stores. 

On the 21st, the main force in light marching order, struck into 
the forest by the Indian trail for Nanrantsouak, twenty miles distant. 
Before night the advance surprised a solitary family of three persons, 
living in fancied security near the site of the present village of South 
Norridgewock. There was a crash of musketry in the thicket and an 
Indian maiden fell writhing in death agonies on the reddened moss. 
The frantic mother fell an easy captive by the side of her dying child. 
The father, lithe and fleet-footed, started to carry warning to the dis- 
tant village; the soldiers pursued him desperately, for the success of 
the expedition now depended on his fall. He finally rushed into the 
river at a fording place to cross to the other side, a league below Nan- 
rantsouak; he had reached an island-l^dge in the channel, when in 
the twilight the keen-eyed marksmen on the shore behind him riddled 
his panting body through and through with bullets.* So died Boma- 
seen, the noted chief, while trying to escape to his village with the 
tidings that would have saved it. By fate he was a savage, unblessed 
with the endowments which his Maker gives so freely to men of 
another race, but he bravely yielded his humble life for his lowly sub- 
jects in their defense of ancestral soil — a cause which enlightened 
Christendom always applauds among its own people. The place where 
he was killed now bears the name of Bomaseen rips. The widowed 
squaw, terrorized by her captors, told them of the condition of Nan- 
rantsouak, and of a route by which the village could be reached with 
the utmost secrecy. 

So little was recorded that related to the details of this expedition, 
that it is not known to a certainty where the soldiers crossed the river, 
or from what direction they approached the village. It is passing 

*Such was the manner of Bomaseen's death according to local tradition. 
There does not seem to be any other authority worth following-. Penhallow, in 
his history of the Indian wars, makes a geographical jumble; he says nonsensi- 
cally that afteV the troops " landed at Ticonic they met with Bomaseen at Bruns- 
wick, whom they shot in the river," p. 102. That author was living at the time 
and could easily have been more accurate in his statement of fact in spite of his 
CDnventional animosity. 


Strange that no personal diary or adequate narrative of a participant 
was ever given to the world. The accounts which we have are slight 
and vague and even contradictory in some particulars. It is probable 
the troops forded the river in the shallow water at the place where the 
chief was shot; then leaving the intervale and moving stealthily west- 
ward on the high land, a mile or two from the river, they reached a 
spot a little after noon on the 22d where they could overlook the vil- 
lage of huts that curved like a crescent, conforming to the bending 
river, on the plain below. The forces were then prepared for action. 
Captain Harmon led off a company in the direction of an imaginary 
camp, whose smoke it was fancied could be seen rising in the hazy 
distance. Captain Moulton moved his force of one hundred men 
directly toward the village; when near it he stationed two detach- 
ments in ambush and pushed forward another as a storming party. 
As the latter issued from the thickets on the double-quick into the vil- 
lage clearing, they saw their first Indian, who, raising the death yell, 
sprang for his weapons. 

The village, thus startled from its sluggish siesta of a summer 
day, was at once in a state of panic; the people rushed out of their 
huts in terror and dismay; the warriors seized their guns and fired 
them wildly. The soldiers advanced in determined ranks, and when 
close upon the bark-walled wigwams and distracted people poured 
into them volley after volley indiscriminately. The helpless survivors 
scattered for the shelter of the woods, and in their flight encountered 
the murderous ambuscades that had been placed to anticipate them. 
At the first onset. Father Rale, aroused by the rumult, ran forth from 
his dwelling to the place of the village cross, perhaps in the hope that 
his efforts might tend to allay the conflict or mitigate its cruelties. A 
few terror stricken followers had gathered about him, as if to shield 
and to be miraculously shielded by his beloved person, when the 
soldiers, catching sight of his priestly dress, and recognizing him as 
the person on whom the hate of all New England was concentrated, 
raised a hue and cry for his destruction; and selecting his breast as a 
target, sent forth a shower of bullets that laid him lifeless by the mis- 
sion cross which his own hands had raised.* Seven of his neophytes 

* There is another version of the story of the kilHng of Father Rale. It is to 
the effect that a son-in-law of Captain Harmon, named Richard Jacques, discov- 
ered the missionary firing from a wigwam on the soldiers, whereupon he broke 
down the door and shot him dead. If this be true we must conclude that the 
Father was not very efficient with a musket, for we are not told that any soldier 
was seriously disabled; and we must also conclude that his mutilated body was 
considerately dragged out of doors to save cremation when the village was 
burned. The truth of the wigwam story was denied at the time. Charlevoix, 
History of New France, pp. 130,122; Williamson's History of Maine, pp. 129-132; 
Life of Sebastian Rale, by Convers Francis, D.D., pp. 311-322 (in Sparks' Ameri- 
can Biography, Vol. VII). As to the scalping of the body, see FenAallow's Indian 


fell beside him; all the others fled from the village and the slaughter- 
tempest was over. Thirty Indian men, women and children lay dead, 
and half as many more were hobbling into the thickets with wounds. 
Not an Englishman had been hurt; one of the Mohawks was killed, 
but it may be an open question whether his dusky hue did not make 
him the accidental victim of some excited soldier. 

The purpose of the expedition had been accomplished; it only re- 
mained for the victors to enjoy their triumph and prepare to return 
home. Captain Harmon and his men returned before evening from 
their barren reconnoissance, and the reassembled companies passed 
the night in the village. The next morning, loading themselves with 
all the articles of worth (including Father Rale's gray and blood- 
stained scalp, which had a high commercial value in Boston, and the 
scalps of the other dead), the soldiers started on their return to Fort 
Richmond, leaving devastated Nanrantsouak rising in smoke and 
crackling flames behind them. They took with them the two Mitchell 
boys, who had been captured at Scarboro', and one other rescued pris- 
oner. The retirement of the soldiers was noted by the fugitives hid- 
ing in the surrounding forest, who soon returned to the ruins to look 
for their massacred friends. We are told by Charlevoix that they first 
sought the body of their missionary, and prepared it for sepulture 
-with pathetic tears and kisses, and that they buried it where the church 
altar had stood. The cassock which he had worn was too frayed and 
bedraggled for the soldiers to care for; they threw it away, and it was 
saved by the Indians and carried to Quebec as a precious relic. The 
chapel bell was taken from the ashes by an Indian boy and hid; he 
never would reveal the place of its concealment, saying, " May be 
Indian want it some time;" and the secret died with him. Many years 
after it was accidentally discovered by a woodman in the hollow of an 
ancient pine tree.* 

The grave of Father Rale was never forgotten — but was always 

IVars, p. 103; see £ariy Settlements at Sagadahoc, by John McKeen, in Me. Hist. 
Soc. Coll., Vol. Ill, p. 318; Abbot's History of Maine, pp. 313-316; Drake's Book 
of the Indians, book III, p. 119; History of Norridgewock, by William Allen. Rev. 
Jonathan G«-eenleaf, a Congregational minister of Wells, writing in 1821 (nearly 
a century after the death of Father Rale) says of him: " The fact of his having 
devoted his superior talents to the instruction of the rude children of the wilder- 
ness; consenting to spend his days in the depths of the forest, in unrepining con- 
formity to savage customs, and modes of life; enduring such privations, hard- 
ships, and fatigues as he did by night and day in the discharge of his mission, 
proves him to have been a very superior man, and well entitled to the admira- 
tion of sM."— Ecclesiastical Sketches, Maine, 1821, pp. 23;i-4. 

* This bell, together with the "strong box" taken by Westbrook in 1721, 
and a crucifix found in the soil within a few years by a lad, and preserved by 
the Hon. A. R. Bixby of Skowhegan, are now in the rooms of the Maine Histori- 
cal Society, Portland. 


kept green — so long as any of the tribe haunted the river. It was 
first marked by a wooden cross — perhaps by the one made by Father 
Rale himself. When Arnold's army followed in 1775 the old Indian 
route to Quebec, his soldiers saw " a priest's grave " among the vestiges 
of the Indian village of Nanrantsouak.* In 18B3, under the patronage 
of Bishop Fenwick of Boston (an ex-member of the Society of Jesus), the 
site of Father Rale's church was purchased of the white man, and a 
granite monument erected with great ceremony over his grave. Some 
of the descendants of Rale's parishioners were present from Canada. 
The shaft was raised just 109 years after the burning of the church. 
Even that period of time had not been long enough for all animosity 
against the missionary to disappear, and the monument was maliciously 
overturned two years later, and again in 1851. It was replaced each 
time by the good people of the town of Norridgewock, and still stands 
in its harmlessness a mute reminder to the passing generations of a 
life of sublime toil, devotion and martyrdom on the banks of the 

The offense of Father Rale was his constancy to his vows and 
loyalty to his people. Had his efforts been less he would not have 
been true to his view of pastoral duty. He sought sympathy and 
help for his flock where only it could be obtained, not questioning in 
his zeal the propriety of the Canadian government's hearty encour- 
agement, for which he was denounced as a traitor. After a bounty 
had been offered for his head he was urged by Father de la Chasse to 
look after his own safety, but he replied, " God has committed this 
flock to my care, and I will share its lot, only too happy if I am allowed 
to lay down my life for it." He believed the disputed lands had been 
taken from the Indians by deception and force (and who does not ?) 
and in the visionary cause of his tribe to recover them he serenely met 

* Journal of Return J. Meigs, Sept. ii, 1775, to Jan. 1, 1776. Mass. Hist. Soc. 
Coll. (1814), Vol. I, second series, p. 331. 

t This monument is a gfranite structure of appropriate simplicity. The base 
is composed of irregularly shaped ashlar blocks, on which stands a graduated 
quadrilateral shaft that towers eighteen feet from the ground, and which is sur- 
mounted by an iron cross two feet high. On the southern face of the 
blocks is the inscription in Latin, which may be translated as follows: "Rev. 
Sebastian Rale, a native of France, a missionary of the Society of Jesus, at first 
preaching for awhile to the Illinois and Hurons, afterwards for thirty-four years 
to the Abenakis, in faith and charity a true apostle of Christ; undaunted by the 
danger of arms, often testifying that he was ready to die for his people; at length 
this best of pastors fell amidst arms at the destruction of the village of Nor- 
ridgewock and the ruins of his own church, on this spot, on the twenty-third day 
of August, A.D. 1724." " Benedict Fenwick, Bishop of Boston, has erected this 
monument, and dedicated it to him and his deceased children in Christ, on the 
23d of August, A.D. 1833, to the greater glory of God." 


his death."" There were about two hundred persons affiliated with his 
mission at the time of its overthrow; three-fourths of them moved 
immediately to St. Francis, into which the Abenaki mission, near 
the mouth of the Chaudiere had been merged (in the year 1700); the 
rest clung to the northern lakes and streams, far inland. Though the 
war continued to rage for a year longer, the Nanrantsoiiaks took no 
further part in it, and were not repre- 
sented at the peace parleys of 1725-6; ri__j 
but in July, 1727, forty Kennebecs and ''-^;.\ 
fifteen Wawenocs, under the sachem }\ 
Wiwurna, whom we last saw in a pa- ' % 
triotic passion at Arrowsic, met the 
authorities at Falmouth and ratified a /' 
peace — after having pleaded in vain as , 
of yore, for the English to retire their 
boundaries from Richmond fort to Ar- 
rowsic, and from St. George fort to | 
Pemaquid. Thus 
closed the fourth .*- , *^ 
Indian war in ^ ^^^ 

called Lovewell's _ !•:,;■■ If M 

war, from a scalp 7 .„.,"! \ '^■~— — --" "^T fm 

hunter's exploit -.'- -.,. ^„ «^- [' kW 

and death at Lake ^^'ll^X -^/ . ,^^- - %^r <^ 

Peqwaket, INIay 8, '^^^^^M^;,^ '^ ,^,.^- ■* .. 

1725)-another "S"'...^ ^"^^f^-.- .^ 

hemorrhage from •'%> "^^i^ -^ ^ ^ ^ 

the old French ^^ ^ \ '^^^'- '' ' , 

conflict, and '^^''" > ^^^^^^>S^ 

which was not father rale monument. //>^^^>^^^^ 

even yet ended. /^ 

Six years after the death of Father Rale, the mission cross was re- 
erected over the ashes of Nanrantsouak, by Father James de Sirenne.f 
The King of France had taken notice of the sorrows of the survivors 
of the massacre, and ordered Father de la Chasse to cover the body of 

* Father Rale was bom in 1658, in France; he came to America in 1689, ar- 
riving at Quebec October 1.3th. He studied the Indian languages at Sillery, and 
was affiliated for two or three years with the Abenakis on the Chaudiere. In 
1693 he went to Illinois, but returned to Quebec in 1694 or '95, to be sent to his 
life work on the Kennebec. 

t The Catholic Church in Colonial Days, by John G. Shea (New York, 1886), 
p. 604. History of the Cath. Miss. Among the Ind. Tribes of the U. S.. by John G. 
Shea. p. 152. 


Father Rale, which in Indian parlance is to condole with them on 
their loss. Eight years later (1738) the French monarch gave an out- 
fit of plate, vestments and furniture for the mission chapel; perhaps 
it was this gracious deed that excited a general movement among 
the exiled Kennebecs to return to their old home; but the Canadian 
government, to prevent the exodus and to have the fighting men near 
at hand in case of need, had Father de vSirenne recalled, and Nanrant- 
souak as a mission place was forever abandoned. 


England and France again at War. — The Indians join the French. — The Kenne- 
bec a Route for War Parties. — English Scalp Hunters scout the Cobbosseecon- 
tee and Messalonskee Lakes. — Treaty of Aix la Chapelle. — Fatal Affray at 
Wiscasset. — War Party from St. Francis. — Fort Richmond and Georgetown 
attacked. — Advent of the Plymouth Land Company. — Protest of Ongewas- 
gone. — Forts Shirley, Western and Halifax. — Bounties for St. Francis In- 
dians or their Scalps. — Last Skirmish on the Kennebec. — Capture of Quebec, 
and Exting^iishment of French Power in America, — Natanis wounded under 
Arnold. — Sabatis. — Peerpole carries his Dead Child to Canada for Burial. 

The ambitions of European monarchs were to precipitate again 
the horrors of war in New England and New France. So sensitive 
were the rival colonies to the prevailing politics of their home coun- 
tries a thousand leagues distant, that a declaration of war by France 
against England in 1744 — generated by a British-Spanish war then 
in progress — was presently felt in America, and the next year it de- 
veloped into what has been called the fifth Indian war, so far as it 
related to Maine. The French and English colonies vied sharply for 
the support of the Indians. The French were successful as usual. 
It was a wanton and fruitless war, prompted by no loftier impulse on 
either side than gratification of national, religious or race antipathy. 
It was made notable, however, by the capture, by New England valor, 
of the French fortress of Louisbourg (June 17, 1745). The few resi- 
dent Kennebec Indians were not early to engage m it, but their river 
was the thoroughfare for brigand parties from Canada, and however 
innocent, they came under the ban of the government (August 12, 
1745), which offered prizes for their scalps ranging from one hundred 
to four hundred pounds ($500 to $2,000) apiece. By an odd discrim- 
ination the scalps of French leaders and accomplices were rated at 
only thirty-eight pounds ($190) apiece. Fort Richmond and Fort 
George (at Brunswick) were kept in order; a few hundred men were 
employed as scouts in Maine. Parties roamed the forests for scalps 
as huntsmen do for furs; there is record of one such party on the 


On thfc 7th of March, 1747, some men under Captain John Gatchell 
■started from the Brunswick fort to hunt for Indians; they reached 
Richmond fort the first day; the next day they tramped northwesterly 
toward the lakes that feed the Cobbosseecontee, where they hoped to 
surprise some camps; not finding any tracks at the small ponds (in 
Litchfield), they followed the stream up to Great Cobbosseecontee, 
where they were also disappointed. With great persistency they 
plodded a dozen miles northward to the waters of the Messalonskee; 
this lake they scouted in vain. There was not an Indian in all the 
region. The dispirited rangers now faced homeward, and emerging 
from the forest into the light of the river opening about eight miles 
above Cushnoc, they marched on the ice in a blinding snow storm 
down to the rapids where Augusta has .since been built. There they 
went ashore and bivouacked for the night among the great trees; the 
next day (March 17) they reached Richmond fort, with neither scalps 
nor other laurels to recompense them for their toilsome outing.* The 
vigor and alertness of the government kept the Indians in awe, and 
restricted their mischiefs in Maine to a few assassinations and cases of 
kidnapping. The treaty of Aix la Chapelle was signed October 7, 
1748, by England and France, which restored peace again to their 
American colonies. A year later (October 16, 1749), eight Kennebec 
Indians with a few others went to Falmouth and renewed their hum- 
ble submission to the authorities, f 

But so demoralized and fragmentary had the tribes now become, 
that this treaty affected few Indians except those who were parties to 
it. Irrespon.sible tramps from St. Francis and Becancourt, with old 
scores to settle, continued to infest the Kennebec. In a quarrel with 
some white men at Wiscasset December 2, 1749, an Indian was 
wickedly killed; the guilty parties were arrested but not otherwise 
punished. The victim's Indian friends became greatly excited; thir- 
teen went to Boston to see the governor, who gave them stately court- 
esy and condoning presents. The next spring a party of eighty war- 
riors came from St. Francis to settle the affair in the Indian fashion; they 
asked the Penobscots to join them, and the people of Maine began to 
shudder in dread of some act of savage retaliation. It finally came in 
an attack on Fort Richmond (September 11, 1750), when the Indians 
killed one man and wounded another and led away fifteen inhabitants 
as captives. Two weeks later (September 25), they appeared on 
Parker's island in Georgetown; shunning the garrison, they attacked 
where the danger was less. In one case they battered down with 
their tomahawks the door of a house which the owner— a Mr. Rose — 

* History of Brunswick, pp. 58-00. t The names of these Indians were — 
Toxus, Magawombee, Harry, Soosephania, Nooktoonas, Nesagunibuit, Peereer, 


had bolted against them; the man at bay then fled through a window 
and running to the sliore rushed into the water to swim across Back 
river and Newtown bay, half a mile, to Arrowsic island. The savages 
nimbly pursued, and resorting to their canoe, paddled after him; when 
they overtook their expected prize, he upset their canoe by a dexter- 
ous movement, spilling them into the water and putting them on the 
.same footing with himself. Leaving them floundering, Mr. Rose re- 
sumed his swim and reached Arrowsic fort.* The Kennebec saga- 
mores disavowed these and many other revengeful acts, that followed 
as a sequence to the unfortunate Wiscasset affray. 

Thirty years had passed since the Pejepscot company made the 
land seizure that led to the war in which Father Rale was slain. 
During that period Richmond fort had been the outpost of the Eng- 
lish frontier. The time had now come when the Plymouth company, 
tracing its title to a patent given in 1627 to the Plymouth colony, 
wanted all of the lands above Richmond fort. The tribe that had 
protested a generation before, had been crushed for its contumacy; 
its survivors had nearly all removed to Canada; the few who still lin- 
gered by the burial-places of their fathers, had no steadfast and fear- 
less Rale to befriend them. So insignificant were they that the Ply- 
mouth company began to lot their land without any thought of asking 
their leave. Its strong hands built Fort Shirley (nearly opposite Fort 
Richmond) in 1751, but in February, 1754, a party of about sixty stal- 
wart Indians appeared at Richmond fort with a warning to the Eng- 
lish to depart. Governor Shirley in behalf of the settlers, retorted by 
detailing six companies of militia for the Kennebec. In April the 
general court authorized him to build a new fort as far up the river 
as he pleased. In June he made a personal visit to the Kennebec and 
decided to locate a fortress at Teconnet for the protection of the Ply- 
mouth company's lands. 

On the 21st he held a conference (at Falmouth) with forty-two 
Kennebec Indians. Ongewasgone, the sagamore, pleaded piteously 
for his people, saying: " Here is a river that belongs to us; you have 
lately built a new fort [Shirley]; we now only ask that you be content 
to go no further up the river; we live wholly by this land, and live 
poorly; the Indians hunt on one side of us and the Canada 
Indians on the other; so do not turn us off this land; we are willing 
for you to have the lands from this fort to the sea." f But the poor 
chief was protesting in vain; as in the case of the Arrowsic parley 
thirty-seven years before, the will of the white man prevailed. The 
Indians signed what was conventionally called a treaty. The bitter- 
ness of the cup was lessened by a few presents. Immediately the gov- 

* Luther D. Emerson, Oakland, Maine, t Journal of the Rev. Thomas Smith, 
pp. 153, 1.54. See Abbot's History of Maine, p. 352. 


ernment sent workmen to build Fort Halifax at Teconnet (now Wins- 
low), and the Plymouth land proprietors sent others to build Fort 
Western at Cushnoc. Five hundred soldiers under General John 
Winslow* attended as escort, and some of them went far beyond into 
the wilderness to look for a fictitious fort which rumor said the French 
were establishing near the sources of the Chaudiere. Fort Halifax 
was completed for occupancy in September, and put in command of 
William Lithgow. The Indians soon showed their opinion of it by 
killing and scalping one of the soldiers, and capturing four others. 
This bloody deed prompted the government to send Captain Lithgow 
a reinforcement of men and cannon, and to offer a reward of ^110 
($550) for every captive St. Francis Indian, or i;'10 ($50) less for his 
scalp. Fort Western was armed with twenty men and four cannon, 
but it was not attacked. 

Thus the advent of the Plymouth company was met with resistance 
and bloodshed, as that of the Pejepscot company had been. This was 
the opening of the sixth Indian war in Maine, which soon became 
part of the greater conflict between France and England that ended 
with the fall of Quebec. The Maine tribes having generally trans- 
planted themselves, recruited the French ranks in Canada; some of 
the warriors were on the flanks at Braddock's de'feat (July 9, 1755); 
others were in the no less bloody actions at Crown Point and Fort 
William Henry, but a few chose their own war paths, and skulked 
fitfully on the outskirts of the Maine settlements. In the spring and 
summer of 1755, they shot one Barrett near Teconnet, and two others 
near Fort Shirley; a courier was captured while going from Fort 
Western to Fort Halifax; John Tufts and Abner Marston were cap- 
tured in Dresden. The government at once increased the scalp 
bounty to $1,000 and offered $1,250 per captive. 

In the summer of 1756, while England and France were moving 
with new intensity toward their final combat, the Indians continued 
their miserable warfare in iSIaine. On the Kennebec two men were 
assassinated at Teconnet; Mr. Preble and his wife were killed at their 
home on the northern end of Arrowsic island, opposite Bath, and their 
three children taken. One of the latter, an infant, was soon killed 
because it was an incumbrance. A young woman named Motherwell 
was captured the same day at Harnden's fort (in Woolwich). In the 
spring of 1757, a few soldiers went out from Fort Halifax to hunt for 

* General Winslow was a brother of Captain Josiah Winslow (slain at St. 
George thirty years before), and the officer whom the government detailed in 
1755 to enforce its order for the expulsion of the Acadians from Nova Scotia, on 
which event Longfellow founded his pathetic and beautiful idyl Evangeline. The 
celebrated Winslow family, so prominent in affairs on the Kennebec after the 
voyage of Edward in 1635, has left its name to the town (incorp. 1771) of which 
Fort Halifax was the nucleus. 


game; as five mysteriously disappeared their comrades supposed that 
a party of savages, discovered to be in the neighborhood, had taken 
them.- Captain Lithgow hastily sent ten men in a boat down the 
river to warn the settlements. While returning to Fort Halifax (May 
IS), and when about eight miles above Fort Western (in the vicinity 
of Riverside or Lovejoy's ferry), the boat was fired at from the shore 
by seventeen lurking Indians. Two men were wounded. The soldiers 
returned the volley, killing one of the enemy and wounding another; 
they then landed on the shore opposite the Indians, whom they saw 
in the distance bear across an open field the body of their fallen com- 
rade for burial."" This was the last Indian encounter on the Kenne- 
bec; by a strange coincidence it happened near the place where Cap- 
tain Gilbert was received by the natives just one hundred and fifty 
years before. 

England and France were now in the midst of their mighty con- 
test for supremacy in America: their respective colonies were the 
battle ground, and the prizes at stake. For more than a century — 
beginning with the labors of Father Druillettes at Cushnoc in 1646 — 
the Kennebec had been an environ of Quebec, and a door to Acadia. 
Acadia itself with its shadowy boundary had made the territory of 
Maine an uncertain borderland. Five wars — not counting King 
Philip's— had been waged against Maine settlements by French- 
Canadian intrigues; but the time was near when the terrible alliance 
that had desolated so many New England settlements must be dis- 
solved. An English heart was beating under a soldier's uniform 
whose valor was to thrill all hearts, and determine the political des- 
tiny of the western world. In July, 1758, General Wolfe was before 
Louisbourg, which capitulated on the 16th; fourteen months later he 
led his little army up the heights of Abraham to the mad fight on the 
plains above, where he died victorious (September 13, 1759), bequeath- 
ing to his countrymen the citadel of Quebec. His blood washed New 
France from the map. The flag that had been planted by Champlain 
in 1608 (three years after his visit to the Kennebec) was lowered from 
its staff, and North America came under the dominion of the English 
speaking race. Acadia was no more; its boundary was no longer of 
any importance; Forts Halifax, Western and Shirley, on the Kenne- 
bec, were needed no more. In the long, painful, tragical contest, the 
Kennebec tribe (as well as others) had been annihilated. A few 
families continued to live in hermit-like seclusion around the upper 
waters of the river, but the young men learned the art of war no more. 

When Arnold's army was marching to Quebec, the pioneer party 
discovered at a point on the trail near the Dead river, a birch bark 

* Letter of William Lithgow to Governor Shirley, May 33, 1757, quoted by 
Joseph Williamson in Me. Hist. Soc. Coll., Vol. IX, p. 194. 


map of the streams of the region, which an Indian had posted for the 
benefit of his fellows: a score or more of Indians were dwelling m the 
vicinity. The intrusion disturbed them, and they flitted undiscovered 
within spying distance of the troops for more than a month. Finally, 
having divined that the army was the enemy of the English at Que- 
bec, they disclosed themselves as friends, and nineteen joined the ex- 
pedition as allies. Among them were the noted chiefs — Natanis and 
Sabatis. They took part in the assault on Quebec, January 1, 1776.* 
Natanis received a musket ball through his wrist. This was the first 
time that Indians had fought in the war of the revolution. Thus, to 
the last remnant of the Kennebec tribe belongs the distinction of an 
alliance with the continental army, and Natanis was the first of his 
race to shed blood in the cause of American independence. Sabatis 
afterward lived for many years, an errant but amiable life on his 
native river— sensible and mild — a friend to the settlers as they were 
to him. 

One of the last well-remembered Indians lingered with his family 
around the upper waters of the Sandy river for many years; this was 
Peerpole; he had received baptism, and like a good Catholic went 
yearly to Quebec with his humble gifts to receive the blessing of the 
church. He would not bury the body of his dead child in the soil of 
his lost country, but carried it to Canada for religious rites and deposit 
in consecrated ground. + About the year 1797, with his wife and sur- 
viving children and precious burden tied on a hand-sled, he wended 
his way for the last time northward to the adopted land of his surviv- 
ing kindred. The mournful procession symbolizes the extinction of 
the red men in the valley of the Kennebec. 

* Aicoi/iif of Arnold's Campaign against Quebec, by John Joseph Henry, pp. 
74, 7.5. tThe late William Allen of Norridgewock, in Me. Hist. See. Coll., Vol. 
IV, p. .31, note. 


Bv Lend.\ll Titcome, Esq. 

Indian Occupancy. — Sales of Lands by the Indians. — Claims of Spain and 
Portugal. — Counter-claim of France. — The Virginia Charter. — The New- 
England Charter.— The Kennebeck or Plymouth Patent. — Trade with the 
Indians. — Sale of Plymouth Patent.— Settlement of the Kennebec Purchase. 
— Province of Massachusetts Bay. — Maine Separated from Massachusetts 
and Admitted into the Union. 

WHEN first foreign peoples came to the shores of Maine with 
the purpose of occupying the territory, establishing homes 
and creating an organized government, they found, of course, 
the country occupied by a primeval people whose history was no better 
known to themselves than it is to us to-day. It is even probable, with 
the concentration of legends of other peoples and drafts from asso- 
ciated histories, that the history of the Indian nations could now be 
written, giving with greater certainty the story of their ancestry than 
the dim traditions which were to them the only record of their past. 
The different nations and clans occupied each a separate country, the 
natural divisions on the surface of the earth, in the absence of a sur- 
veyor's chain and compass, establishing the boundaries of the separate 
tribes and nations. 

The Indian had no conception of the European idea of exclusive 
ownership of land. The tribes and their sachems neither made nor 
understood such claims of arbitrary ownership of the lands they occu- 
pied. The passing cloud which threw its shadow on his path, and the 
running water in which he paddled his canoe, were as much his prop- 
erty as the pathless land whereon his wigwam chanced to be. He 
neither coveted nor comprehended sole ownership of land. It was to 
him a mother whose streams and forests offered to him, as to his 
neighbor, food and shelter. No such thing as inheritance by children 
from parents was cared for or understood. 

They held their lands, if theirs they were, as life tenants in common; 
and no matter what were the forms or words of the deeds they signed, 
they only signified to the Indian mind the white man's privilege to 
occupy the lands as they themselves had occupied them; hence the 


trifling consideration named as price in the so-called Indian deeds. 
Monquine, son of Mahotiwormet, sagamore, sold for two skins of liquor 
and one skin of bread, more than a million acres of land above Gard- 
iner. As late as 1761 Samuel Goodwin was authorized to obtain a deed 
from the sagamores of the whole territory extending from the Wes- 
serunsett river to the ocean on both sides of the Kennebec river, " pro- 
vided he could obtain it at an expense of not more than ;f50." Hence 
also the fact that the Indian chiefs sold the same lands many times 
over and to different parties. In the " Statement of Kennebeck Claims" 
— Pamphlet Report of committee made June 15, 1785— after reciting 
the history of old Indian deeds the committee say: " From the his- 
tory and mode of living amongst the Indians in this country there 
can be no great doubt but that they originally held as tenants in com- 
mon in a state of nature; and though they have formed themselves 
into tribes and clans, yet the members of those tribes still retain a 
common and undivided right to the lands of their respective tribes." 

The aboriginal occupant of Kennebec county was the Indian tribe 
called Canibas. This was a large and important tribe and claimed as 
their territory the land extending from the sources of the Kennebec 
river to Merrymeeting bay. It may be noted as bearing on the Indian 
ideas of ownership of land, that Assiminasqua, a sagamore, in 1653 
certified that the region of Teconnet (Waterville) belonged to him 
and the wife of Watchogo; while at near the same time the chief sag- 
amores, Monquine, Kennebis and Abbagadussett, conveyed to the 
English all the lands on the Kennebec river extending from Swan 
island to Wesserunsett river, near Skowhegan, as their property. 

In the earlier years a verbal grant was asserted by the English as 
a sufficient "deed." But subsequently concession was made to the 
formalities, and the conveyances from the Indians were made in legal 
form without much inquiry whether they were understood by the 
native grantors or not. Governor Winslow asserted " that the Eng- 
lish did not possess one foot of land in the colony but was fairly ob- 
tained by honest purchase from the Indian proprietors." But Andros, 
in 1686, boldly condemned the title so obtained from the natives and 
declared that " Indian deeds were no better than the scratch of a 
bear's paw." Though by a strict rule of right the Indian's deed could 
not be held to convey an exclusive ownership, it formed one of the 
strands, though a slender one, which the first settlers gathered together 
through which they maintained their early dominion over no incon- 
siderable portion of the soil of Maine. The thrifty adventurers from 
beyond the sea who sought wealth within her boundaries professed 
to largely base their rights on the Indian deeds and a prior occupation 
and possession. 

But the Crown of England is the source to which trace all lines of 
title to lands within the county of Kennebec. It was by royal license 


that the first English settlement was made in Maine. The emigrants 
came as English subjects and they brought with them English laws. 
England planted her colonies here as her subjects, on lands claimed 
by her as her territory, and she alone maintained her authority. 

In 1493 Spain and Portugal claimed the entire New World which 
Columbus had discovered, by virtue of a bull of Pope Alexander VI. 
It is said that some seventy years later Spain took fortified possession 
of Maine at Pemaquid, but if so her possession was abandoned before 
many years. 

In 1524, Francis I, king of France, saying he should like to 
see the clause in Adam's will which made the American con- 
tinent the exclusive possession of his brothers of Spain and Portu- 
gal, sent Verrazzano, a navigator, who explored the entire coast 
and named the whole country Nciu France. Later King Francis, in 
1534 and the following years, through Jacques Ouartier, took actual 
possession of Canada, explored the St. Lawrence and " laid the found- 
ation of French dominion on this continent." 

In 1495, Henry VII, of England, commissioned the Venetian, John 
Cabot, and his sons to make discoveries in the Western World, and 
under this commission they discovered the Western Continent more 
than a year before Columbus saw it; and in 1502 the same king com- 
missioned Hugh Eliot and Thomas Ashurst, in his name and for his, to take possession of the islands and continent of America. 

Under the claim made by France the southern limit of New France 
was the 40th parallel of north latitude. Below that line was Florida, 
claimed by Spain as her territory. These two powers claimed the 
whole of North America by right of discovery. But it was a settled 
rule of international law that discovery of barbarous countries must 
be followed by actual possession to complete the title of any Christian 
power. Neither Spain nor France willingly yielded to England's 
claim to the new territory. But when Spain complained of an alleged 
act of trespass at Jamestown, England replied that all north of 32° 
belonged to the Crown of England by right of discovery and actual 
possession taken through Sir Walter Raleigh and English colonies. 
And when France complained against England's assumed control 
north of the 40th north parallel, England replied reciting the discov- 
eries by authority of the Crown made by Cabot, and the colonies estab- 
lished by her royal charter. 

England repeatedly asserted her claim to the lands held by her 
colonists, and overruled the claim to the whole country made by 
France, and as a result the map shows to-day not Neiv France, but Nczv 
England. By the English law the ultimate right to the soil remained 
in the Crown and grants made by the Crown were on condition of 
fealty and service, and on breach of such condition, the lands reverted 
to the Crown. " The newly discovered lands beyond the sea followed 


the same rule. If they were to become English possessions it was 
the right of the Sovereign to assign them to his subjects, and the 
validity of the titles thus conferred and transmitted has never been 
questioned, but stands unimpeached to this day."* 

The first transfer of title or English sovereignty was by what is 
known as the Virginia charter, which was granted by James I, April 
10, 1606, to the Adventurers of London and their associates known as 
the first colony, and to the Adventurers of Plymouth and their asso- 
ciates known as the second colony, and under this charter a futile at- 
tempt was made the following year to plant a colony at the mouth of 
the Kennebec river. 

On November 3, 1620, King James I granted what is known as the 
New England charter to the cottncil of Plymouth in the county of 
Devon, successors to the Plymouth company under the charter of 
1606. This charter was granted to forty lords, knights and merchants 
of England, among whom were the Duke of Lenox, Marquis of Buck- 
ingham, Marquis of Hamilton, Earl of Arundel, Earl of Warwick, Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges, Francis Popham and Raleigh Gilbert. They 
were incorporated as " The Council Established at Plymouth in the 
County of Devon for the planting, ruling and governing New Eng- 
land in America." This charter granted in fee simple all the North 
American continent and islands between the parallels of 40° and 48° 
north latitude, " throughout the mainland from sea to sea," excepting 
" all places actually possessed by any other Christian prince or 

Under the charter of 1606 no permanent colony with an organized 
government had been planted in Maine. But its rivers, coast and 
harbors had been explored, knowledge of the Indians and their habits 
had been acquired, and trading posts and fishing stations had been 
established. Gorges and his associates had learned the value of the 
fur trade and fisheries, and it was to control these that the Plymouth 
company sought and obtained the great New England charter. 

On January 13, 1629, a grant was made by the Plymouth council to 
the Pilgrim colony, of what has since been known as the Kennebeck or 
Plymouth Patent. There was long dispute as to the boundaries of this 
patent, but its territory as ultimately settled, extended from the north 
line of Woolwich below Swan island on the east side of the river, and 
from the north line of Topsham on the west side of the river to a line 
a league above the mouth of the Wesserunsett river and fifteen miles 
wide on either side of the Kennebec. This patent covered about 
1,500,000 acres. With the patent were transferred rights of exclusive 
trade, an open passage at all times from the patent to the sea, author- 
ity to make all necessary rules and regulations for their protection 
and government. 

*H. W. Richardson, Introduction, York Deeds. 


A trading post was established at Cushnoc, and some writers say, 
at Richmond's landing and at Popham's fort also. For several years 
the trade with the Indians was found to be profitable, but it gradually 
declined till in 1652 the trade at Kennebec was leased at the small 
price of fifty pounds a year, and in 1655 the lease was renewed for 
seven years at thirty-five pounds a year — " to be paid in money, moose 
or beaver." This rental was reduced after three years to ten pounds 
and the next year the trade was abandoned. 

Discouraged by meager returns the holders of the Kennebeck or 
Plymouth patent sought a purchaser for their patent and on October 
27, 1661. it was sold * for four hundred pounds to Antipas Boyes, Ed- 
ward Tyng, Thomas Brattle and John Winslow. This transfer, of 
course, carried with it whatever apparent shadow of title there was in 
the Indian deeds, which from the year 1648, when the whole Kenne- 
bec valley was purchased by William Bradford from a chief, had been 
collected from different sagamores covering the same territory. 

From 1661 till 1749 the title to the lands on the Kennebec lay dor- 
mant and no special effort was made to establish settlements on the 
land. This was at least partially due to the French and Indian border 
wars, which for a series of years diverted attention from the arts of 
peace. But in 1749, eighty-eight years after the transfer of the patent, 
though the four original purchasers were dead, the proprietors had 
greatly increased in numbers and were widely scattered, and knew 
very little of the extent or value of their lands. On August 17, 1749, 
a number of the proprietors joined in a petition to call a meeting of 
the proprietors of the Plymouth company's lands to devise means of 
settling or dividing the same " as the major part of the proprietors 
shall or may agree." A meeting was called for September 21, 1849, at 
Boston, and a number of subsequent meetings were held until in June, 
1753, the owners of shares in the patent were incorporated under the 
name of" The Proprietors of the Kennebec Purchase from the late 
Colony of New Plymouth;" though they were generally known as the 
Kennebec company or the Plymouth company. 

The new proprietors in 1761 employed Nathan Winslow f to make 
a survey and lay out into lots the Kennebec valley on either side of 
the river, from Chelsea to Vassalboro inclusive, and offered to each 
settler, upon certain conditions, two lots aggregating 250 acres. The 
conditions imposed by the proprietors looked to the permanent settle- 
ment of the towns and the establishment of churches; for the grantee 

* The deed was executed October 15, 1665, and recorded in the York County 
Registry in 1719.— [Ed. 

t Winslow's map of this survey shows on either side of the river, three ranges 
of lots, each one mile deep with eight-rod ways between the ranges. The origi- 
nal map is in possession of Governor Joseph H. Williams, of Augusta, and a copy 
is on file in the Kennebec County Registry. — [Ed. 


was required to build a house of certain size — generally 20 by 20 feet 
— and reduce to cultivation five acres of the land in his possession within 
three years; also to occupy it himself or by his heirs or assigns seven 
years besides the three. Each grantee was also bound to labor two 
davs yearly for ten years on the highways and two days every year 
on the minister's lot or upon the house of worship. 

By reason of these inducements and the advantages which were 
held out to settlers the valley was gradually covered with colonists. 
In 1762 the lots were rapidly taken, especially around Fort Western at 
Cushnoc, and by 1766 nearly all the lots were granted. 

Settlements and grants in other sections of the patent continued 
as the country's resources attracted settlers until nearly all the Ken- 
nebec lands had been reduced to individual ownership, when it was 
decided by the owners to close out their scattered possessions. Ac- 
cordingly the heirs and successors of the original purchasers met in 
Boston in January, 1816, and sold at auction all their remaining rights. 
Thomas L. Winthrop was the purchaser and became the owner of the 
unsold rangeways, gores and islands throughout the Kennebec pur- 
chase. His title deeds appear of record in Somerset County Registry, 
Vol. Ill, p. 164, and in Kennebec County Registry, Vol. Ill, p. 64. 

It is interesting to trace the intricate historical chain of title which 
began in 1620 and has extended unbroken to this generationin, to the 
hands of those who to-day hold the parent title from which countless 
branches have been derived. Judge James Bridge and Hon. Reuel 
Williams, both of Augusta, purchased each, one-fourth interest from 
Thomas L. Winthrop, who subsequently sold his remaining half to 
Hon. Joseph H. Williams. At the death of Judge Bridge in 1834, his 
interest passed to his daughter, Mrs. Daniel Williams, and at the death 
of Reuel Williams in 1862, his fourth interest descended to his heirs. 
It would not seem necessary in a chapter of this character to recite 
the historical facts of the charter of the province of Maine, granted 
by Charles I, April 3, 1639, to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, nor the charter 
granted by Charles II to the Duke of York in 1664, which was re- 
newed ten years later. But perhaps reference should be made to the 
charter granted by William and Mary, by which the name of the 
province of Massachusetts Bay was given to the consolidated colonies 
of Massachusetts Bay and New Plymouth, the province of Maine and 
the territory of Nova Scotia. It was this province of Massachusetts 
Bay which sent its delegates to continental congress, which adopted 
the declaration of independence July 4, 1776, which of course termi- 
nated the political sovereignty and authority of England in the United 
States. The separation of Maine from her parent Massachusetts was 
effected through the consent of the Massachusetts general court by 
act of June 19, 1819. and the act of congress admitting Maine into the 
Union passed May 3, 1820. 



The County Erected. — County Buildings. — State House. — State and National 
Officers. — State Senators. — State Representatives. — Sheriffs. — Registers. — 
Treasurers. — Hospital for Insane. — Educational Institutions. — State Library. 
— Arsenal. — Soldiers' Home. 

THE territory now included in Kennebec county comprises nearly 
all of the original Kennebeck patent, and like it preserves in a 
name an allusion to the Kennebec Indians, who first inhabited 
the valley. It was within the widely extended boundaries of the old 
county of York, which Massachusetts erected in 1658, and became a 
part of Lincoln county in 1760. This territory which, until the close 
of the revolutionary war, remained largely undeveloped, began then 
to furnish evidences of the remarkable resources which have since 
placed it among the leading counties of New England. In 1787, Lin- 
coln county, whose shire-town was at Dresden, established at Augusta 
some public buildings and made it a co-ordinate shire-town. 

The demands of a rapidly increasing population soon led to a di- 
vision of the great county of Lincoln, and on the 20th of February, 
1799, Kennebec county was incorporated as the sixth county in the 
district of Maine. It then, embracing nearly six times its present 
area, included the whole of Somerset county, which was taken from 
it in 1809; four of the towns on the east were made a part of Waldo 
county in 1827; five were included in Franklin county in 1838, and 
four were set off to Androscoggin county in 1854; so that the Kenne- 
bec county of to-day, to whose local history we turn our present atten- 
tion, consists of twenty-five towns, four cities and a plantation. 

For three years following the establishment of Augusta as a co- 
ordinate shire-town, the sessions were held at Fort Western. The first 
court house was built by subscription. It was erected on Market 
Square, opposite the site of the old Journal office. The frame was 
raised September 21, 1790, but as sufficient funds for its completion 
could not be secured, the sub.scribers decided to partition off only one 
room. In this room the January term of court convened, and notwith- 
standing the absence of laths and plastering, it was reported that they 
were considerably well accommodated. Augusta, which had not been 
separated from its parent town, Hallowell, took from this date the 



appellation Hallowell Court House, by which the locality was known 
for many years after its incorporation under the name it now bears. 

In June, 1 801, the county commenced the erection, on the site of the 
present jail, of a second court house, which was completed and occu- 
pied by a court March 16, 1802. It was a commodious structure, and 
was occupied as a court house thirty years. The third court house 
was commenced in the spring- of 1829, upon its present site, which 
had been purchased of Nathaniel Hamlen. Robert C. Vose was the 
contractor. The building was occupied first by the supreme court in 
June, 1830, at which time Judge Mellen, who presided, called the 

building a very supe- 
iioi one. This build- 
ing was enlarged in 
1851 The illustration 
shows it as again en- 
laiged m 1891. 

The first jail was 


erected in 1793, on the comei 
of State and Winthrop stieets, 
opposite the present court house. 
Its walls were constructed of 
hewn timber and were not 
remarkably secure. Through 
these walls, which were two 
stories high, small openings 
were cut to admit light and air 
to the cells. Just at sundown 
on the 16th day of March, 1808, 
a fire was discovered in the upper story. It spread rapidly over 
the dry timbers and soon the entire structure and the adjoining 
keeper's were utterly destroyed. The jailor, Pitt Dilling- 
ham, was prepared for such a catastrophe, and under a strong guard, 
escorted the prisoners to the house of Lot Hamlin, where they 
were again secured without the loss of a man. General John Chan- 
dler, who was then high sheriff, immediately erected a temporary 
place of confinement near the east end of the court house. Proceed- 
ings were immediately instituted for the erection of a stone building 
on the old lot, and so expeditiously was the work carried forward that 


in the following December it was approved and accepted, although 
not then completed, and the sheriff was instructed to use it as a jail on 
account of its greater security. The brick building which was subse- 
quently erected as a keeper's house is still standing. In April an ad- 
ditional tax was laid upon the county for its completion. It was much 
in advance of the pri.son accommodations of that day and was consid- 
ered a very expensive and secure structure. It was two stories high, 
the walls being constructed of large blocks of rough hammered stone 
fastened together with iron dowels. On May 21, 1857, it was voted 
" to proceed at once in the preliminary measures necessary to the 
erection " of a building better fitted for the keeping of prisoners, the 
old jail built in 1808 being wholly unfit for the purpose. The build- 
ing was finished in January, 1859, and opened for public inspection on 
February 1st. 

State Capitol. — In 1821 a committee composed of members from 
both branches of the legislature, which was then convened at the 
Portland court house, appointed to select a 
^^,^^ place for the next session of that body, re- 
commended Hallowell as the most central 
point of popula- 
tion and repre- 
sentation. Al- 
^' d^^^P*^^^^^ i.^^S''* though assured 

that suitable ac- 
for the several 
state depart- 
ments would be 
expense to the 
a resolve favoring the removal 
to that point failed to pass either house. After an acrimonious de- 
bate, which was renewed at each session for several years, between 
Portland's politicians and the best economists of the state, Weston's 
hill, at Augusta, was, by the advice of a committee of three, of which 
John Chandler, of Monmouth, was a member, selected for the .site of 
the new capitol. The lot was conveyed to the state June 6, 1827; in 
the autumn of this year shade trees were set about the grounds and 
the work of laying the foundation begun; on the Fourth of July, 1829, 
the corner-stone was laid with imposing ceremonies conducted by the 
Masonic fraternity, in the presence of the president, vice-president 
and chief ju.stice of the United States. 

The building, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, the archi- 
tect of the national capitol, was erected at an expense of $138,991.34, 



of which Sll,4GG.7o was furnished by the city of Aug'usta. As ac- 
cepted, in 1S32, the capitol consisted of a central building eighty-four 
feet in length by fifty-six in width, faced with a high arcade resting 
on massive Doric columns. Flanking this are two wings, each thirty- 
three feet long, making an aggregate length of 150 feet. The total 
height, including the cupola, is 114 feet. In 1832, and again in 1860, 
the interior was slightly remodeled to accommodate the increasing 
demands of some of the departments. An addition has recently been 
made to the main building, which increases the floor space by about 
one-third. This annex contains, in addition to apartments for the 
better accommodation of officials, the spacious and well arranged room 
in which are the valuable collections of books and pamphlets which 
compose the State Library. 

State and National Officers.— Since the formation of the state 
the county has furnished nine governors: Jona G. Hunton of Read- 
field, in 1830; Dr. John Hubbard of Hallowell, in IS.oO; Anson P. Mor- 
rill, Readfield, 1855; Joseph H. Williams, Augusta, 1857; Lot M. Mor- 
rill, Augusta, 1858; vSamuel Cony, Augusta, 1864; Selden Connor, 
Augusta, 1876; Joseph R. Bodwell, Hallowell. 1887; and Edwin C. 
Burleigh of Augusta, now completing his second term. 

The present governor is Hon. Edwin C. Burleigh, of Augusta, now 
completing the last year of his second term. He is a native of Aroos- 
took county, Me., but his ancestor eight generations back (in 1648) 
was Giles Burleigh, of Ipswich, Mass., where the first two or three 
generations of the family in America resided. James' and Josiah^ 
were natives of Ma.ssachusetts, but Thomas' was born in Sandwich, 
N. H., where the family name is still preserved in the name of " Bur- 
leigh Hill." There Benjamin.' a farmer and merchant, lived and died, 
and there his son, Moses, was born in 1781. 

This Moses Burleigh, the governor's grandfather, came to Maine 
before 1812 and resided until 1830 in Palermo, where he filled various 
civil offices and as a militia officer in 1812-16 gained by promotion to 
lieutenant colonel, the title by which he was generally known. He 
was elected to the Massachusetts legislature; was delegate in 1816 to 
the convention framing a constitution for the proposed state of Maine, 
and in 1830 he removed with his family to Linneus, Aroostook county, 
where he died in 1860. His eldest surviving child, born while they 
resided in Palermo, is Hon. Parker P. Burleigh, the governor's father. 
Like six generations of his New England progenitors he follows 
the peaceful and honorable calling of the farmer, and in the new 
garden county of Maine has found agriculture both pleasant and 
profitable. He has always been a leading citizen of Linneus, has 
served repeatedly in each branch of the legislature, and was for a 
long time state land agent. He was educated as a surveyor, and, as 


chairman in 1869 of the Maine commission on the settlement of the 
public land, contributed largely to the rapid development of Aroos- 
took county. 

Such, briefly, are the antecedents of Maine's present executive. He 
was born at the family farm house, November 27, 1843, and after the 
common schools of Linneus had laid the foundation, he received an 
academical education in the academy at Houlton. While yet a boy he 
found employment in teaching school and in surveying land. In this 
latter occupation he gained a knowledge of the nature and value of 
the public lands of Maine, such as not many men posse.ssed, and which 
at a later period of his life recommended him to the governor of 
Maine as a proper person to fill the responsible position of state land 

He enlisted during the civil war but, not being in sound health 
at that time, was rejected by the examining surgeon. For two win- 
ters during the war he was clerk in the adjutant general's office. He 
was a farmer and land surveyor until 1870, when he entered the state 
land office as a clerk, and in 1872 he moved to Bangor. He was state 
land agent in 1876, '77 and '78, and was assistant clerk of the house of 
representatives for same years. In 1880 he resigned his position as 
assistant clerk to accept a position in the office of the treasurer of state. 
He removed to Augusta with his family during that time, where he 
has since resided. In 1885 he was elected treasurer of the state and 
reelected in 1887. In 1888 he was elected governor of the state, 
receiving a plurality of 18,048. In 1890 he was reelected governor, 
receiving the increased plurality of 18,883. 

Thus has Governor Burleigh been recognized by the sovereign 
people of his native state, who have seen fit to honor him with their 
confidence and esteem. In no other decade since the republic was 
founded have the private life and domestic relations of public men 
been so keenly scrutinized by their constituents as now; and probably 
in no section more than in Puritan New England, and certainly in no 
state more than in the Pine Tree state do clean hands and a pure life 
count for more to one who aspires to political preferment. 

In the person of Governor Burleigh we have, too, the almost per- 
fect New England type. How much of his great popularity is due to 
his splendid physique and how much to his genial and courteous bear- 
ing would puzzle his best friend to say. Born to the inheritance of 
those who toil, his sympathies are ever with the humble, and in his 
extensive intercourse with his constituents his democratic ideas and 
his kindly bearing have given him a home in their hearts more 
enviable than office — more honorable than place. 

The U. S. Senators from Kennebec county since the state was or- 
ganized have been: John Chandler, of Monmouth, 1820, reelected 1823; 
Peleg Sprague, Haliowell, 1829; Reuel Williams, Augusta, 1837, re- 

^^2:w^^^ (^ /::^^^.€^i 


■elected 1839: Wyman B. S. Moor, Waterville, 1848; George Evans, 
Gardiner, 1841; James W. Bradbury, Augusta, 1847; Lot M. :SIorrill, 
Augusta, 1861, and in 1863, 1869 and 1871; James G. Blaine, Augusta, 
1876 and 1877. 

The Representatives in Congress have been: Joshua Cushman, 
Winslow, in 1823; Peleg Sprague, Hallowell, 1825, reelected in 1827; 
■George Evans, Gardiner, 1829, reelected for six .successive terms; Gen- 
eral Alfred Marshall, China, 1841; Luther Severance, Augusta, 1843, 
reelected 1845; John Otis, Hallowell, 1849; Samuel P. Benson, Win- 
throp, 1853, reelected 1855; Anson P. Morrill, Readfield, 1861; James 
G. Blaine, Augusta, 1863, reelected for the six succeeding terms. 

The Secretaries of the State from the county have been: Amos 
Nichols, Augusta, 1822; Asaph R. Nichols, Augusta, 1835; Samuel P^ 
Benson, Winthrop, 1838; Asaph R. Nichols, Augusta, 1839; Philip C. 
Johnson, Augusta, 1840; Samuel P. Benson, Winthrop, 1841; Philip C. 
Johnson, Augusta, 1842; William B. Hartwell, Augusta, 1845; John G. 
Sawyer, Augusta, 1850; Alden Jackson, Augusta, 1854, also in 1857; S. 
J. Chadbourne, Augusta, 1880; Joseph O. Smith, Augusta, 1881; Ora- 
mandel Smith, Litchfield, 1885. 

The State Treasurers from the county have been: Asa Redington, 
jun., Augusta, 1835; Daniel Williams, Augusta, Com., 1835; and as treas- 
urer in 1840; Samuel Cony, Augusta, 1850; J. A. Sanborn, Readfield, 
Com., 1855; William Caldwell, Augusta, 1869; and Charles A. White, 
Gardiner, 1879. 

Two Attorneys General of Maine have been chosen from the 
county: W. B. S. Moor of Waterville, in 1844; and Orville D. Baker of 
Augusta, in 1885. 

Kennebec has furnished three cabinet officers: James G. Blaine, 
secretary of state under Garfield and Harrison; Lot M. Morrill, secre- 
tary of the treasury, and Henry Dearborn, secretary of war. Mell- 
ville W. Fuller, a native of Augusta, has been appointed associate jus- 
tice of the supreme court, and James G. Blaine was speaker of the 
house of representatives during the sessions of the 41st, 42d and 43d 

Under the first apportionment, Kennebec county was entitled to 
three senators in the Maine legislature. The apportionment of 1871 
reduced the number to two. Those elected from what is now Kenne- 
bec county, with residence and years of service have been: Augusta, 
Joshua Gage, 1820, '21; Reuel Williams, 1826, '27, '28; William Em- 
mons, 1834, '35; Luther Severance, 1836, '37: Richard H. Vose, 1840, 
'41; Joseph Baker, 1847; Lot M. Morrill, 1856; Joseph H.Williams, 
1857; James A. Bicknell, 1860; John L. Stevens, 1868, '69; J. Man- 
chester Haynes, 1878, '79; George E. Weeks, 1883, '85; and Herbert 
M. Heath, in 1887, '89. A/biou, Joel Wellington, 1824; Asher Hinds, 
1830, '31; Enoch Farnbam, 1834, '35; Thomas Burrill, 1856. Be/grade, 


Jacob Alain, 1843; George E. Minot, 1870, 71. Benton, Crosby Hinds, 
1865, '66. China, Timothy F. Hanscom, 1842; Alfred Fletcher, 1858, 
'59; Ambrcse H. Abbott, 1873, '74. Fayette-, Albert G. French, 1875, 
'76. Gardiner, Joshua Lord, 1825; Sanford Kingsbury, 1829, '30; Mer- 
rill Clough, 1842; Edward Swan, 1844, '45; Isaac N. Tucker, 1853, '54; 
Nathaniel Graves, 1857; John Berry, jun., 1858, '59; Noah Woods, 1862, 
'63; Joshua Gray, 1870, '71; Albert M. Spear, 1891. Hallowell, Thomas 
Bond, 1822. '23; John T. P. Dumont. 1838, '39, '48, '49; John Otis, 1842; 
John Hubbard, 1843; Joseph A. Sanborn, 1864, '65; George W. Per- 
kins, 1866, '67. Litchfield, John Neal, 1850, '51, '52; Josiah True, 1864, 
'65; John Woodbury, 1876, '77. Momnouth, John Chandler, 1820, '21 
(resigned to take a seat in congress); Abraham Morrill, 1822, '23; Jo- 
seph Chandler, 1824; Ebenezer Freeman, 1850, '51, '52; William B. 
Snell, 1868, '69. Mt. Vernon, Elijah Morse, 1830, '31: Calvin Hopkins, 
1860, '61; Moses S. Mayhew, 1879. Pittston, Eliakira Scammon, 1832, 
'33. Readfie-ld, Jonathan G. Hunton, 1832, "33; Oliver Bean, 1848, '49; 
Henry P. Torsey, 1854, '55; Emery O. Bean, 1856; George A. Russell, 
1887. Sidney, Asa Smiley, 1844, '45; Joseph T. Woodward, 1867, '68. 
Vassalboro, Joseph Southwick, 1825, '26, '27; Elijah Robinson, 1836, '37; 
Oliver Prescott, 1848, '49; Warren Percival, 1861, '62; Thomas S. Lang, 
1869, '70. Waterville, Timothy Boutelle, 1820, '21, '32, '33, '38, '39; 
Isaac Redington, 1846, '47; Edwin Noyes, 1850; Stephen Stark, 1853, 
'54; Josiah H. Drummond, I860; Dennis L. Millikin, 1863, '64; Reuben 
Foster, 1871, '72; Edmund F. Webb, 1874, '75; F. E. Heath, 1883, '84; 
William T. Haines, 1889, '91. Wayiie, Thomas B. Read, 1866, '67; Jo- 
seph S. Berry, 1880, '81. West Waterville, Greenlief T. Stevens, 1877, 
'78. Winslow, Joseph Eaton, 1840, '41, '53, '55; David Garland, 1851, 
'52; Colby C. Cornish, 1880, '81. Winthrop, Samuel P. Benson, 1836, 
'37; David Stanley, 1843; Ezekiel Holmes, 1844, '45; Charles A. Wing, 
1858, '59; Peleg F. Pike, 1862, '63; John May, 1872, '73. 

The names of Thomas W. Herrick, 1857, William Ayer, 1843, 
Daniel Hutchinson, 1831, and Josiah Chapman. 1829, appear as mem- 
bers of the senate from Kennebec county; but their respective resi- 
dences are not shown by the records in the state archives from which 
the foregoing was transcribed. 

Of the Presidents of the State Senate six have been residents of 
what is now Kennebec county: Richard H. Vose, Augusta, in 1841; 
Lot M. Morrill, Augu.sta, 1856; Joseph H. Williams, Augusta, 1857 
Reuben Foster, Waterville, 1872; Edmund F. Webb, Waterville, 1875 
and J. Manchester Haynes of Augusta, 1879. 

The county as it existed when Maine became a state was allotted 
twenty-one seats in the state's house of representatives. Belgrade, Dear- 
born and Rome made one district; Fayette and Vienna were joined with 
Chesterville as a district; Mt. Vernon was classed with New Sharon, 
Winslow with Clinton, Pittston with Windsor, and Harlem with 


China. These six districts, and each of the other towns, elected one 
representative each year, except Wayne, which elected for four of the 
ten years. 

The apportionment of 1831 gave the county twenty-four members 
for the next decade. Augusta and Hallowell each elected two,Winslow, 
Wayne and Windsor were each to elect for five of the ten years, as 
was Albion with the unincorporated territory north of it. Dearborn 
was joined with Belgrade, Vienna and Rome with Chesterville, and 
Mt. Vernon with Fayette, making three districts which elected each 
one member. The other towns had each one representative each 

The 1841 apportionment gave Kennebec county twenty-two repre- 
sentatives. Albion, Albion Gore and Winslow were joined to make one 
di.strict; also Clinton and Clinton Gore; Belgrade, Dearborn and Rome: 
Mt.Vernon and Vienna; Wayne and Fayette. These five districts each 
chose one member every year; Windsor was represented six years of 
the ten; Augusta, Hallowell and Gardiner each had two representa- 
tives annually and the other towns each one. 

For the decade from 1851 the county elected sixteen members. 
Vassalboro with Rome; Albion, Benton, Clinton with the Gores; Hal- 
lowell with Manchester, and West Gardiner with Farmingdale made 
up four districts. Augusta chose two annually, and the others one, 
except the smaller towns, which elected for part of the years accord- 
ing to their population. 

The apportionment of 1861 gave Kennebec thirteen members. Six 
districts were made: China, Albion and Clinton Gore with Unity 
Plantation; Vassalboro with Windsor; Readfield with Mt. Vernon 
and Vienna; Pittston with West Gardiner and Farmingdale; Benton, 
Clinton and Winslow; Sidney, Rome and Belgrade. This classifica- 
tion was slightly modified in 1871 by joining Winthrop with Wayne 
and Fayette; Hallowell with Chelsea, and Manchester to Litchfield 
and Monmouth — the county still having thirteen representatives. 

The several towns have been represented as follows: Albion, Joel 
Wellington, 1820, '21,, '28, '31, '33; Josiah Crosby, 1823, '24; John 
Winslow, 1826, '27; Enoch Farnham, 1833; James Stratton, 1835; Ben- 
jamin Webb, 1837; Codding Blake, 1839; Thomas Burrill, 1839, '41; 
Amasa Taylor, 1841, '42; Scotland Chalmers, 1844; Simeon Skillin 
1846; David Hanscom, 1848, '50; Artemas, Libby, 1853; John T. Main 
1855; William H. Palmer, 1858; N. E. Murray, 1860; Otis M. Sturte 
vant, 1861; H. T. Baker, 1863; Robert Crosby, 1866; Ezra Pray, 1868 
'70: Mark Rollins, jun., 1873; Elias C. Fowler, 1876; Ora O. Crosby 
1878; George H. Wilson, 1880; George B. Pray, 1887-8. Augusta 
Robert C. Vose, 1820, '21; Reuel Williams, 1822, '23, '24, '25, '29, '32 
'48; Robert Howard, 1826; John Davis, 1827; Henry W. Fuller, 1828 
Luther Severance, 1830, '40, '41, '43, '47; Daniel Williams, 1831; Elihu 


Robinson, 1832: William Emmons, 1833; George W. Morton, 1833, '34, 
'38, '39, '51, '52, '53; Richard H. Vose, 1834, '35, '38, '39; John Potter, 
1835, '36; Loring Gushing, 1836; Robert A. Con^^ 1837, '42; Alfred 
Redington, 1837; Benjamin .Swan, 1840, '41; John Arnold, jun., 1842; 
Richard F. Perkins, 1844, '45; Gharles Keen, 1846; James W. North, 
1849, '53, '74, '75; George W. Stanley, 1850; Lot M. Morrill, 1854; 
James A. Thompson, 1854; Edward Fenno, 1855; Samuel Titcomb, 
1855, '67, '68, '72, '73; Benjamin A. G. Fuller, 1856; Daniel C. Stan- 
wood, 1856; William T. Johnson, 1857, '58, '59, '71; James A. Bicknell, 
1857, '58; James G. Blame. 1859. '60, '61, '62; Josiah P. Wyman, I860, 
'61, '80, '81, '82; Vassal D. Pinkham, 1862; Joshua S. Turner, 1863, '64; 
Samuel Cony, 1863: Joseph H. Williams, 1864, '65, '66, '74; John L, 
Stevens, 1865, '66, '67; George E. Brickett, 1868, '69; Alanson B. Far- 
well, 1869, '70; Joseph Baker, 1870; John W. Chase, 1871; J. Prescott 
Wyman, 1872; George E. Weeks, 1873, '78, '79, '80; Gardiner C. Vose, 
1875; George S. Ballard, 1876, '77; J. Manchester Haynes, 1876, '77, 
'83, '84; Peleg O. Vickery, 1878, '79; Anson P. Morrill, 1881-2r 
Herbert M. Heath, 1883-4, '85-6; Ira H. Randall, 1885-6, '87-8r 
Joseph H. Manley, 1887-8, '89-90; John F. Hill, 1889-90, '91-2; 
Treby Johnson, 1891-2. Belgrade. Samuel Taylor, 1822; John Chan- 
dler, 1824; John Pitts, 1825, '27, '28, '32; John Rockwood, 1829; Anson 
P. Morrill, 1834; Richard Mills, 1835; George Smith, 1837; David 
Blake, 1838: Ephraim Tibbetts, jun., 1839; Jacob Main, 1840, '51, '52; 
Thomas Eldred, 1841; Moses Page, 1842; Reuben H. Yeaton, 1843; 
Samuel Frost, 1845; Joseph Taylor, 1847, '53; Levi Guptill, 1849; Ste- 
phen Smith, 1855; George Smith, 1857; Warren W. Springer, 1859; 
Thomas Rollins, 1861; Thomas Eldred, 1863; John S. Minot, 1866; 
Albert Caswell, 1868; Chaslew W. Stewart, 1871; C. Marshall Weston, 
1873; David Colder (unseated), 1876; Henry F. D. Wyman (contested), 
1876; Albert E. Faught, 1878; William F. Eldred, 1881-2; Hermon 
H. Adams, 1889-90. Benton, Orrin Brown, 1844; Daniel H. Brown, 
1846; Japheth Winn, 1848; Stewart Hunt, 1854; Daniel H. Brown, 
1856; Clark Piper, 1859; Albert C. Hinds, 1864; Asher H. Barton, 1867, 
'70; Madison Crowell, 1874; Simeon Skillin, 1876; Asher H. Learned, 
1877; Bryant Roundy, 1880; Sprague Holt, 1885-6; Frank W. Gifford, 
1891-2. Chelsea, Franklin B. Davis, 1853; Alonzo Tenney, 1857; 
Henry D. Doe, 1862; Josiah F. Morrill, 1867; George Brown, 1867; N. 
R. Winslow, 1873; Benjamin Tenney, 1876; William W. Hankerson, 
1879; William T. Searles, 1885-6; Mark L. Rollins, 1891-2. Clinton, 
Herbert Moors, 1820, '21, '23; William Eames, 1822; William Spear- 
ing, jun., 1825; Samuel Hudson, 1826; Josiah Hayden, 1827; William 
Ames, 1828, '30; David Hunter, 1833; James Lamb, 1834, '35; Charles 
Brown, 1836; Shubael Dixon, 1837; Matthias Weeks, 1838, '39, '40, '42; 
James Hunter, 1841; Joseph P. Brown, 1843; Richard Wells, 1845, '57; 
Francis Low, 1847; Samuel Haines, 1849; Samuel Weymouth, 1851, 


'52; Jonas Chase, 1853; Samuel Haines, 1855; David L. Hunter, 1859; 
William Lamb, 1861; Daniel H. Brown, 1863; Charles Jesett, 1866; 
William H. Bigelow, 1869; John F. Lamb, 1871; John Totman, 1873; 
William Lamb (unseated), 1875; Alfred W^eymouth, 1879; William G. 
Foster, 1883-4; Daniel C^in, 1889-90. China, Robert Fletcher, 1820, 
'21, '22. '23, '24; Abishai Benson, 1825, '26; Alfred Marshall, 1827, '28; 
John Weeks, 1829, '30; Ebenezer Meigs, 1831, '48; Benjamin Libby, 
jun., 1832; Gustavus A. Benson, 1833; Alfred Marshall, 1834; Prince 
B. Moores, 1835; Nathaniel .Spratt, 1836; Freeman Shaw, 1837; Tim- 
othy F. Hanscomb, 1838; William Mosher, 1839; Corydon Chadwick, 
1840: Jonathan Clark, 1841; Samuel Hanscomb, 1842; Charles F. Russ, 
1843, '44; Reuben Hamlin, 1845; Jason Chadwick, 1846; James H. 
Brainard, 1847; Thomas B. Lincoln, 1849; Samuel Plummer, 1850; 
John L. Gray, 1851, '52; Alfred Marshall, 1853; Eli Jones, 1855; Alfred 
Fletcher, 1857; Abel Chadwick, 1859; Dana C. Hanson, 1860; Josiah 
H. Greely, 1862; Ambrose H. Abbott, 1864, '65; Alfred H. Jones, 
1867: George F. Clark, 1871; Eli Jepson, 1872; L. B. Tibbetts, 1874; 
John O. Page, 1875; Moses W. Newbert, 1877; Francis Jones. 1879; 
Charles F. Achorn, 1881-2; Elijah D. Jepson, 1883-4; John A. 
Woodsum, 1889-90. Fanningdalc, Daniel Lancaster, 1856; Gideon C. 
McCausland, 1863; Andrew B. McCausland, 1869; Reuben S. Neal, 
1873; David Wing, 1879; Levi M. Lancaster, 1885-6; Elisha S. 
Newell, 1891-2. Fayette, Samuel Tuck, 1820, '21; Charles Smith, 
1823; Merrill Clough, 1826; Ezra Fisk, 1829, '31; Joseph H. Under- 
wood, 1833, '35, '38; Abijah Crane, jun., 1841; Isreal Chase, 1843; Jona- 
than Tuck, 1846; Howard B. Lovejoy, 1849; Moses Hubbard, 1854; 
Asa Hutchenson, 1860; Phineas Libby, 1864; F. A. Chase, 1869; J. H. 
Sturtevant, 1873; Albert G. Underwood, 1878; Charles Russell, 1887 
-8. Gardiner, Joshua Lord, 1820, '21, '24, '31; Robert H. Gardiner, 
1822; James Parker, 1823, '32; Daniel Robinson, 1825; George Evans, 
1826, '27, '28, '29; Peter Adams, 1830; Alexander S. Chadwick, 1833, 
'84, '35, '36; Parker Sheldon, 1837, '38, '39; Ebenezer F. Deane, 1840, 
'41; Edwin Swan, 1842; Philip R. Holmes, 1842; Philip C. Holmes, 
1843; Mason Damon, 1844; Silas Holman, 1845; Noah Woods, 1846, 
'47; Isaac N. Tucker, 1848, '49; Charles Danforth, 1850, '51, '52, '57; 
Robert Thompson, 1853; John Berry, jun., 1854, '55; Charles P. Wal- 
ton, 1856; John W. Hanson, 1858; John Webb, 1859, '60; William 
Perkins, 1861, '62; Lorenzo Clay, 1863, '64; John S. Moore, 1865; Henry 
B. Hoskins, 1866; John Berry, 1867; G. S. Palmer, 1868, '69; D. C. 
Palmer, 1870. '71; James Nash, 1872, '73; Nathan O. Mitchell, 1874, 
'75; Arthur Berry, 1876: Melvin C. Wadsworth, 1877, 78; William 
F. Richards, 1879, '80; David Wentworth, 1881-2, '83-4; Gustavus 
Moore, 1885-6, '87-8; Oliver B. Clayson, 1889-90, '91-2. Hallo- 
ivell, Peleg Sprague, 1820, '21, '22; William H. Page, 1823, '24, '25, 
'27: William Clark, 1826, '28, '29, '30, '32, '33; Charles Dummer, 1831, 


'32; John T. P. Dumont, 1833, '34, '35; S. ^V. Robinson, 1834, '35; 
Samuel Wells, 1836, '37; James Atkins. 1838, '39; Henry W. Paine, 
1836, '37, '38, '53: John Otis, 1839, '40, '41, '46, '47; Benjamin F. Mel- 
vin, 1840, '41; George W. Perkins, jun., 1842, '43, '45, '65; Henry K. 
Baker, 1842, '44, '54; Samuel K. Oilman, 1848, '49, '50, '51, '52; Rodney 
G. Lincoln, 1855; Henry Reed, 1856; Eliphalet Rowell, 1858, '61, '80, 
'81-2; Francis F. Day, 1859; Edward K. Butler, 1863; Charles Dum- 
mer, 1865; Ariel Wall, 1866, '71; Isaac F. Thompson, 1868, '70; Wil- 
liam Wilson, 1872; John S. Snow, 1874, '75; Joseph R. Bodwell, 1877, 
'78; Albert M. Spear, 1883-4, '85-6; Walter F. Marston, 1887-8; 
Hiram L. Grindle, 1889-90; George S. Fuller, 1891-^2. Litchfield, 
Asa Batcheldor, 1836; Hiram Shorey, 1837; John Neal, 1838, '39; 
David W. Perry, 1840; Ebenezer B. Pike, 1841, '42: Rev. William O. 
Grant, 1843, '44, '46; Aaron True, 1847, '49; Constant Quinnan, 1850; 
John Woodbury, 1854; Mark Getchell, 1855; Benjamin Smith, 1858; 
True Woodbury, 1860; Josiah True, 1861, '62; Nathaniel Dennis, 1864; 
Charles Howard Robinson, 1866; James Colby, 1868; Oramandel Smith, 
1870; Isaac W. Springer, 1872; John Woodbury, 1875; Samuel Smith, 
1878; David S. Springer, 1880; James E. Chase, 1883-4; Enoch Ad- 
ams, 1887-8. Manchester, William A. Sampson, 1857; H. G. Cole, 
1860; Isaac N. Wad,sworth, 1864, '77; Stephen D. Richardson, 1869; I. 
Warren Hawkes, 1874; Willis H. Wing, 1889-90. Monmouth, Abra- 
ham Morrill, 1820, '21; Benjamin White, jun., 1822, '23, '24, '25, '26, 
'27, '28, '29, '30, '31, '32; John Chandler, 1832; Isaac S. Small, 1833, '34; 
Ebenezer Freeman, 1835, '36, '37, '46; Otis Norris, 1838, '39; Augus- 
tine Blake, 1840; Jedediah B. Prescott, 1841; Henry V. Cumston, 1842; 
Joseph Loomis, 1844; John A. Tinkham, 1847; Royal Fogg, 1849; Jona- 
than M. Heath, 1851, '52; William G. Brown, 1854; Charles S. Norris, 
1855; George H. Andrews, 1857, '59; Abner C. Stockin, 1861; Daniel 
F. Ayer, 1863; John B. Fogg. 1865; Ambrose Beal, 1867; Mason J. 
Metcalf, 1869; James G. Blossom, 1871; Henry O. Pierce, 1873; Joshua 
Cumston, 1876; Seth Martin, 1879; J. H. Norris, 1881-2; Otis W. 
Andrews, 1885-6; Josiah L. Orcutt, 1891-2. Mt. Vernon, Nathaniel 
Rice, 1820,' '21; Elijah Morse, 1822, '24, '26, '28; David McGaffey, 1830, 
'39, '40; John Blake, 1832, '34; Samuel Davis, 1836, '37; James Chap- 
man, 1842; Daniel H. Thing, 1844, '63; Daniel Mansion, 1846; William 
H. Hartwell, 1848; Edward French, 1850; Stephen S. Robinson, 1853; 
Aaron S. Lyford, 1856; Elisha C. Carson, 1859; Washington Blake, 
1861; John Walton, 1866; Ezra Kempton, 1869; Calvin Hookins, 1871; 
Moses S. Mayhew, 1873; James A. Robinson, 1876; James C. Howland, 
1878; Quintin L. Smith, 1881-2; John P. Carson, 1889-90. Oakland, 
William Macartney, 1874; Greenlief T. Stevens, 1875; George W. 
Goulding, 1879, '80; Albion P. Benjamin, 1885-6; William M. Ayer, 
1891-2. Pittston, Thomas Coss, 1820, '21. '23, '25; Eliakim Scammon, 
1826, '28, '30, '31, '35, '36, '47; Henry Dearborn, 1832, '39; John Stev- 


•ens, 1833, '34; Hiram Stevens, 1837, '38: John Blanchard, 1840, '41; 
Samuel G. Bailey. 1842; George Williamson, 1843; William Troop, 
1844, '45; John Coss, 1848; Samuel Clark, 1849; Benjamin Flitner, 
1S,'5(); Benjamin F. Fuller, 1854; Heran T. Clark. 1855; John Blanchsird, 
1856; Alphonso H. Clark. 1858; William H. Mooers, 1859, '61; Caleb 
Stevens, 1860; John Boynton. 1862; Gideon Barker, 1864; Arnold Good- 
speed, 1866; Sumner R. Tibbetts, 1868; Warren R. Lewis, 1870; 
Zachariah Flitner, 1872; William Grant, 1874; Sumner Smiley, 1876; 
Daniel H. Moody, 1878; G. A. Colburn, 1880; Moses J. Donnell, 1883-4; 
Gorham P. H. Jewett, 1887-8. Randolph, Henry P. Closson, 1889-90. 
Readfield, Samuel Currier, 1820, '21; John Smith, 1822; Edward Fuller, 
1823; Solomon Lombard, 1824, '25; Jere. Page, 1826, '27; James Wil- 
liams, 1828, '29; Eliphalet Hoyt, 1830, '31; Oliver Bean, 1832, '33; Jon- 
athan G. Hunton, 1834; David F. Sampson, 1835, '36: William Vance, 
1837; John O. Craig, 1838; Elisha Prescott, 1839; John Haynes, 1840; 
Richard Judkins, 1841: Peter F. Sanborn, 1842; Dudley Haines, 1844; 
Timothy O. Howe, 1845; Hiram S. Melvin. 1847; Thomas Pierce, 1848: 
Eliab Lyon, 1850; Joshua Packard, 1851, '52; Emery O. Bean, 1852; 
Joseph A. Sanborn, 1854; George W. Hunton, 1856; Elisha S. Case, 
1858; James R. Batchelder, 1860; Peter F. Sanborn, 1862; H. M. Eaton, 
1865; Bradbury H. Thomas, 1868; Gustavus Clark. 1870; John Lam- 
bard, 1872; Jos'iah N. Fogg, 1875; George A. Russell, 1877: Benjamin 
W. Harrirnan, 1880; Francis A. Robinson. 1883-4; Frederick I. 
Brown, 1891-2. Rome, Hosea Spaulding, 1830; Job N. Tuttle, 1832: 
Samuel Goodridge, 1836: Thomas Whittier, 1839, '50: Eben Tracy, 
1844: Nathaniel Staples, 1847: N. P. Martin, 1857; John T. Fifield, 
1864; Eleazer Kelley, 1869: Elbridge Blaisdell, 1874: Thomas S.Golder, 
1879; John R. Pre.scott, 1885-6. Sidney, Ambrose Howard, 1820, '21; 
Daniel Tiffany, 1822; Samuel Butterfield, 1823, '24, '27, '32, '33; Reuel 
Howard, 1825, '26, '2S; Nathaniel Merrill, 1829, '30, "31, '34; Daniel 
Tiffany, jun., 1835, '36: Asa Smiley. 1837, '38, '39, '42: John B. Clifford, 
1840, '41; George Fields, 1843: Moses Frost, 1845; Moses Trask, 1846; 
Silas L.Wait, 1848, '49; Lauriston Guild, 1851, '52; Gideon Wing, 1854; 
Paul Hammond, 1856; James Sherman, 1858; John Merrill, 1860; Jo- 
seph T. Woodard, 1862: Martin V. B. Chase, 1865, '67; J. S. Gushing, 
1870; Jonas Butterfield, 1872: Henry A. Baker, 1875; Nathan W. Tay- 
lor. 1877; Gorham Hastings, 1880; Lorin B. Ward, 1883-4; Martin L. 
Reynolds, 1887-8. Vassalboro, Samuel Redington, 1820, '21, '28; 
Philip Leach, 1822, '23; Joseph R. Abbott, 1824, '25, '26, '34, '35; Elijah 
Robinson, 1827, '29, '30, '31, '32; Albert G. Brown, 1833; Moses Taber, 
1836, '37, '38: Amos Stickney, 1839, '40; Obed Durrill, 1841, '42; Isaac 
Fairfield, 1843, '46; John Moore, 1844, '45; Joseph E. Wing, 1847, '48; 
George Cox, 1849; John Homans, 1850, '51, '52; John G. Hall, 1853; 
William Merrill, 1854, '55; Hiram Pishon, 1856: Henry Weeks, 1858; 
Warren Percival, 1859; Timothy Rowell, 1860; W. H. Gates, 1862; Jo- 



seph B. Low, 1863; Thomas S. Lang, 1865, '66; Orrick Hawes, 1868 
'70, '79; Ira D. Sturgis, 1869; James C. Pierce, 1873; George Gifford 
1873; Howard G. Abbot, 1874; William P. Thompson, 1876; Isaiah 
Gifford, 1877; Nathaniel Butler, 1880; Edwin C. Barrows, 1883-4; W 
S. Bradley. 1887-8; Hall C. Burleigh, 1889-90; Reuel C. Burgess, 
1891-2. Vienna, Bernard Kimball. 1822; James Chapman, 1825, '28 
'34; Benjamin Porter, 1838; Nathaniel Graves, 1841; Joseph Edge 
comb, 1846; Thomas C. Norris, 1851, '52, '64; Joshua Little, 1857 
Obadiah Whittier, 1867; Henry Dowst, 1874; Saunders Morrill. 1879 
Albion G. Whittier. 1885-6. Waterville, Baxter Crowell, 1820, '21, 
'22, '23, '24, '32: Timothy Boutelle, 1825, '26, '29, '30, '31; Sylvanus 
Cobb, 1827, '28; Jedediah Morrill. 1833, '34; David Combs, 1836; Ne- 
hemiah Getchell, 1837; Calvin Gardner, 1838; Wyman B. S. Moor 
1839; Erastus O. Wheeler. 1840; Joseph Hitching, 1841; Moses Hans- 
com, 1842, '55; William Dorr, 1844, '45; Frederick P. Haviland, 1846 
'76 (unseated); Stephen Stark, 1847, '48; Thomas Baker, 1849; Joseph 
Percival, 1850, '51, '52; Joshua Nye.'jun., 1853; Joel Harriman, 1854 
Jones R. Elden, 1856; Josiah H. Drummond, 1857. '58; James Stack- 
pole, 1859; B. C. Benson, 1860; Joseph Percival, 1861; Dennis L. Milli 
ken, 1862: John M. Libby. 1863; W. A. P. Dillingham, 1864, '65; Reu 
ben Foster, 1866. '67, '70; Edwin P. Blaisdell, 1868, '69; Solyman Heath 
1871; Edmund F. Webb, 1872, '73; Nathaniel Meader (contestant) 
1876, '77, '83-4; Franklin Smith, 1878; F. E. Heath, 1881-2; Fred 
erick C. Thayer, 1885-6; Perham S. Heald, 1887-8, '89-90; Frank 
L. Thayer, 1891-2. Wayne, Moses Wing. 1825; Thomas S. Bridg 
ham, 1828, '30; Moses Wing, jun., 1833; John Morrison. 1835; Francis 
I. Bowles, 1837; Uriah H. Virgin, 1839; James Wing, 1841; Hamilton 
Jenkins, 1842; William Lewis, 1844; Benjamin Ridley, 1845; Caleb 
Fuller, 1848; Napoleon B. Hunton, 1850; Thomas Silson, 1853; Josiah 
Norris, jun., 1856; Arcadius Pettingill, 1858; Josiah Norris, 1860; James 
H. Thorne, 1862; George W. Walton, 1867; Matthias Smith, 1872; Jo^ 
seph S. Berry, 1877; Alfred F. Johnson, 1883-4; Benjamin F. Maxim, 
1889-90. West Gardiner, Thaddeus Spear, 1853; Cyrus Bran, 1859; 
Asa F. Hutchingson. 1865; George W. Blanchard, 1867; Phineas S.. 
Hogden. 1871; William H. Merrill, 1875; William P. Haskell, 1877; E.. 
P. Seavey, 1881-2. Windsor, Joseph Stewart, 1820, '21; William Hil- 
ton, 1822; Joseph Merrill, 1824; Charles Currier, 1827, '29; Nathan 
Newell, 1832; Gideon Barton, 1834, '36; John B. Swanton. 1838, '40;. 
Benjamin W. Farrar, 1842; Henry Perkins, 1843; Stephen F. Pierce, 
1845; Asa Heath, 1847; David Bryant, 1849; William S. Hatch, 1851, 
'.52; David Clary, 1854; Thomas Hyson, 1856; Stephen Barton. 1858; 
Elias Perkins, 1861; Elijah Moody, 1864; Levi Perkins, 1867; Horace 
Colburn, 1871; Joel W. Taylor, 1875; Adam L. Stimpson, 1878; James 
E. Ashford, 1881-2; Samuel P. Barton, 1885-6. Winslow, Josiah 
Hayden, 1824; Joseph Eaton, 1829, '31, '32, '62; Joshua Cushman, 1834; 


David Garland, 1834, 'SO, '60; Sidney Keith, 1836, 40; Robert Ayer, 
1838; William Getcliell, 1844, '48; Thomas J. Hayden, 1846; Robert H. 
Drummond, 1854, '58; Isaac W. Britten, 1856; Charles Drummond, 
1865; Charles A. Priest, 1868; Colby C. Cornish, 1872; James W.Withee,_ 
1875 (contestant); Leslie C. Cornish, ]878; Allen P. Varney, 1881-2; 
Charles E. Warren, 1887-8. Winthrop, Andrew Wood, 1820, '21, '22, 
'23, "30; Thomas Fillebrown, 1824, '27, '29, '31; Nathan Howard, 1825, 
'26; Isaac Moore, jun., 1828; Samuel Clark, 1832, '33; Samuel P. Benson, 
1834, '35; Dr.Ezekiel Holmes, 1836, '37, '38, '39, '40, '51; Nathan Foster, 
1841, '42; Samuel Wood, jun., 1843; Francis Perley, 1845; Thomas C. 
Wood, 1847; Francis Fuller, 1849; Ezekiel Bailey, 1853; Benjamin H. 
Cushman, 1855; William H. Parlin, 1857; John M. Benjamin, 1859; 
Francis E. Webb, 1861, '65; P. C. Bradford, 1863; David Cargill, 1866; 
John May, 1868, '70; Dr. Albion P. Snow, 1871; George A. Longfellow. 
1874; Amos Wheeler, 1875; Silas T. Floyd, 1876; Elliot Wood, 1879; 
Abijah R. Crane, 1880; Reuben T. Jones, 1881-2; Rutillas Alden, 
1887-8; John E. Brainard, 1891-2. Unity Plantation, Francis B. Lane, 

The Speakers of the Maine House from Kennebec county have 
been: George Evans, Gardiner, in 1829; Benjamin White, Monmouth, 
1831; J. H. Drummond, Waterville, 1858; William T. Johnson, Au- 
gusta, 1859; James G. Blaine, Augusta, 1861; W. A. P. Dillingham, 
Waterville, 1865; Reuben Foster. Waterville, 1870; Edmund F. Webb, 
Waterville, 1873; George E. Weeks, Augusta, 1880; J. Manchester 
Haynes, Augusta, 1883. 

County Officers. — The successive sheriffs of Kennebec county 
since the incorporation of Maine, in 1820, have been: Jesse Robinson, 
Hallowell. who began serving in 1820; Benjamin White, Monmouth, 
in 1832; George W. Stanley, Winthrop, 1834; Gustavus A. Benson, Win- 
throp, 1838; Eben F. Bacon, Waterville, 1839; William Dorr. Water- 
ville, 1841; James R. Bachelder, Readfield, 1842; Ebenezer Shaw, 
China, 1850; Charles N. Bodfish, Gardiner, 1851; John A. Pettingil, 
Augusta, 1854; Benjamin H. Gilbreth, Readfield, 1855; John A. Pet- 
tingil, Augusta. 1856; Benjamin H. Gilbreth, Readfield, 1857; John 
Hatch, China. 1861; Charles Hewins, Augusta, 1867; Asher H. Barton, 
Benton, 1871; William H. Libby, Augusta, 1875; George R. Stevens, 
Belgrade, 1881; Charles R. McFadden, Augusta, 1885; and Greenlief 
T. Stevens, Augusta, since January 1, 1889. 

The present sheriff of Kennebec county is Major Greenlief T. 
Stevens, of Augusta, now completing his fourth year of faithful and 
efficient service. Although educated to a profession and thoroughly 
identified with civil affairs, he is best known and probably destined 
to be longest remembered by his military career. Facts are the only 
fast colors in history. The facts that hold a life like his, fully repre- 
sent the actor, without comment or commendation. He comes of 


patriotic stock. His grandfather, William Stevens, came from Leba- 
non, in York county, and settled in Belgrade about the year 1796, and 
was a soldier in the revolutionary war. Daniel and Mahala (Smith) 
Stevens, daughter of Captain Samuel Smith of Belgrade, where he 
was born August 20, 1831, were his parents. A farm life, a happy 
home and a country school, supplemented by the advantages of the 
Titcomb Belgrade Academy, and of the Litchfield Liberal Institute, 
were the good fortune of his childhood and youth. Then he applied 
his talents and acquirements for several years to teaching school, a 
part of the time in the South. 

By that time the purpose of his future was settled and Jie went to 
Augusta and read law with Hon. Samuel Titcomb till 1860, when he 
obtained admission to the Cumberland bar. Wishing the best possi- 
ble equipment, he then took the regular course at the Harvard Law 
School, fromi which he graduated in August, 1861, receiving the de- 
gree of LL.B. 

In the meantime the first cloudburst of the impending] rebellion 
had captured Fort Sumter and fired the patriotism of every truly 
American heart. Instantly the inherited hero blood of the citizen 
dominated over the professional ambitions of the lawyer, and with 
his own name at the head of the roll, he recruited at his own expense, 
a large number of men for the Fifth Maine Battery, and tendered his 
services to Governor Washburn. From the Maine adjutant general's 
report it appears that on December 14, 1861, he was commissioned 
first lieutenant in that battery, and on January 31, 1862, was mu.stered 
into the United States service for three years. In May he joined the 
army at Fredericksburg, Va., and served successively under McDowell, 
Pope, McClellan, Mead, Grant and Sheridan. At the battle of Fred- 
ericksburg he was temporarilj' in command of the Fifth Battery, and 
at the battle of Chancellorsville was wounded in the left side by a 
fragment of a shell. He was promoted captain, June 21st, and at the 
battle of Gettysburg, July 2d, received another wound, a ball passing 
through both legs, below the knee. In July, 1864, he was detached 
from the army of the Potomac with the Sixth Corps and proceeded to 
Washington for its defense. Subsequently joining the army of the 
Shenandoah under Sheridan, he was engaged in the three great bat- 
tles which resulted in the complete destruction of the rebel army 
under Early. On February 14, 1865, he was appointed major by 
brevet, to take rank from October 19, 1864, for gallant and meritorious 
conduct at the battles of Cold Harbor, Winchester and Cedar Creek. 
Major Stevens was mustered out of the United States service with his 
battery, at Augusta, Me.. July 6, 1865. 

An extract from The Cannoneer in describing the battle of Cedar 
Creek, October 19, 1864, under Sheridan, reads: 



" At the time when Getty's division was fighting in its second 
position Stevens, who had apparently been retiring in the interval 
between the right of Getty and the left of Wheaton, formed his bat- 
tery on the knoll opposite the right flank of Warner's Brigade and 
opened a tremendous fire of canister on that part of the enemy's line 
which was advancing to envelope Warner. These must have been 
Kershaw's troops, but there was another Rebel division coming up 
still beyond Kershaw over the ground vacated by our First Division. 
This, according to Early's account, was Gordon's division, and one 
brigade of it started to charge Stevens' Battery. According to the 
best information immediately after the battle or since, there was no 
infantry of the First Division within supporting distance of Stevens 
at that moment, as that division was then reforming at from one-third 
to one-half a mile in his rear. But he stood his ground and repulsed 
the charge of Gordon's troops, who did not get more than half way up 
the acclivity of the knoll he was holding, and who, according to Gen. 
Early's account, ' recoiled in considerable confusion.' " 

On a document requesting his promotion General Wright, com- 
manding the Sixth Corps, endonsed: " The gallant and important ser- 
vices rendered by Captain Stevens of which I was personally cogni- 
zant make it my duty to bring his merits before the authorities of his 
state and to ask for him at their hands such acknowledgment in the 
way of promotion as it is in their power to bestow." General Sheri- 
dan endorsed the recommendation as " highly approved." 

Describing the great crisis in the battle of Winchester the field 
correspondent of the Nezv York IVor/d saxA: " The moment was a fear- 
ful one; such a sight rarely occurs more than once in any battle, as 
was presented on the open space between two pieces of woodland into 
which the cheering enemy poured. The whole line, reckless of bul- 
lets, even of the shell of our battery, constantly advanced. Captain 
Stevens' battery, the Fifth Maine, posted immediately in their front, 
poured its fire unflinchingly into their columns to the last. A staff 
officer riding up warned it to the rear, to save it from capture. It did 
not move — the men of the battery loading and firing with the regu- 
larity and precision of a field day. The foe advanced to a point wnthin 
two hundred yards of the muzzles of Captain Stevens' guns." Colonel 
C. H. Tompkins, chief of artillery. Sixth Corps, .said: " However try- 
ing the circumstances Captain Stevens has always been found equal 
to the occasion." 

After the war Major Stevens returned to his profession and opened 
a law office in West Waterville, now Oakland, where he bad a lucra- 
tive practice, being employed in nearly every case in that vicinity. 
During the score of years of Mr. Stevens' professional life he has 
built up a most enviable reputation, not only for knowledge of the law 
but for what is still more important, complete devotion to his clients' 
interests. His fellow citizens expressed their respect and confidence 
by placing him in the legislature in 1875, where he was a most useful 


member of the judiciar}' committee. In 1877 he was promoted to the 
state senate, serving as chairman of the committee on legal affairs. 
He was also a member of the committee on railroads and military 
affairs. Reelected to the senate of 1878, he was chairman of the com- 
mittee on the judiciary. In 1882 he was commissioned colonel and 
assigned to duty as chief of staff First Division Maine Militia, under 
Major General Joshua L. Chamberlain. He is a member of the Maine 
Gettysburg Commission, and is widely known in Grand Army circles. 
He was first elected to the office of sheriff in 1888 and was reelected 
in 1890. His administration of the affairs of this important office, and 
his management of the criminal department have been characterized 
by economy, efficiency and good judgment. 

Major Stevens' wife is Mary Ann, daughter of Richard Yeaton, 2d, 
a prominent citizen of Belgrade. They have had four children: Jesse; 
Don Carlos, a Unitarian minister now located in Fairhaven, Mass.; Ala, 
and Rupert — the first and two latter now deceased. 

The first deed recorded in this county bears the date 1783. Only 
.a few transfers are recorded, however, while Augusta was a half shire- 
•town, and until the regular series of dates beginning with 1799. Those 
who have served the county in the capacity of registers of deeds are: 
Henry Sewall, from June 12, 1799; John Hovey, April 10, 1816; J. R. 
Abbott, December 29, 1836; John Richards, January 1, 1842; Alanson 
Starks, November 1, 1844; J. A. Richards, January 1, 1858; Archibald 
■Clark, January 1, 1868; William M. Stratton, September 23, 1870; P. 
M. Fogler, November 12, 1870. The present efficient system of the 
-office was largely inaugurated during Major Fogler's long term of 
service, and he compiled the elaborate indexes now in use. His suc- 
cessor, George R. Smith, of Winthrop, took the office January 1, 1892. 
The following have served as treasurers of Kennebec county. 
Accompanying their names are the dates on which their respective 
terms of office began: Joshua Gage, Augusta, 1810; Daniel Stone, 
Augusta, 1832; Daniel Pike, Augusta, 1838, died in office, July 1, 1868; 
John Wheeler, of Farmingdale, who was appointed to fill the vacancy, 
-served until 1869; Alanson Starks, Augusta, 1869; Mark Rollins, Al- 
bion, 1879; and James E. Blanchard, Chelsea, 1889. Mr. Blanchard is 
a .son of Edwin H. Blanchard, of Chelsea, where he was born in 18.57. 
He was educated there, and in Hallowell Classical School, and Dirigo 
Business College. He was elected town clerk of Chelsea in 1879, and 
after holding various town offices, was elected county treasurer in 

Asylum for the Insane.— Prior to 1839 Maine had no state pro- 
vision for the care of the insane. The several towns provided in 
various indifferent ways for such unfortunates as were in indigent 
-circumstances, while dangerous lunatics were simply restrained in the 
common prisons, which were wholly without means of care or relief. 

', /- ' »_ 1 



The cardinal motive in building a state asylum was to provide better 
■care for such. Now any indigent person within the state may be ad- 
mitted upon proper order, and the town in which such person has a 
settlement is charged chiefly with, the expense; but a person within 
the state not having a settlement may be cared for wholly at the ex- 
pense of the state. The attention of the legislature was first called 
to the subject in 1830, by Governor Jonathan G. Hunton; but nothing 
•definite was done until 1834, when Governor Dunlap urged that a sys- 
tematic and suitable provision be made by the state for the relief of 
her insane. Petitions to that end and in regard to a location followed 
from various parts of the state, and these, with that part of the gov- 
ernor's message pertaining to it, were referred to a legislative com- 
mittee, which reported in favor of the establishment of such an insti- 

On the 8th of March, 1834, the legislature appropriated $20,000 for 
the purpose, upon condition that a like sum should be raised by indi- 
vidual donations within one year. Before the time limit was reached 
Reuel Williams of Augusta and Benjamin Brown of Vassalboro each 
agreed to contribute $10,000 for the purpose. Mr. Brown in his dona- 
tion proposed to convey to the state as a site, two hundred acres of 
land, lying on the Kennebec river in Vassalboro, and would consent 
to a sale of the estate, if advisable to build elsewhere. The legisla- 
ture accepted the land, which was sold for $4,000 and the present more 
eligible site was selected in Augusta, on the eastern bank of the Ken- 
nebec, nearly opposite the state house, for which $3,000 was-paid. 
Reuel Williams, who was appointed a commissioner to erect the hos- 
pital, sent John B. Lord, of Hallowell, to examine similar institutions, 
and the general plan of the asylum at Worce>^ter, Mass., was adopted. 
During 1836 contracts were made and materials collected, but in March, 
1837, Mr. Williams resigned the office and John H. Hartwell was ap- 
pointed, under whose supervision the work was carried on one year. 
In March, 1838, a further appropriation of $29,500 was made to complete 
the exterior, and Charles Keene was appointed in place of Mr. Hart- 
well. In 1840 a further appropriation of $28,000 was made to com- 
plete the wings, and on the 14th of October one of the 126 rooms was 
•occupied by the first patient. 

Dr. Cyrus Knapp, of Winthrop, was appointed superintendent and 
physician; Dr. Chauncey Booth, jun., assistant; Henry Winslow, steward, 
•and Mrs. Catherine Win.slow, matron. In 1846-7 appropriations of 
■$29,400 were made to erect a new wing, which was completed during 
1848 and provided for seventy-five additional male patients. 

Doctor Knapp resigned early in 1841 and was succeeded in August 
by Dr. Isaac Ray, of Eastport, whose first edition of Medical J urispru- 
■dence had recently appeared. During his three years here he re-wrote 
the work and published the second edition, which became authority 


in Europe as well as in America. He was succeeded March 19, 1845, 
by Dr. James Bates, the father of Dr. James Bates of Yarmouth, and 
formerly a member of congress from Norridgewock. He remained 
until after the terrible fire of ISSO. This fire, in which twenty-seven 
patients and one attendant lost their lives, occurred on the early morn- 
ing of December 4th. The building was immediately repaired and 
was occupied before the close of 1850, and Dr. Henry M. Harlow, who 
came as assistant to Doctor Bates in June, 1845, was made superintend- 
ent June 17, 1851. During that and the following year $49,000 was 
appropriated to rebuild and improve the buildings, which were thor- 
oughly and safely heated by steam. By 1854 facilities were ample for 
250 patients, and the fact that this capacity was often fully taxed, co i- 
firms the judgment of its founders. 

Doctor Harlow is a native of Westminster, Vt., a graduate from 
the Berkshire Medical School of Pittsfield, and before coming to 
Augusta had been assistant physician in the Vermont Asylum at Brat- 
tleboro. After thirt3'-two years of faithful and appreciated service 
to the state and to mankind, he resigned his control of the institution 
and is passing his later years in quiet life at his home in Augusta. 
His resignation, tendered some time previous, was accepted on the 18th 
of April, 1883, on the appointment of his successor. Dr. Bigelow T. 
Sanborn, who had been his assistant for more than sixteen years. 

Doctor Sanborn was born July 11, 1839, in Standish, Me., his an- 
cestors having been substantial residents of Cumberland county since 
his grandfather was in the revolutionary war. He received his earlier 
education in select and town schools and in Limington Academy, and 
subsequently studied medicine in Portland Medical School, but took 
his degree from Bowdoin Medical School. When he was first offered 
a place in the institution as assistant superintendent it was through 
the advice of the medical faculty of Bowdoin, where he had graduated 
June 6, 1866,- only ten days before entering here, upon his career now 
covering a quarter of a century. After accepting the superintendency 
of the asylum in 1883, Doctor Sanborn spent a few months investigat- 
ing the workings of similar institutions, thus bringing to the manage- 
ment of this, the most modern theories of the schools and the medi- 
cal profession, as well as a personal knowledge of the most approved 
features in the practical workings of the best asylums. 

The accompanying landscape illustration shows the asylum and its 
beautiful surroundings in 1892. The view is from the northwest, looking 
from the river. The farm of four hundred acres belonging to the state 
reaches into the left background of the picture, and also includes some 
broad fields sloping west to the river bank, showing models of thrifty 
and profitable farming. The two large hospital buildings in the center 
background of the view were erected by Doctor Sanborn in 1888 and 
1889; in fact less than half of the present equipment of the institution 

^a^/i^u/- J. J) eM^U^^^^^^^-^^ 


was in existence when he came here in 1S66, and nearly half of the 
buildings have been erected and occupied under his supervision. It is 
a great credit to the commonwealth — the existence and efficiency of so 
liberal a charity to unfortunate humanity — and it is only just to a 
broad-minded, capable public servant to note here that this noble in- 
stitution under the liberal provisions of the state has reached its most 
important period thus far within the decade marked by the manage- 
ment of Dr. Bigelow T. Sanborn. 

The first directors -were: Reuel Williams of Augusta, Benjamin 
Brown of Vassalboro, and William C. Larrabee. In 1843 these direc- 
tors were superseded by four trustees, which number was subse- 
quently increased to six, one of whom must be a woman. Kennebec 
county has been represented in the board of tru.stees by Dr. Amos 
Nourse and Dr. John Hubbard, Hallowell; Hon. J. H. Hartwell, Hon. 
J. L. Cutler, Dr. William B. Lapham, Hon. J. H. Manley, George E. 
Weeks, J. W. Chase and Mrs. C. A. Quimby, Augusta; Dr. A. P. vSnow, 
Winthrop; Hon. Edward Swan and R. H. Gardiner, Gardiner; John 
Ware, Waterville; and Mrs. E.J. Torsey. The pay is merely nominal 
and the board has included other philanthropic gentlemen, who have 
given the institution their attention in sympathy with the generous 
purpose of its earlier friends. The trustees in 1891 were: Frederick 
Robie, M. D., William H. Hunt, M. D., George E. Weeks, of Augusta; 
Mrs. E. J. Torsey, of Kents Hill; Lyndon Oak and R. B. Shepherd. 
The resident ofScers are: Bigelow T. Sanborn, M. D., superintendent; 
H. B. Hill, AI. D., asst. sup.; George D. Rowe, M. D., second asst.; 
Emmer Virginia Baker, M. D., third asst.; P. H. S. Vaughan, M. D., 
fourth asst.; Manning vS. Campbell, steward and treas.; and Alice G. 
Twitchell, matron. 

Educational Institutions. — Before Maine was a state, Massa- 
chusetts had made broad and liberal provisions for popular education, 
and from, then until now we find in this county well equipped schools 
besides those supported by the several cities and towns. The laws of 
Massachusetts provided for elementary English schools in every town 
containing sixty families, and a grammar school in every town con- 
taining two hundred; when Maine became a state she changed this, 
requiring schools in every town, each town to raise annually forty cents 
per capita and distribute the same to the districts in proportion to the 
pupils in them. In 1825 this school fund averaged $47.75 for each dis- 
trict; but from the first the amount actually raised averaged more than 
the law required. 

In compliance with a petition addressed to the general court, in 
which it was stated that no public school existed between Exeter, N. 
H., and the eastern boundary of Maine, a tract three hundred miles 
broad, and embracing a population of 100,000, an act was passed 


March o, 1791, establishing an academy at Hallowell. The following 
June the corporation was endowed with a township of unappropriated 
land; four years later the building was completed and the school 
opened, with Mr. Woodman as principal. In its years of prosperity, 
many who subsequently became eminent in professional vocations 
availed themselves of the advantages which this school afforded. 

Next to Hallowell Academy, the first school in Maine which em- 
braced in its curriculum a complete college preparatory course, was 
Monmouth Academy, which was incorporated as a free grammar 
school in 1803, and as an academy in 1809. Among the alumni of this 
institution, which is treated more exhau.stively in the chapter devoted 
to the history of Monmouth, are found some of the leading statesmen 
and professional men in the country. 

In 1813 the Maine Literary and Theological Institution was incor- 
porated, for the education of young men for the Baptist ministry. In 
June, 1820, the powers of the school were enlarged, and authority 
given to confer the usual university degrees. In the following Feb- 
ruary its name was changed to Waterville College. The state of Mas- 
sachusetts granted the school about 38,000 acres of land, and in 1829 
the college had buildings valued at $14,000, a library of 1,700 volumes 
and other permanent property aggregating $29,500. The first build- 
ing erected was a house for the president, who instructed the students 
in a private house from 1818, when he accepted the position of pro- 
fessor in theology, until 1821, when the dormitory now known as South 
College was completed. In 1822 Chaplin Hall was begun, and in 1832 
and 1837, respectively, two other large buildings were added. 

In 1862 Maine granted the institution two half townships of land, 
in addition to a former endowment of an annuity of $1,000 for seven 
years succeeding its incorporation as a college. A manual labor depart- 
ment was established in 1830, with a view to lighten the expenses of 
the institution, but after a thorough trial the project was abandoned 
and the shops and tools sold. 

The munificent gift of $50,000 from Gardiner Colby, of Xewton, 
Mass., in 1864, and $100,000 received from other sources, placed the col- 
lege on a secure basis, and led to the title Colby University, which it has 
borne since January, 1867. In 1871 women were first admitted on equal 
terms with young men. There are three academical institutions in 
Maine controlled by the trustees of Colby University, from which 
pupils are admitted to the college on presentation of a diploma — Heb- 
ron Academy, Ricker Institute and Coburn Classical Institute. Jere- 
miah Chaplin, D. D., was president from 1822, succeeded by Rufus 
Babcock, D. D., in 1833; Robert E. Pattison, D. D., 1836; E. Fay, A. M., 
1841; David N. Sheldon, 1843; R. E. Pattison again, 1854; and James 
T. Champlin, 1857 to 1873. 


The president of Colby University from 1873 to 1882 was Rev. 
Henry E. Robins, followed by Rev. G. D. B. Pepper, D. D., who served 
until 1889, when he was succeeded by Albion Woodbury Small, Ph. D., 
born May 11, 1854, at Buckfield, Me. He graduated from Portland 
High School in 1872, from Colby University in the class of '76, and 
three years later from Newton Theological Institute. He went to 
Germany in 1879, where he spent one year each at the universities of 
Berlin and Leipsic. In the fall of 1881 he began his work at Colby 
in the chair of history and political economy, where his abilit}^ as an 
educator soon became apparent, and in 1889 he was made president. 
He is the youngest president, that Colby has ever had, and the first 
graduate of the institution to hold that office. His depth and origi- 
nality of thought, and his earnest, straightforward and powerful dic- 
tion never fail to command the attention of his listeners, whether in 
sermon or lecture.* 

Coburn Classical Institute was founded in 1829, a s.Waterville Acad- 
emy. Hon. Timothy Boutelle had given a lot for the purpose, and by 
the earnest efforts of Dr. Jeremiah Chaplin and others a suitable 
building was erected. The school went into operation under the charge 
of Henry W. Paine, a senior in Waterville College, now Hon. Henry 
W. Paine, LL. D., of Boston. He was assisted by Josiah Hodges, 
jun., a fellow student in the college. Robert W. Wood had charge of 
the school a part of the term. George I. Chase was principal from 
August, 1830, until May, 1831. In August, 1831, Henry Paine, a grad- 
uate of Waterville College, took charge of the school, and kept his 
place for five years. He was succeeded by Mr. Freeman and he by 
Moses Burbank, who stayed but a few months. His successor was 
Lorenzo B. Allen. In 1837 Charles R. Train, afterward attorney gen- 
eral of Massachusetts, took his place. For the next five years the 
•office was filled by several different persons, among whom were 
Charles H. Wheeler and Nathaniel B. Rogers, a nephew of Hon. 
Timothy Boutelle. 

In the winter of 1841-2 the trustees of the college gave up the 
charge of the school and it was incorporated and Rev. Dr. Nathaniel 
Butler, was put in charge. In 1843 Dr. James H. Hanson took charge 
and in September became principal. In 184.'5 another room was fitted 
up and Miss Roxana F. Han.scom was employed to teach a department 
for girls. When Doctor Hanson took the school there were but five 
pupils. In 1853 the 308 pupils demanded another teacher, and George 
B. Gow was employed as assistant. Doctor Hanson resigned in 1854, 
and Mr. Gow was principal until 1855, after which James T. Bradbury 
was principal until 1857, Isaac vS. Hamblen until 1861. Ransom E. 
Norton, Randall E. Jones and John W. Lamb were principals succes- 
*Doctor Small has accepted the head professorship of social science in Chicago 
University. October, 1892.— [Ed. 



sively until 186;"). The trustees then made over their trust to the 
trustees of the college. The name was changed to Waterville Classi- 
calTnstitute, with a three years' (subsequently four years') collegiate 
course for young ladies, and Doctor Hanson was persuaded to return 
as principal, which position he still occupies. In 1883 Governor Abner 
Coburn gave the school its present elegant building in Waterville, 
and the institution has since been known as Coburn Classical Institute. 
T " Dr. James H. Hanson, the present principal of the institute, 
is a native of China, Me., having been born there June 26, 1816. At 
the age of eighteen he left the farm to attend China Academy, where 


he was fitted for college, and graduated from Colby University in the 
class of '42. He began teaching in 1835, and taught each winter until 
his graduation. Since that time he has taught continuously, and in 
this period of fifty years he has not been absent from the school room 
a week altogether from any cause. He became principal of Water- 
ville Academy in 1843, continuing until 1854, when he took charge of 
the high school of Eastport, Me., and three years later he became 
principal of the Portland High School for boys, where he remained 
until 1865, then returned to Waterville, and has since been the untir- 
ing and energetic principal. 


In 1835 the legislature incorporated the Waterville Liberal Insti- 
tute, and December 12, 1836, the school was opened under the auspices 
of the Universalist society, with fifty-four pupils under Nathaniel M. 
Whitmore as principal. In 1850 a female department was added and 
the school flourished until 1855, when the growth of Westbrook Sem- 
inary sufficiently filled the field. Mr. Whitmore's successors were: T. 
G. Kimball, Rev. J. P. Weston, P. L. Chandler, J. H. Withington, T. 
W. Herrick, Rev. H. B. Maglathlin, J. M. Palmer, Hon. H. M. Plaisted 
and J. W. Butterfield. 

In 1815 Judge Cony, of Augusta, erected, entirely at his own ex- 
pense, a building for a female seminary. The structure, which stood 
on the corner of Cony and Bangor streets, was completed in great 
secrecy, and until the seats and desks with which it was furnished 
arrived, no one but the judge knew the purpose for which it was 
intended. On Christmas day, 1815, he presented the academy to a 
board of trustees appointed by himself. In 1818 the institution was 
incorporated as Cony Female Academy, when it was further endowed 
by its munificent patron. The legislature, in 1827, granted half a 
township of state land, and Benjamin Bussey, of Boston, donated a 
tract of land in Sidney. On the strength of these endowments, a 
commodious brick boarding house and dormitory was erected on the 
corner of Bangor and Myrtle streets. 

In 1825 the school had fifty girls in attendance. Board was quoted 
at $1.25 per week and tuition $20 per annum. The donation of $3,225 
by the founder, together with the funds derived from the sale of lands 
given by the state, raised the permanent fund of the school $9,985. 
At that time the library, also donated, embraced 1,200 volumes. The 
school having outgrown its accommodations, in 1844, Bethlehem 
church, a structure erected by the Unitarian society in 1827, was pur- 
chased and remodeled for its use, the old building being sold for a 
private residence. With the growth of Augusta's splendid free school 
system, the academy disappears, but the generous founder is remem- 
bered in name of the Cony High School of that city. 

Through the liberality of Mr. Luther vSampson, of Kents Hill, the 
Readfield Religious and Charitable Society was incorporated in 1821. 
One of the multifarious designs of this organization was that of estab- 
lishing a school, on land donated by Mr. Sampson, for in.struction in 
experimental Christianity, theology, literature, and a practical knowl- 
edge of agriculture and the mechanic arts. By a new charter, granted 
in 1825, the corporation adopted the title Maine Wesleyan Seminary, 
and was united with a religious boarding school which had been estab- 
lished by Elihu Robinson at Augusta. Mr. Robinson removed to Kents 
Hill where, by means of an endowment of $10,000 by Mr. Sampson, 
buildings for the school were erected, and assumed the duties of prin- 
cipal. Thinking to further the designs of the founders to furnish 


the means of acquiring a liberal education at small cost, a manual 
labor department was established, with the usual unhappy result. 

In 1841 the institution had almost succumbed to adversity. At 
this juncture Dr. Stephen Allen became principal, and under his man- 
agement and the indefatigable efforts of his successor, Dr. Henry P. 
Torsey, who was elected president in 1844, the institution was relieved 
of many of its embarrassments and gradually rose to prominence. It 
is now the largest and best equipped academical institution in the 
state. In addition to its regular classical and scientific departments, 
it supports a female college, founded about 1830, a conservatory of 
music, an art department and a commercial college. 

The Gardiner Lyceum, founded in 1822, being an important agri- 
cultural school, is fully noticed in the chapter on agriculture, and an 
account of Oak Grove Seminary, at Vassalboro, will be found in the 
chapter on the Society of Friends. 

About 1821 an academy was started in a small building at China 
village, on the bank of the lake, where the district school house now 
stands. John S. Abbott, a popular lawyer; E. P. Lovejoy, a martyr in 
the cause of freedom in anti-slavery days; Rev. Henry Paine, Rev. 
Hadley Proctor, and others were among the preceptors. A new and 
spacious brick academy was subsequently erected at China village, in 
which many young men have been fitted for college. Hon. Japheth 
C. Washburn procured the charter of this academy, and with his own 
hands felled and prepared for hewing the first stick of timber for the 
building. The institution was endowed by the state with a grant of 
state lands to the value of $10,000. This school stood high in public 
estimate as an educational institution for many years. The stock- 
holders held their annual elections and meetings until 1887, when the 
property was deeded to the school district for educational purposes. 

Belgrade Titcomb Academy, founded in 1829, was named in honor 
of Samuel Titcomb, through whose efforts, together with those of 
John Pitts, its establishment was made possible. The academy build- 
ing was a large, two story brick structure, and fromi its situation on 
the summit of Belgrade hill commanded one of the grandest views 
in Kennebec county. The institution was incorporated, and its man- 
agement was in the hands of a board of trustees elected annually. 
Here were taught the higher branches, unknown to the common 
schools, as well as ancient and modern languages, and students of 
both sexes came from many of the neighboring towns. In its most 
prosperous days over a hundred pupils were in attendance. A lyceum, 
connected with it during its whole existence, formed no unimportant 
part of its course. Among its teachers and pupils were many who 
have since won high names for themselves. Regular terms of the 
academy were held each year until about 1865, when lack of financial 
support and the introduction of free high schools in many of the sur- 


rounding towns were the chief reasons for closing its doors. In June, 
1885, the edifice was burned under suspicious circumstances. The 
first principal of the academy was William Farmer, and among others 
who acted as principals in subsequent years were Thomas Hubbard, 
Horace Austin, Charles K. Hutchins, D. F. Goodrich, Milford T. Mer- 
chant, Mr. Grant, Mr. Matthews and Mr. Adams. A few bricks in an 
open field now mark the spot where once flourished this, the only in- 
stitution of higher education ever in that part of the county. 

Litchfield Academy was incorporated in 1845. It was endowed by 
the state in 1849 with half a township of land in Aroostook county, 
and in 1891 with an annuity of $500 for ten years. The building 
which is now occupied by the school was erected in 1852. [See 

Butler's Female Seminary, a private school for young ladies, located 
at East Winthrop, was, in its day, one of the most popular and best 
patronized educational institutions in Maine. It was founded and 
conducted by Rev. Mr. Butler. 

The West Gardiner Academy was built and incorporated in 1858. 
It was also used as a place of worship by the First Free Baptist Soci- 
ety. The building has long since ceased to be used for educational 

Jenness Towle made provisions by will for a Winthrop Academy, 
stipulating that his gift should revert to Bangor Theological Seminary 
unless the town made use of the bequest within a limited time. In 
1855 the town erected a building for a town hall and academy, using 
the bequest, and thus Towle Academy began a period of usefulness, 
merging about 1876 in the subsequent period of the present high 
school of the town. The first principal was John Walker May, now 
of Lewiston. 

St. Catherine's Hall was established by members of St. Mark's 
parish, Augusta, aided by friends outside of the diocese, in 1868. For 
several years prior a small denominational school for girls had been 
conducted in a private house on the east side of the river, under the 
patronage of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Lambard. At an expense of 
$18,000 a large private residence was purchased and remodeled for 
the accommodation of the school. But such was the growth of the 
institution under its able management that it became necessary to 
erect the present beautiful structure on the east side of the river. 

Hallowell Classical Institute was organized in 1S73, and the new 
buildings erected for its occupancy were dedicated January 14th of 
the following year. It was designed for a preparatory school for 
Bowdoin College and for a seminary for young ladies, and incidentally 
became a local school of higher grade than the regular city schools. 
For sixteen years it did good work in its broad field of usefulness, 
but want of means proved too great an obstacle to be overcome after 



the summer term in 1889. Its first principal was Rev. Vincent Moses. 
His successors were: Rev. Almon W. Burr, 1876-82; Lawrence Rolfe, 
A.B., 1883-5, and Rev. Edward Chase, 1886-9. 

The Maine Industrial School for Girls was organized at Hallowell 
in 1872. The purpose of the institution is to afford girls who are 
thrown upon their own resources at an early age the advantages and 
influences of home training. The school is convened in a large, well- 
planned brick building on the crown of a high hill overlooking the 
city, and is supported by appropriations from the state and private 
contributions and donations. Since the organization of the institu- 

tion between three and four 
hundred have found in it an asylum, and 
of these a large number, after a short tuition, have been received into 
good homes in private families. The board of managers and trus- 
tees, of which the governor, secretary of state and superintendent of 
common schools are members c.r officio, are appointed by the state. 

The Erskine School, at China, was founded in 1883, by Mrs. Sul- 
livan Erskine, who purchased at Chadwick's Corners the church build- 
ing which, in 1891, was enlarged and fitted for the growing wants of 
the school. Here under the principalship of William J. Thompson, 
many j'oung people are receiving a serviceable article of real learning. 
Professor Thompson was born in Knox county and was educated at 
the Castine Normal School. He taught at South Thomaston and in 



the Searsport High School until 1883, when he came to China as the 
first principal of this school, which has flourished under his manage- 

The Dirigo Business College is located at Augusta. The modern 
business training school is the result of- a revolution in methods of 
preparing for business pursuits, which once were thought to involve 
a liberal scientific, if not a classical, course in seminary or college. A 
private business school— the first in the interior of Maine — was opened 
in Augusta in 1863, by David M. Waitt. He was a good teacher and 
the school became popular and useful under his management, and 
subsequently the legislature granted it a charter as the Dirigo Busi- 
ness College. In May, 1880, Mr. Waitt was succeeded by the present 
principal, R. B. Capen, who, with an able corps of teachers, has en- 
larged the usefulness and increased the popularity of this college, 
whose graduates include many of the younger professional and busi- 
ness men in this part of the state. Mr. Capen is a native of Massa- 
chusetts, where he was master of the Norwood High School and prin- 
cipal of the Dowse Academy in Sherborn. 

The Maine State Library was founded in 1839 and its little collec- 
tion of 3,349 volumes was under the charge of the secretary of state. 
Twenty-two years later, when the collection had reached 11,000 vol- 
umes, the office of state librarian was created and George G. Stacy be- 
came its first incumbent. His successors have been: Joseph T. Wood- 
ward, John D. Myrick, Josiah S. Hobbs and Leonard D. Carver. In 
1892, the collection having reached 45,000 volumes, was removed to 
the new wing of the capitol building. 

In October, 1872, J. S. Hobbs, then of Oxford county, was appointed 
state librarian, and in the following January removed to Augusta, 
where he resided during the long period of service by which he is 
now best known to the people of Kennebec county. 

He was born in Chatham, N. H., June 27, 1828, and with his father, 
James Hobbs, removed to P'ryeburg, where he was educated, and at 
eighteen years of age began teaching for a time, as his father for 
nearly thirty years had done. From the Fryeburg schools he at- 
tended the Norway Liberal Institute, when Hon. Mark H. Donnell 
was principal, and in 1850 took the English prize for prose declama- 
tion. Four years later, after reading law under D. R. Hastings, he 
was admitted to the bar of Oxford county and began practice in 
Waterford in 1855. The son of a whig, who was twice elected to the 
state .senate, Mr. Hobbs was active in the organization of the republi- 
can party in Oxford county, and in 1857 and 1858 represented his dis- 
trict in the legislature. Beginning in January, 1861, he was register 
of probate of Oxford county for twelve years and was two years a 
trial justice at the county seat. 

The efficiency of his .service in the State Library, as well as his 


general bearing in the extensive intercourse with the public, made 
his administration popular and must have increased to the state the 
usefulness of the institution. In November, 1890, in his sixth term, 
he resigned the position and retired to his country place in a beauti- 
ful and picturesque spot in Litchfield, where he is enjoying rural 
peace and domestic happiness. His wife, Emelin, is a daughter of 
Stevens Smith, of Waterford, Oxford county. Me. 

L. D. Carver, the present librarian, was educated as a lawyer, but 
in 1870 he went West, where he was principal of high schools. Re- 
turning to Waterville in 1876, he was admitted to the bar and for six 
years was city clerk. He served on the school board and was the 
author of the school provisions in the city charter. His military ser- 
vice, covering two years and three months,^was with the '2d Maine 
Infantry. His wife, Mary C. Low, was the first lady graduate of 
Colby, class of '75. 

LTnited States Arsenal.— An act passed the United States sen- 
ate in 1827, providing for the establishment of an arsenal at Augusta 
for the safe storage of arms and munitions for the protection of the 
northern and eastern frontier. Beginning with the meager appro- 
priation of $15,000, the government, as the advantages of the location 
for a general storage depot became more apparent, made further ap- 
propriations aggregating $90,000. 

On June 14, 1828, the corner-stone of the main building was laid. 
This building is one hundred feet long, thirty wide and three stories 
high, with a storage capacity of 7,128 muskets. The following year 
two magazines, capable of holding 914 barrels of powder, store-houses, 
officers' quarters, barracks, stable and shops were erected. These 
buildings, nearly all of which are of rough granite, occupy a forty 
acre lot, all of which is surrounded by a high iron fence. Fixed am- 
munition and war rockets were prepared here during the civil war 
and the war with Mexico. Among commanders of this institution 
who afterward secured national fame, are General O. O. Howard, of 
the United States Army, and Lieutenant Anderson, the hero of Fort 

National Soldiers' Home.— As early as 1810 a mineral spring 
was discovered in a meadow in the town of Chelsea, which, on account 
of the sulphurous odor it emitted, was popularly known as the "Gun- 
powder Spring." The water gained more than a local reputation of 
healing malignant humors, and was for several years in considerable 
demand. The spring and a large tract of surrounding land were pur- 
chased in 1858, by Mr. Horace Beals, of Rockland, who, the following 
year erected, at an expense of many thousands of dollars, a magnifi- 
cently appointed hotel, which he opened in June, 1859, as a fashiona- 
ble watering place. 

At any. other period than that of the civil war such an enterprise 


might have flourished: but under the depressing events which fol- 
lowed it proved an utter failure. After two or three years of weak 
existence it was closed to the public, and in 1866, after his decease, it 
was sold for $50,000 to the United States government for an asylum 
for disabled veterans. In 1867 the building had been remodeled and 
two hundred ex-soldiers had availed themselves of the refuge thus 
afforded. As it was evident that the accommodations would shortly 
be insufficient to meet the constantly increasing demand, proceedings 
were instituted for the erection of new buildings capable of accom- 
modating five hundred men. A brick hospital was soon erected, and 
plans for the erection of a large chapel and workshop were beginning 
to materialize when the principal building was destroyed by fire. 

This casualty, which occurred late in the evening of January 7, 
1868, turned the inmates, many of whom were confined to their beds 
with sickness, into the piercing frosts of a midwinter's night. The 
sick were placed on the snow until they could be removed to private 
houses, while those who were able to be carried so long a distance, 
were quartered in Waverly Hall, at Augusta. The hospital, which was 
not seriously damaged, was hastily prepared for barracks, and earl}' in 
the spring three large brick buildings were commenced, each of which 
was nearly one hundred feet in length. These were placed contigu- 
ous to the hospital, so as to form a hollow square surrounding an ample 
courtyard. With these were erected a large amusement hall, work- 
shop, barn and a residence for the commanding officers, all of which 
were constructed of brick manufactured on the spot. The hall was de- 
stroyed by fire in the spring of 1871, at a loss of about $20,000. A 
smaller building has been erected to supply its loss. Other structures 
for the accommodation of the surgeon, bandmaster and other subor- 
dinate officials have recently been erected. 

The home is open to all survivors of the civil and Mexican wars, 
and the war of 1812, who received an honorable discharge from the 
service. Cutler Post, No. 48, a local division of the G. A. R., has been 
established by the veterans, and in their cemetery a monument of 
granite blocks has been erected, bearing a dedicatory inscription and 
dates of the three principal wars succeeding the revolution. 

The first deputy governor of the home and commandant was Major 
General Edward W. Hincks, of Massachusetts, who held the position 
until March 6, 1867, when, at his request, he was relieved and was 
succeeded by Colonel Timothy Ingraham, of Massachusetts, who was 
soon succeeded by General Charles Everett, of Washington, D. C, who 
was shortly followed by Major Nathan Cutler, of Augusta, Me., and he 
by Colonel E. A. Ludwick, of New York, who, after a short term of ser- 
vice, was succeeded, in 1869, by Brigadier General William S. Tilton, 
of Boston. General Luther Stephenson, the present governor of the 
home, was born at Hingham, Mass., April 25, 1830. Entering the ser- 


vice in April, 1861, as lieutenant in the Fourth Massachusetts, he was 
several times promoted for merit, and by order of General Grant was 
brevetted colonel and brigadier general, March 15, 1865, for " gallant 
and meritorious services in the campaign against Richmond." He was 
appointed governor of the National Home at Togus on the 17th of 
April, 1883, and assumed the duties of the position the next day. The 
home has increased in numbers since that date from 1,400 to 2,000. 
The whole appearance of the buildings and grounds has been 
changed and beautified and twenty new structures have been erected. 



Revolutionary Period. — War of 1813. — Coast Defense of Maine. — Militia Com- 
panies called out. — Officers and Men. — Town Companies. — Treaty of Ghent. 

THE peaceful interim of above two decades which followed the 
last of the skirmishes referred to in Chapter H, was dissipated 
by the call of the minute men of Concord and Lexington — a 
call which, although sounding from beyond an almost unbroken 
wilderness over one hundred miles in extent, met a prompt response 
on the part of the patriots of the Kennebec valley. The smoke had 
hardly cleared from Lexington green before bands of scantily 
equipped men and boys were pushing their way through the forests, 
eager to reach the point of enlistment. Many of the settlers in the 
interior of the county had removed from towns adjacent to the scene 
of the conflict, and while the oppression to which those who resided 
nearer the metropolitan districts were subjected, was not as severely 
realized by these men who depended almost entirely on the products 
of their own farm and loom for the luxuries as well as the essentials 
of life, the impulse of a brother's need moved them to earnest action. 
Many farms were abandoned or left to the care of women and minors, 
and, in many instances, the latter, catching the inspiration from the 
fathers, stealthily left their homes and followed on the tracks of their 

However obscure and comparatively unimportant may be the 
part Kennebec played in the war of the revolution, the influence of 
that critical epoch on the subsequent history of this section is con- 
siderable. Arnold's ascent of the Kennebec on his expedition against 
Quebec changed, to quite an extent, the life of the settlements along 
its banks. This expedition, which was embarked at Newburyport, 
September 17, 1775, arrived at Pittston, on the Kennebec, the day fol- 
lowing. Here the eleven transports of which the fleet consisted were 
exchanged for bateaux, which had for. some time been under process 
of construction, under the supervision of Major Colburn. The troops, 
consisting of eleven hundred men, being transferred to the bateaux, 
began the next day their slow and wearisome advance toward the 
Canadian frontier. The officers, conspicuous among whom were Bene- 


diet Arnold, Christopher Green, Daniel Morgan, Aaron Burr and 
Henry Dearborn, men whose later careers challenged the attention of 
nations, remained on their sailing vessel until they reached Augusta. 
Here they joined the fleet on the bateaux and proceeded on that dis- 
astrous errand, the result of which is familiar to the general reader. 

The rare beauty of the valley through which they passed, the 
waving meadows, the heavy forest growth, made a lasting impression 
which the hardship, the cold and the starvation of the terrible cam- 
paign which followed could not efface. The proclamation of peace 
which brought as a minor accompaniment to the joyous notes of lib- 
erty a siege of famine upon the settlers all along the main thorough- 
fare of the Kennebec, through the depredations of famishing regi- 
ments of soldiers bound for their homes in the eastern part of the 
state, brought, also, many of the members of the Arnold expedition 
back as permanent settlers. Among others of them whose names hold 
a prominent place in history was General Henry Dearborn, who pur- 
chased extensive tracts of land west of the river, and founded a home 
near the point where he first landed after entering the Kennebec, to 
which he resorted as often as the duties of the high office he held 
under the national government permitted, until called by President 
Madison to assume the responsibilities of commander-in-chief of the 
national forces in the second war with Great Britain. 

War of 1812. — The opening of this war found the military condi- 
tions of Maine entirely unlike those that existed thirty-seven years 
before, when the first call to arms resounded on her pine-clad hills. 
In compliance with a law of the commonwealth, every able-bodied 
man had, at stated periods, been submitted to instruction at the hands 
of a competent drill-master; and well equipped and disciplined regi- 
ments took the place of the straggling, unarmed hordes of the conti- 
nental minute men. There was not, however, that unanimity of sen- 
timent which characterized the patriots who brought the nation 
through her birth throes. Although blood as warm for their country's 
weal as that which flowed at Lexington coursed through their veins, 
there were many who firmly believed that the nation's honor was not 
at stake, and that money, not blood, should be the price of England's 
depredations on our commerce. The federalists of Kennebec were 
especiall}' bitter in their denunciations of the policy of the national 
government, and when the intelligence reached Augusta that a formal 
declaration of war had been issued, the quick blood of the party imme- 
diately responded by hanging President Madison in eftigy, and placing 
the Stars and Stripes at half-mast. The national troops quartered in 
the city exhibited due respect for their chief executive by military 
interference, and but for the action of the civil authorities the episode 
must have closed with bloodshed. 

In 1814 the British fleet hovered on the coast of Maine; Eastport, 


Bangror and other places were seized during tlie summer. The county 
■of Kennebec was on the alert, and many companies of men were en- 
listed. The Adams, a United States vessel of war, was burned by her 
commander to prevent her falling into the enemy's hands, and her 
crew retired through the woods from the Penobscot to the Kennebec, 
causing an alarm that the enemy were approaching. 

On Saturday, September 10th, a special town meeting was held at 
Augusta to consider the safety of the towns. A committee consisting 
of George Crosby, Joshua Gage, John Davis, Thomas Rice, Pitt Dill- 
ingham, William Emmons and Joseph Chandler was appointed, who 
reported that the selectmen should be directed " to procure 200 lbs. 
of powder at once, and a quantity of materials for tents, camp kettles, 
etc." Sunday, the following day, while at meeting. General Sewall re- 
ceived a dispatch from the committee of safety at Wiscasset, asking 
for a thousand men, as the enemy threatened a landing. Colonel 
Stone's and Colonel Sweet's regiments, with the Hallowell Artillery, 
marched forthwith in companies for Wiscasset. On the 15th General 
Sewall went to a.ssume the command of the troops; but the alarm 
proved groundless. 

In the Maine adjutant general's office is a record of the officers and 
men called into the state service in those trying times. In 1876, by 
order of the governor and his council, this manuscript record was 
carefully compiled by Z. K. Harmon, of Portland. It is a model of 
neatness, the volume containing 420 pages. It appears that the 1st 
Brigade, 8th Division, was under command of Major General Henry 
Sewall, Augusta: Eben Dutch was major; William K. Page, of Au- 
gusta, was aidde-camp; and William Emmons, Augusta, was judge 
advocate. The brigadier general was William Gould, Farmington; 
the brigadier major was Samuel Howard, Augusta; and the quarter- 
master was Robinson, of Hallowell. 

Lieutenant Colonel Stone's regiment of the 8th Division, 1st Bri- 
gade, had the following officers: John Stone, Gardiner, lieutenant 
colonel; Reuel Howard, Augusta, major; Henry W. Fuller, Augusta, 
major; Enoch Hale, jun., Gardiner, adjutant; Gideon Farrell, Win- 
throp, quartermaster; Rufus K. Page, paymaster; Eliphalet Gillett, 
Hallowell, chaplain; Ariel Mann, Hallowell, surgeon; Joel R. Ellis, 
Hallowell, surgeon's mate; Benjamin Davenport, Winthrop, sergeant 
major; James Tarbox, quartermaster sergeant; Roswell Whittemore, 
■drum major; and John Wadsworth, fife major. 

yiz<^«/rt.— Captain Burbank's company of Lieutenant Colonel 
Stone's regiment was raised in Augusta. The officers of the company 
were: Benjamin Burbank, captain; Nathan Wood, lieutenant, and 
David Church, ensign. Ephraim Dutton, Benjamin Ross, Ebenezer 
B. Williams and Philip W. Peck were sergeants; John Hamlen, Wil- 
Jiam B. Johnson, Thomas Elmes and Bartlett Lancaster, corporals. 


In this company were thirty-four privates, who served at Wiscasset in 
September, 1814. 

Another company raised in Augusta for Lieutenant Colonel vStone's 
regiment had for captain David Wall and for ensign Charles Sewall. 
The non-commissioned officers were: Luther Church, William Fel- 
lows, Nathan Stackpole, Elias Stackpole, sergeants; Jeremiah Tolman, 
Jesse Babcock, Elisha Bolton, corporals. Thirty-four privates went 
out with officers. 

Augusta raised still another company for Lieutenant Colonel 
Stone's regiment, of which Stephen Jewett was captain, and Oliver 
Wyman, lieutenant; and the non-commissioned officers were: Ben- 
jamin Swan, William Stone, Timothy Goldthwait, George Hamlen, 
sergeants; William Pillsbury, John Goldthwait, Del F. Ballard, 
Varanos Pearce, corporals. Newel Stone was musician. The privates 
of this company numbered fifty-one. 

Albion. — A company was raised for Lieutenant Colonel Albert 
Moore's regiment at Albion, of which Joseph Wellington was captain; 
Samuel Kidder, lieutenant, and Ebenezer Stratton, ensign. The non- 
commissioned officers were: Samuel Libbey, James Chalmer, James 
Ski! ling, Charles Stratton, sergeants; Samuel Tarbel, John Jackson, 
John Kidder, jun., Samuel Stackpole, jun., corporals. The musicians 
were: Benjamin Reed, jun., and Thadeus Broad. The privates num- 
bered forty-eight men. 

Captain Robinson raised a company in Albion for Lieutenant 
Colonel Moore's regiment. The commissioned officers were: Benja- 
min Robinson, captain; Thomas Harlow, lieutenant, and Benjamin 
Louis, ensign. The non-commissioned officers were: Warren Drake, 
Hiram Brackett, Stephen Bragg, Ebenezer Shaw, sergeants; Washing- 
ton Drake, Richard Handy, Oliver Baker, Moses Dow, corporals. 
Zebulon Morse and Asa Burrell went out as musicians, and twenty- 
six privates were enrolled. 

A company was drafted from Albion in the autumn of 1814, of 
which Joel Wellington was made captain; Washington Heald, lieu- 
tenant, and Israel Richardson, ensign. Robert Richardson, Charles 
Stratton, William Fames and Samuel Ward were sergeants; Richard 
V. Haydon, Nathaniel Merchant, Andrew S. Perkins and Benjamin 
Reed, jun., corporals; Odiorne Heald, John Kidder, jun., and Samuel 
Gibson,musicians. Eighty-seven privates were sent out in this company. 

y^V/orrt^/r.— Belonging to Lieutenant Colonel Sherwin's regiment 
was a company of fifty privates raised at Belgrade, with James Minot, 
captain; John Fage, lieutenant, and Jesse Fage, ensign. The non- 
commissioned officers were: Richard Mills, Lewis Page, Samuel Page, 
Lemuel Lombard, sergeants; Charles Lombard, Wentworth Stewart, 
Briant Fall, James Black, jun., corporals. The musicians were David 
Wyman, Davison Hibbard, David Moshier and Jeremiah Tilton. 


Belgrade raised another company for Lieutenant Colonel Sherwin's 
regiment and the commissioned officers were; Joseph Sylvester, cap- 
tain; Levi Bean, lieutenant; Isaac Lord, ensign. The non-commis- 
sioned officers were: Daniel Stevens, vSamuel Sinith, John Sylvester, 
William Stevens, jun., sergeants; Jonathan H. Hill, Ephraim Tib- 
betts,William Wells, Samuel Tucker, corporals. Samuel Littlefield and 
Isaac Farnham were enrolled as musicians, with thirty-six privates. 

Clinton. — For Lieutenant Colonel Herbert Moore's regiment a com- 
pany was raised in Clinton, of which Trial Hall was commissioned 
captain; James Gray, lieutenant, and Israel Richardson, ensign. The 
non-commissioned officers were: Samuel Haywood, Nathaniel Brown, 
John Fitzgerald, William M. Carr, sergeants; William Richardson, 
Peter Robinson, David Gray, George Flagg, corporals; Rufus Bartlett, 
Samuel Gibson, musicians. Thirty-two privates went out in the 

China.— Yov Lieutenant Colonel Moore's regiment a company was 
raised in China, for which the commissioned officers were: Daniel 
Crowell, captain; Nathaniel Spratt, lieutenant, and Zalmuna Wash- 
burn, ensign. Jonathan Thurber, Elisha Clark, Jabish Crowell and 
Thomas Ward, jun., were sergeants; Samuel Branch, David Spratt, 
Samuel Ward and James Wiggins, corporals; Ephraim Clark 3d and 
Jonathan Coe, musicians. Twenty-four privates were enrolled in the 

Another larger company was enlisted in China, of which Robert 
Fletcher was captain; Nathaniel Bragg, lieutenant, and Caleb Palme- 
ter, ensign. John Weeks, John Whitley, William Bradford and Jede- 
diah Fairfield were sergeants; Nathaniel Evans, Daniel Fowler, 
Daniel Bragg and Ephraim Weeks, corporals; Thomas Burrell and 
Timothy Waterhouse, musicians; with fifty privates. 

Fayette. — In Lieutenant Colonel Ellis Sweet's regiment was a com- 
pany of men, enlisted at Fayette, of which Henry Watson was cap- 
tain; Alden Josselyn, lieutenant, and David Knowles 2d, ensign. 
Elisha Marston, Richard Hubbard, Thomas Fuller, jun., and Benja- 
min J. Winchester were sergeants; James Watson, Moses Hubbard, 
David Knowles, 3d, and Moses Sturdevant, corporals; and William 
Sturdevant and John D. Josselyn, musicians; with thirty- five privates. 

Another company was raised in Fayette, of which the commis- 
sioned officers were: John Judkins, captain; Thomas Anderson, lieu- 
tenant, and Luther Bumpus, ensign. The non-commissioned officers 
were: James McGaffey, 'William Whitten, Levi Fletcher and John 
Brown, .sergeants; and Joseph Greely, Edward Griffin, Carson 
and Bazaled BuUard, corporals. Musicians were A. Whitten, Squire 
Bishop, jun., and James Trask; and the company mustered thirty- 
eight privates. 


Gardiner. — The field and staff officers of Lieutenant Colonel John 
Stone's regiment, 1st Brigade, 8th Division, in service at Wiscasset 
and vicinity in the autumn of 1814, were: John Stone, Gardiner, lieu- 
tenant colonel; Reuel Howard, Augusta, major: Henry W. Fuller, 
Augusta, major; Enoch Hale, jun., Gardiner, adjutant; Gideon Far- 
rell, Winthrop, quartermaster; Rufus K. Page, paymaster; Eliphalet 
Gillett, Hallowell, chaplain; Ariel Mann, Hallowell, surgeon; Joel R. 
Ellis, Hallowell, surgeon's mate; Benjamin Davenport, Winthrop, 
sergeant major; James Tarbox, Winthrop, quartermaster sergeant; 
Roswell Whittemore, drum major; and John Wadsworth, fife major. 

From Gardiner a company went out in Stone's regiment with the 
following commissioned officers: Jacob Davis, captain; Ebenezer 
Moore, lieutenant; Arthur Plummer. ensign, and William Partridge, 
clerk. The non-commissioned officers were not given in the record, 
but the company enrolled eighty privates. 

Another company was raised at Gardiner with Edward Swan, 
captain; Daniel Woodard, lieutenant, and William Norton, ensign. 
The non-commissioned officers were: William B. Grant, Thomas Gil- 
patrick, Michael Woodard, Arthur Berry, sergeants; Benjamin C. 
Lawrence, William Bradstreet, Charles M. Dustin, corporals. The 
musicians were: Jonah Perkins, John Palmer, Edward Bourman and 
Andrew B. Berry. This company embraced forty-two privates. 

Hallowell. — In Lieutenant Colonel Stone's regiment was a large 
company from Hallowell, of which William C. Vaughan was captain, 
Pettey Vaughan, lieutenant, and William Cobb Wilder, ensign. The 
non-commis.sioned officers were: Abisha Handy, Nathaniel Brown, 2d, 
Levi Thing, jun., George Carr, sergeants; Benjamin Perry, Charles 
Kenney, Joseph Richards, corporals; David Dyer, Zebulon Sawyer, 
Samuel Howard, John Moons, musicians. The privates numbered 
seventy-three men. 

Captain Simeon Morris' company for Stone's regiment was raised at 
Hallowell, for which Lsaac Leonard was lieutenant and Stephen Smith 
was ensign. James B. Starr, William B. Littlefield, Samuel Merrill 
and James Kean were sergeants; Samuel Carr, jun., John Greely, 
George Waterhouse and Joshua Carr, corporals; Robert Child, musi- 
cian; and there were fifty privates. 

Captain Dearborn's company was also raised in Hallowell and was 
attached to Lieutenant Colonel Stone's regiment, with Benjamin 
Dearborn, captain; Thomas B. Coolidge, lieutenant, and William 
Clark, ensign. Isaac Smith, Enoch Marshall, Ebenezer White and 
Sheppard H. Norris were sergeants; Ephraim Mayo, Thomas Fille- 
brown, jun., John Folsom and Benjamin Plummer, corporals; Seth 
Sturtevant, James Batchelder, Elias Webber and Bradley Folsom, 
musicians. The company had thirty-seven privates. 

A company of artillery was raised in Hallowell, which was attached 


to jSIajor Joseph Chandler's Battalion of Artillerj'. The officers of the 
company were: Samuel G. Ladd, captain; Jedediah Lakeman, lieuten- 
ant, and Joseph S. Smith, ensign. Non-commissioned: Abraham 
Thurd, Samuel Tinney, Daniel Norcross, David Stickney, sergeants; 
Ezekiel Goodall, Richard Dana, William Livermore, jun., Cumwell 
Aldrich, corporals. Musicians: John Woods, Levi Johnson, Aaron 
Bickford, Harvey Porter and John Dennett. The privates numbered 

Hallowell also raised a cavalry company for Major Peter Grant's 
Battalion of 1st Brigade, 11th Division. Of this company Thomas 
Eastman was captain; Francis Morris, lieutenant, and William Wins- 
low, ensign. Henry D. Morrill and Ebenezer Mathews were musi- 
cians, and Parsons Smith, clerk. Benjamin Paine, Alvan Hayward 
and Jonathan Mathews were sergeants; Samuel Blake, John Savage, 
Albert Hayward and Richard Belcher, corporals. The company em- 
braced thirty-two privates. 

Litchfield. — Colonel Abel Merrill commanded a regiment at Bath, 
in which was a company from Litchfield. The commissioned officers 
of this company were: Hugh Getchell, captain; William Randall, lieu- 
tenant, and Jesse Richardson, ensign. The noncommissioned officers 
were: James B. Smith, Cornelius Richardson, Cyrus Burke, sergeants; 
Adam Johnson, Isaac Smith, Thomas Springer, William Towns, cor- 
porals. John Hodgman, Cornelius Thompson and Isaac ShirtlefE were 
musicians, and the company contained fifty-seven privates. 

Litchfield also raised a company for Lieutenant Colonel Stone's 
regiment. Of this company David C. Burr was captain; Nathaniel 
Marston, lieutenant, and Ebenezer Colby, ensign. Andrew Goodwin, 
Daniel Herrick, Jesse Tucker and James Parker were sergeants; Wil- 
liam Hutchinson, John Sears, Joshua Ritchinson and Daniel Cram, 
corporals; and Cypron J. Edwards, David Fuller, William Brown and 
James Goodwin, musicians. The privates numbered fifty-seven. 

Another company from Litchfield in Lieutenant Colonel John 
Stone's regiment had for captain, John Dennis; for lieutenant, Daniel 
Stevens; and for ensign, Joseph Jewell. Samuel Hutchinson. Joseph 
Wharfif, Israel Hutchinson and William Robinson were sergeants; 
Robert Crawford, Ebenezer Harriman, Miser Williams and William 
Spear, corporals; John Robbins, James Hutchinson and Elijah Palmer, 
musicians; and the company enrolled thirty-eight privates. 

A company in Litchfield was drafted from the lOth Division and 
mustered into the United States service to garrison the forts on the 
coast of eastern Maine. The commis-sioned officers of the company 
were: David C. Burr, captain; John Dennis, jun., lieutenant; Benjamin 
White, jun., lieutenant; and John A. Neal, ensign. Caleb Goodwin, 
Joshua Walker, Andrew Goodwin and William Hutchinson were ser- 
geants; William Bailey, Francis Douglass, Hezekiah Richardson and 


Moses Stevens, corporals; Joseph Hutchinson and David F. Wey- 
mouth, musicians. Fifty privates went out in the company. 

Monmo7ith. — A company of thirty-nine, under Captain John A. Tor- 
sey, raised in Monmouth, was attached to Lieutenant Colonel Blais- 
dell's regiment. Pascal P. Blake was lieutenant and Frederic W. 
Dearborn, ensign. The non-commissioned officers were: Martin 
Gushing, Jacob Smith, Robert Oilman, Thomas Witherell, sergeants; 
John Plummer, Samuel Titus, Josiah Towle, James Merrill, corporals. 
Henry Day and John Merrill were musicians. 

Another company of fifty-six privates was raised in Monmouth for 
the same regiment, with Moses Boynton for captain; Royal Fogg, 
lieutenant, and Benjamin Sinclair, ensign. Joseph Prescott, Joseph 
B. Allen, Jedediah B. Prescott and John S. Blake were sergeants; 
Newell Fogg, Hugh M. Boynton, Ira Towle and George W. Fogg, 
corporals; Levi Tozier and John Richardson, musicians. 

Joseph Chandler was major of a battalion of artillery attached to 
the 1st Brigade, Sth Division. His adjutant was Jonathan G. Hun- 
toon, of Readfield, and his quartermaster was John S. Kimball, of Au- 
gusta. Monmouth raised a company for this battalion, with the fol- 
lowing officers: Samuel Ranlett, captain; Dudly Moody, lieutenant; 
Eleazur Smith, lieutenant; Ebenezer Freeman, Jacob Mills, jun., 
Joseph Kelley, James Fairbanks, sergeants; Asa Robbins, jun., Jason 
Prescott, Phinehas Kelly, Marcus Gilbert, corporals; Levi Gilbert, 
Benjamin Berry, musicians. The company embraced only twenty- 
seven privates. This company was subsequently attached to Sher- 
win's regiment of militia, with William Talcott and Benjamin Butler 
added as sergeants; Peleg B. Fogg, Jesse Fairbanks and John Mar- 
shall added as musicians; and twenty privates were added. The com- 
pany were at Wiscasset from vSeptember 24 to November 8, 1814. 

Mt. Vernon. — In Lieutenant Colonel Ellis Sweet's regiment was a 
company raised at Mt. Vernon, and its captain was Timothy Stevens; 
lieutenant, George McGaffey; ensign, Ariel Kimball. James Mc- 
Gaffey, William Whitten, Levi Fletcher and John Brown were ser- 
geants; Joseph Greely, Edward Griffin, Moses Carson, Bazaled Bul- 
lock, corporals; Aled Whitten, Squire Bishop, jun., and James Trask, 
musicians. Thirty-eight privates belonged to the company. 

In the same regiment was another company from Mt. Vernon, of 
which Thomas Nickerson was captain; John Stevens, lieutenant, and 
John Blake, ensign. The non-commissioned officers were: Joseph 
Gilman, Daniel Gordon, Nathan S. Philbrook, Ephraim Nickerson, 
sergeants; Walter W. Philbrook, Nathan Smith, Levi French, jun., 
and Bela Gilman, corporals. The musicians were John Stone and Ladd, and the privates numbered thirty-four men. 

Pittstoii. — Two companies for Lieutenant Colonel Stone's regiment 
were raised in Pittston. The captain of the first was David P. Bailey; 


lieutenant, John Blanchard; ensign, Jacob Bailey. Joseph Follansbee, 
Elihu Lord, Joseph Kidder and George Williamson were sergeants; 
William Troop, Nathaniel Brown, George Jewett and Tristram Fol- 
som, corporals; James Bailey and Alexander Blanchard, musicians. 
The company embraced forty privates. Of the second company, 
Jonathan Young was captain; Eli Young, lieutenant, and Dudley 
Young, ensign. Jonathan Clark, Leonard Coopey and James Gray, 
jun., were sergeants; Henry Banner, Nathaniel Benner, Reuben 
Lewis and Frederic Lewis, corporals. The privates numbered 

Readfield. — A company- of militia was drafted from Readfield and 
attached to Lieutenant Colonel Ellis Sweet's regiment. The commis- 
sioned officers of the company were: John Smith, captain; Samuel 
Benjamin, lieutenant, and Eli Adams, ensign. Joseph Gilman, Na- 
than S. Philbrick, Joseph Heselton and James McGaffey were ser- 
geants; Walter N. Philbrick, Benjamin King, David Huntoon and 
Warren Crocker, corporals; Joshua Bartlett, Josiah Bacon, Stephen 
Abbott and John M. Shaw, musicians. The privates of the company 
numbered fifty-nine. 

Another company drafted from Readfield was attached to Lieuten- 
ant Colonel Sweet's regiment. Of this company George Waugh was 
captain: Alden Josselyn, lieutenant, and Herman Harris, ensign. 
Three of the sergeants were Elisha Marston, William Whittier and 
Richard Hubbard. The corporals given in the record were Gilman 
Bacheler and Samuel Tuck. In this company were thirty-eight pri- 
vates. It would seem that the latter company was increased and 
partly re-officered, for we find in Sweet's regiment a company of 
which George Waugh was captain; Samuel Page, lieutenant; Reuben 
Smith, ensign; John Page, William Taylor, Christopher Adle and 
Joseph Hutchinson, sergeants; Moses Simmons, Seward Page, Elijah 
Clough and Nathan Coy, corporals; Henry Carlton, William Tucker 
and Levi Morrill, musicians. In this company were forty-four 

The same regiment received from Readfield still another company, 
of which John Smith was the captain; Daniel Carlptell, lieutenant, 
and Eli Adams, ensign. James Fillebrown, Lory Bacon, Jethro Hil- 
man and James Smith were sergeants; Jacob Turner, David Huntoon, 
Jacob Cochran and William Stimpson, corporals; Thomas Pierce, 
Charles Pierce and John Turner, musicians. The company also had 
forty-five privates. 

ie(?wf.— Lieutenant Colonel McGaffey's regiment of militia was at- 
tached to the 8th Division and was the oth Regiment. The field and 
staff officers from Kennebec county were: David McGaffey, Rome, 
lieutenant colonel; Moses Sanborn, Vienna, major; Francis Mayhew, 
major; Jonathan Gilbreth, Rome, adjutant. 


A company was raised in Rome for Colonel McGaffey's regiment 
and the commissioned officers of the company were: William Hussey, 
captain; Robert Hussey, lieutenant, and Ezekiel Page, ensign. The 
non-commissioned officers were: Enoch Knight, Samuel Mitchell, 
Elijah K. Hussey and Richard Furbush, 2d, .sergeants; Benjamin 
White, Rufus Clements, Jonathan Butterfield and Moses Choate, cor- 
porals; Elisha Mosher and Samuel Grant, musicians. Twenty-five 
privates were enrolled. 

Rome raised another company which was in the same regiment, 
and in service at Hallowell awaiting orders, in September, 1814. Mat- 
thias Lane was captain; Palatiah Leighton, ensign; Peter Beede, 
James Colbath, jun., William Blye and Benjamin Folsom, sergeants; 
James Wells, Joseph Gordon, John Allen, jun., and Peter Folsom, 
corporals; John Jewett and Joseph Jewett, musicians. This company 
enrolled eighteen men. 

Sidney. — Sidney raised men for Lieutenant Colonel Sherwin's regi- 
ment. One company had Richard Smith as captain, Benjamin Saw- 
telle as lieutenant, John Robinson, ensign. vSamuel Jones, Paul Ham- 
mond, jun., George Woodcock and Edmund Longly, sergeants; Eben- 
ezer Irish, jun., Ichabod Pitts, jun., Samuel Smith, jun., and David 
Weeks, corporals; Asa Sawtelle and Abial Abbott, musicians. Thirty- 
two privates were enrolled. 

Another company for Sherwin's regiment had for captain Stephen 
Lovejoy; for ensign, Joshua Ellis. The sergeants were: John Tink- 
ham, jun., John Sawtelle, jun., Joseph Hastings and Thomas Johnson. 
Abial Dinsmore and Jacob Lovejoy were musicians. Thirty-nine pri- 
vates enlisted in the company from Sidney. 

The third enlisted company from Sidney had for its captain,, 
Amasa Lesley; lieutenant, Bethuel Perry; ensign, David Daniels. The 
non-commissioned officers were: Ebenezer Perry, John Bragg, jun., 
John Davis, Rufus Emerson, sergeants; Zenos Perry, Robert Packard, 
Abel Sawtelle, Woodhouse Boyd, corporals; Francis Smiley, Seth 
Perry, musicians. The privates numbered thirty-two. 

Men were drafted from Sidney and a company attached to Colonel 
Sherwin's regiment, of which company Stephen Lovejoy was captain; 
Joseph Warren, lieutenant; Ebenezer Lawrence, ensign; Palmer 
Branch, John Bates, Jabez Harlow and Joshua Grant, sergeants; Levi 
Meade and Ebenezer Morse, corporals; Winthrope Robinson, musi- 
cian. This company embraced eighty men as privates. 

Captain Lesley's company, before mentioned, was enlisted; but he 
went to Wiscasset late in the autumn of 1814, with a company of 
drafted men from Sidney. The commissioned officers were: Captain, 
Amasa Lesley; lieutenant, Benjamin Sawtelle; ensign, William Bod- 
fish. Elias Doughty, Samuel Page, David GuUifer and John Bragg, 
jun., were sergeants; Wentworth Steward, Samuel Jones, Robert 


Packard and Ebenezer Trask, corporals; Nathaniel Dunn and Richard 
Jones, musicians. This company had fifty-two privates. 

]"assalboro. — This town raised companies by enlistment. One was 
raised for Lieutenant Colonel Moore's regiment, and the commissioned 
officers were: Daniel Wyman, captain; Alexander Jackson, lieutenant; 
William Tarbell, ensign. Thomas Hawes, Daniel Whitehouse, Zenas 
Percival and Roland Frye were sergeants; John Clay, Gersham Clark, 
Thomas Whitehouse and Jonathan Smart, corporals; George Webber, 
musician. There were twenty-nine privates. 

Wing's company, enlisted in Vassalboro, was attached to the same 
regiment. The commissioned officers of the company were: Joseph 
Wing, captain; Levi Maynard, lieutenant, and Nehemiah Gould, en- 
sign. The non-commissioned officers were: Elijah Robinson, Moses 
Rollins, vStephen Low, Josiah Priest, .sergeants; Levi Chadbourne, 
Amasa Starkey, John Frye, Reuben Priest, corporals. The musicians 
were Enoch Marshall and Stephen Townsend. The privates num- 
bered fifty-three men. 

Still another small company was enlisted for Moore's regiment, 
and the captain was Jeremiah Farwell; lieutenant, Aaron Gaslin. 
Charles Webber, Eli French, John G. Hall and Elijah Morse were 
sergeants; Benjamin Bassett, Nathaniel Merchant and Heman Stur- 
ges, corporals; John Lovejoy, musician; and the file of privates num- 
bered thirty men. 

A company was drafted from Vassalboro, of which Jeremiah Far- 
well was commissioned captain; Nathaniel Spratt, lieutenant, and 
Nehemiah Gould, ensign. Charles Webber, Amariah Hardin, jun., 
Jabez Crowell and Elijah Morse were sergeants; Rowland Frye, 
Samuel Brand. Benjamin Melvin and Thomas Whitehouse, corporals; 
Washington Drake and Timothy Waterhouse, musicians. The com- 
pany embraced sixty-seven men as privates. 

Wayne. — This town enlisted men for a company in Sweet's regi- 
ment. Of this company Jacob Haskell was captain; William Burgess, 
lieutenant, and Levi Roberts, ensign. The other officers were: Wil- 
liam Knight, Jesse Bishop, Eliakim Top, Gustavus Top, sergeants; 
Warren Crocker, James Wing, Asa Tapley, James Burgess, corporals. 
Joshua Norris was fifer and Asa Top drummer. Twenty-eight men 
were enrolled as privates. 

Lieutenant Colonel Ellis Sweet's regiment— the 4th in 1st Brigade, 
8th Division — was officered in part from Wayne. Colonel Sweet was 
a Wayne officer and also Moses Wing, jun., the major of the regiment. 

Another small company from Wayne was commanded by Ebenezer 
Norris, lieutenant. Amasa Dexter, Seth Billington and Benjamin 
Norris were sergeants; Samuel Besse, Allen House, Samuel Wing 
and Elisha Besse, corporals; Nathan Sturdevant and Seth Hammond, 
musicians. The privates numbered only twenty-seven men. 


Watcrvillc. — This town and Vassalboro raised a company that was 
assigned to Major Joseph Chandler's Battalion of Artillery. Of this 
company Dean Bangs was captain; Lemuel Pullen, lieutenant; Abra- 
ham vSmith, ensign; Jabez Dow, Artemus Smith, Levi Moore, jun., 
William McFarland, sergeants; William Marston, Alexander McKech- 
nie, Abiel Moore, James Bragg, corporals; Henry Richardson, Reward 
Sturdevant, musicians. Twenty privates enlisted in this company. 

Lieutenant Colonel Elnathan Sherwin's regiment was in the 8th 
Division, 2d Brigade, his being the 1st Regiment. From this regiment 
a draft was made, May 24, 1814, to fill up the regiment of Colonel 
Ellis Sweet. The officers of the first-named regiment were: Elnathan 
Sherwin, Waterville, lieutenant colonel; John Cleveland, Fairfield, 
major; Joseph H. Hallett, Waterville, quartermaster; Moses Appleton, 
Winslow, surgeon; David Wheeler, Waterville, paymaster; and Jede- 
kiah Belknap, Waterville, chaplain. 

One of the companies of Lieutenant Colonel vSherwin's regiment 
was raised at Waterville, of which Joseph Hitchings was captain; 
Samuel Webb, lieutenant; Thomas McFarland, ensign; Josiah 
Jacob, jun., Abraham Morrill, Solomon Berry, Calvin L. Gatchell, ser- 
geants; Abraham Butts, Pelatiah Soule, Simeon Tozier, 2d, William 
Watson, corporals; David Low, Lewis Tozier, musicians. The com- 
pany had twenty-nine enlisted privates. 

Another company from Waterville contained forty privates for 
Sherwin's regiment. The commissioned officers of this company 
were: William Pullen, captain; Joseph Warren, lieutenant, and Leon- 
ard Comfourth, ensign. Leonard Smith, Reuben Ricker, Isaiah Hal- 
lett and John Hallett were sergeants; Samuel Merry, James Gilbert, 
Wyman Shorey, and Thomas Stevens, corporals; Dexter Pullen, Isaac 
Gage and Asa Bates, musicians. 

Winthrop. — This town raised two companies for state defense. The 
one attached to Stone's regiment had for captain Asa Fairbanks; lieu- 
tenant, Solomon Easty; ensign, Jonathan Whiting. Benjamin Rich- 
ard, Wadsworth Foster, John Richards and Oliver Foster were ser- 
geants; Eliphalet Stevens, Thomas Stevens, Samuel Chandler and 
Columbus Fairbanks, corporals; Beser Snelland Nathan Bishop, musi- 
cians. The privates numbered thirty-four men. 

The other company was attached to Sweet's regiment. The cap- 
tain was Elijah Davenport; lieutenant, Samuel Benjamin; ensign, 
Herman Harris. Jabez Bacon, Levi Fairbanks, Joseph Heselton and 
Francis Perley were the sergeants; Stephen Sewall, Benjamin King, 
Daniel C. Heselton and Caleb Harris, corporals; Waterman Stanley, 
Josiah Bacon, jun., Stephen Abbot, Thomas Fuller and Simon Clough, 
musicians; and the company contained forty-nine privates. 

Windsor.— "Dix-a town raised a company of thirty-three privates for 
Colonel Cummings' regiment. The commissioned officers for this 


company were: Gideon Barton, captain; George Marson, lieutenant; 
John Page, ensign. William Bowler, Jacob Jewett, Clement Moody 
and Micliael Lane were sergeants; Robert Hutchinson, Luther Pierce, 
Walter DockendorfE and Thomas Harriman, corporals; Lot Chadwick 
and Joseph Wright, musicians. 

IVins/ow. — Lieutenant Colonel Herbert Moore commanded the 3d 
Regiment, 2d Brigade, 8th Division of Maine militia in service in 1814,at 
Wiscassett. The officers from Kennebec county were; Herbert Moore, 
Winslow, lieutenant colonel; Nathan Stanley and Daniel Stevens, 
China, majors; Whiting Robinson, Clinton, surgeon's mate; Charles 
McFaddin, Vassalboro, paymaster; and Joseph Clark, Clinton, ad- 

Winslow had a company in Moore's regiment, and its commissioned 
officers were: James L. Child, captain; Washington Heald, lieutenant; 
William Getchell, ensign. The other officers were: William Harvey, 
James Heald, Joel Crosby, Abraham Bean, sergeants; Alvin Blackwell, 
Richard V. Hayden, Simeon Heald, Elisha Ellis, corporals. The 
privates numbered thirty-eight men. 

The adjutant general's office at Augusta also contains a manuscript 
record of enlistments in the regular army for 1812-14, carefully ar- 
ranged by companies and regiments; but the residences of the officers 
and men are not indicated. 

By the treaty of Ghent, December 24, 1814, the war ended, and the 
news was received in this country February 11, 1815, with great 
demonstrations of joy. 



The Civil War. — First Call for Troops. — Response by Kennebec County. — Early 
Enlistments. — Call of July 3, 1862. — Bounties. — Enlistments. — Equalization 
Bonds. — Peace.— General Seth Williams. — G. A. R. Posts. — Monuments. 

WHEN the angry mutterings of the storm that for years had 
been gathering over the institutions which held in check the 
aggressions of a despotic feudalism culminated, on that 
memorable 12th of April, in the crash which dismantled the walls of 
Fort Sumter and jarred the foundations of the nation, no section of 
the federal territory was more prompt and energetic in rallying to the 
protection of the loyal colors than Maine. In twenty-four hours from 
the time the despatches from Washington were bulletined, whole com- 
panies had reported to their officers, regiments were in readiness for 
the roll-call, and impatiently awaited orders to enter the service. 

Although 00,000 men were enrolled in the state militia, only 1,200 
were, in the language of the adjutant general, "in a condition to re- 
spond to calls for ordinary duty within the state," while their uniforms, 
equipments and camp equipage were of a character totally unfitted for 
service in the field. 

Seven days from the issuing of the call from Washington for 75,000 
men, the legislature, at a special session convoked by Governor Wash- 
burn, passed an act authorizing the organization of ten regiments of 
infantry, and the bonding of a loan of one million dollars for their 
equipment. Under this act six regiments were mustered into the ser- 
vice; and such was the celerity with which they were equipped and 
forwarded that we find it recorded that of all the loyal troops who 
were actually engaged in the first battle of Bull Run, one fourth, at 
least, were sons of the Pine Tree state, and of these as large a ratio 
were citizens of Kennebec county. The disastrous result of this en- 
gagement led to an immediate call for more troops, accompanying 
which aitthority was granted by the war department to organize, in 
the maximum, eight new regiments of light infantry. At the close 
of the year 1861 Maine had enlisted fifteen regiments of infantry, one 
regiment of cavalry, six batteries of light artillery, one company of 
sharpshooters and four companies of coast guards. For these various 


companies, Kennebec county furnished 1,535 enlisted men-, credited 
to the towns as follows: 

Albion. — James Austin, Albert Bessee, Atwood Crosby p at Rich- 
mond July 21 61, Augustine Crosby p at Richmond July 21 61, Rodney 
Crosby, Albert D. Foss p at Richmond, Martin Foss p at New Orleans 
July 21 61, Lieut. John vS. French 1^: at Rappahannock Station Nov. 7 
63, William H. Gifford, Henry S. F. Gerald, Erastus H. Hamilton d at 
Ship Island Mar. 23 62, Amaziah F. T. Hussey, Timan N. Hamilton, 
James Jameson, Marshall Lawrence, Rufus F. Lancaster, Morrison 
Leonard w at Baton Rouge d Aug. 62, William Mayberry, Walter H. 
Morrison, James Murdough d at Yorktown 62, John Nade, Gilman S. 
Ouinn d Jan. 12 62, James A. Ridlon, John W. Ridlon, Rodolphus 
Rider, Daniel Rollins, William B. Robinson, William A. Stackpole, 
Warren B. Stinson, Charles Seekins, w July 10 63 and May 20 64, Lieut. 
Joseph H. Spencer w at Baton Rouge, William H. Tabor, C. B. Taber, 
Atwell M. Wixon w at Chantilly. 

Augusta. — Cyrus D. Albee, Lieut. James H. Albee, George Allen d 
in 63, James M. Allen, Judson Ames, George W. Annable, Lieut. Hol- 
man M. Anderson p at Gum Springs June 20 63, William R. Anderson, 
Edward H. Austin, Riley B. Avery, George F. Bachelder w June 1 64, 
George E. Bartlett, George M. Bean, Josiah W. Bangs, Algernon S. 
Bangs, Capt. Edwin A. Bachelder, C. M. Bachelder, Lieut. Silas C. 
Barker, Musician Fenelon G. Barker, Charles Berry, Chap. George 
W. Bartlett, Josiah L. Bennett w June 16 64 d May 10 65, Samuel Ben- 
nett, Gardiner Beal, C. F. Beal d Feb. 8 63, Homer S. Bean d Nov. 4 
62, Samuel Berry, Charles S. Beverley, Sherebiah H. Billington w July 
2 64, Thomas G. Billington, Josiah B. Blackman, Wingate W. Brad- 
bury, Sumner S. Brick, William H. Brooks, Jeremiah Buckley, George 
H. Brick, Eli A. Black d at Fernandina Aug. 14 63, Isaac P. Billington, 
William Bushea, John W. Boynton, John H. Breen w and p May 5 64, 
Samuel F. Bennett, George W. Bowman k May 12 64, William Bren- 
nan, Jacob Bolton, Sumner L. Brick, Isaac C. Brick, William H. Brick, 
William H. Brock d April 20 64, Adjt. Edwin Burt, George F. Burgess 
d at Fernandina Sept. 21 62, B. C. Bickford, W. A. Brown, Calvin H. 
Burden p at Bull Run k July 2 63, William Bolton, Byron Branch, 
Nathan H. Call w July 2 63, Francis M. Caswell, Horace Church, 
George L. Cromett w March 10 64, Charles Clark, John A. Clark, 
Augustus Chadwick, Edgar M. Churchill, Warren B. Chapman w and 
p April 8 64, Samuel Cunningham, John F. Chase w July 3 63, Henry 
A. Cummmgs, Lemuel A. Cummings, William Campbell, Lieut. 
George Cony, George Cowell, William Cahoon, Charles Cunningham, 
Surg. Albert S.Clark, Capt. Nathaniel W.Cole, John Code d 63, Henry 
*Names transcribed by Captain Thomas Clark, adjutant general's office. 
The following abbreviations are used in these lists; k killed, w wounded, d died, 
p prisoner. 


Clark w July 18 63, Daniel H. Cunningham, L. M.Conway, I. H. Cook, 
Charles Clark, Chap. Andrew J. Church, Daniel Chadwick, George 
H. Chadwick. Nathaniel G. Church. Leander M. Clark, Amasa L.Cook, 
William Clark, Richard Cunningham, Lieut. Rufus T. Crockett, Lieut. 
Warren Cox p at Manassas k May 3 63, George Cunningham, Capt. 
Robert F. Dyer, David Day, Sylvester Davis, John J. Delmage, Milton 
Dellings, Charles S. Delano, Joseph Devine, Henry Day, Caleb Den- 
nison, Thomas Dougherty, Sewell Dickinson, Adj. Charles C. Drew p 
at Bull Run, William H. Dunn, Alden S. Dudley, Reuel W. Dutton, 
Charles F. Emerson, Elisha S. Fargo w at x\ntietam, Edmond Fay, 
Charles A. Farnham w Aug. 9 64, Samuel S. Farnham, George L. Fel- 
lows p at Bull Run k at Gettysburg July 2 63, George H. Fisher, Ro- 
land R. Fletcher, Elias W. Folsom, John Fox, Andrew J. Getchell, 
Edwin A. Getchell, William T. Getchell, H. A. Griffith, G. H. Gordon d 
from wounds, Samuel Gowell, Edward Gilley, Serg. Frederick Gannett 
w July 2 63, Leonard J. Grant, Daniel W. Gage, Samuel H. Gage, Com. 
Serg. Lorenzo D. Grafton, William Gordon, Solomon Gordon, Dennis 
Getchell, Alonzo H. Getchell, Henry W. Getchell, George W. Gould d 
at Carrollton La. Sept. 4 62, Daniel Gordon, Robert Gilley, Marcellus 
Gale, Hartwell Hatch w, Elijah S. Horn k Dec. 13 63, Reuel Haskell, 
Samuel Hall, Andrew Herrin p at Gettysburg, Richard B. Hussey, 
Henry Hutcherson, John Hayes, Otis Haskell, Lieut. Lucius M. S. 
Haynes, Albert B. Hall, Hadley O. Hawesw, George Hawes, Elijah K. 
Hill, William H. Hersum, Isaac C. Hovey, Henry Hodsdon, George 
Ingraham, Horace Ingraham, Thomas F. Ingraham, Henry W. Jones, 
John W. Jones p at Bull Run June 1 62 k July 2 63, Thomas C. Jones, 
William H. Jones, John A. Keating, Edwin A. Keay, George A. Kim- 
ball, Levi W. Keen, Miles H. Keene, Orrin Keene w May 16 64, George 
H. Kimball, Capt. William H. Kimball, John H. Larrabee, Aaron 
Leighton, L. H. Livermore, William Leighton, Lyman E. Leach, 
Edwin Ladd, Col. M. B. Lakeman, John Leighton w at Cold Harbor 
June 3 64, Ira B. Lyon, Harvey N. Leighton w at Fair Oaks, William F. 
Locke k at Chancellorsville May 3 63, Martin Lord, Abijah S. Lord, 
Ira Lovejoy, Otis Ludwick, John McMaster, John McMaster jun. w 
July 8 63, Alexander McDavitt, Reuel Merrill, William McDavitt jun., 
William McDonald p at Bull Run, Hos. St. Joseph D. Moore, 
Ambrose Marriner, Lieut. Jo.seph H. Metcalf, J. A. Mann, Edward 
Murphy, Joseph W. Merchant, Horace A. Manley, Bradford Mc- 
Farland, John Mahoney, Jeremiah Murphy, John M.Mosher d Oct. 19 
63, William C. Moore, Lieut. Fred A. Morton, Daniel B. Morey, Peter 
B. Merry, William E. Mariner d at Yorktown May 13 62, Henry C. 
Marston, Henry McMaster, John Morphy, Thomas Murphy d Dec. 13 
62, John W. Murphy, James W. McGregor d in service, Charles P. 
Morton, William N. Murray, John B. Murray, R. S. McCurdy, F. S. 
Morton, Edward E. Myrick, William H. Nason w May 4 63, William 


Nason d in Maine, Capt. Joseph Noble, Frank Nutting, Amos B. 
Nichols, Andrew Nicholas. Augustus Nichols, Lyman C. Neal \v July 
2 6B, James Orick, James M. Porter, John Parker w July 30 64, Henry 
Parker, John H. Packard, John O. Perry, Frank Perry, Eben 
Packard d Mar. 17 63, Allen Partridge, Thomas O. Pease, Henry E. 
Patterson d at Carrollton La. Aug. 17 62, Augustus Plummer, Lieut. 
Frank C. Peirce, George E. Pond, Horace P. Pike, Mansfield H. 
Pettingill, Capt. Edward C. Pierce, Daniel Pease jun., William Place, 
Stephen H. Prescott, Asa Piper, N. Byron Phillips, John W. Phinney, 
Asbury Pottle, Lieut. A. R. Quinby, Silas Reed, Peter Russell, 
John P. Ryan, William Ryan, Charles L. Ray, James Rideout, 
Serg. Asa C. Rowe k July 2 63, Emerson Remick d at Yorktown 
May 4 62, Capt. Thomas L. Reed, Benjamin A. Ray, Lieut. H. M. 
Rines, George N. Rice, Luther A. Robbins, Q. M. Ivory J Robinson, 
G. L. Rus.sell, Alfred Savage p July 8 63 and July 18 64, Charles 
Stilkey, W. M. Sabin, William Stover, Charles O. Stone, William H. 
Spofford, George W. Stone, Edward A. Smart, George E. Stickney, 
Stephen M. Scales, Lewis Selbing w and p at Manassas, J. H. Spauld- 
ing, E. A. Stewart, Thomas Sawtelle, James Sullivan, Thomas Stevens, 
Nathan W. Savage, James F. Snow, William A. Swan, William H. 
Stacey, Col. Henry G. Staples, Lieut. William T. Smith, Cyrus A. 
Sturdy, Major Greenlief T. Stevens w May 3 and July 2 63, Lieut. 
Henry Sewall, Jason Spear, John N. Scott d Nov. 25 63 in New Or- 
leans, Capt. Samuel G. Sewall, Enoch Sampson d in rebel prison Aug. 
12 64, James Scott, Greenleaf Smart, Harrison R. Stone, Charles E. 
Smith, Charles A. Thoms, George H. Thompson p at Manassas w Aug. 
81 62, Actor P. Thompson, W. S. Thoms, Caleb Trask, Alfred Trask, 
John A. Trufant w at Slaughter Mountain, Arnold P. Thompson, Lieut. 
James L. Thompson, Alan.son G. Taylor d at Carrollton La. Oct. 30 62, 
George Taylor, William H. Taylor, Aaron C. Varney w Aug. 2 and d 
Aug. 22 63, Peleg O. Vickery, Thomas H. Welch p at Bull Run d Dec. 
23 62 from wounds received at Fair Oaks, Nathaniel Wentworth, 
Frank White, Edwin S. Witherell, Frank Whitney, Lewis Widge, 
Elbridge Warren, Randall S. Webb, G. P. Wentworth, C. H. Wagg, 
Charles Whittemore, Daniel Williams, Asa Wing, Charles H. White, 
Serg. Charles B. Whittemore, John O. Webster, Thaddeus S. Wmg, 
George Woods, Orison Wood k at Manassas Aug. 30 62, True Whit- 
tier, Capt. Edward P. Wyman, George M. Wyman, Charles O. Wyman, 
William A. Young. 

Belgrade. — James M. Rockwood, Charles M. Stevens, Albert Aus- 
tin, Samuel E. Frost w at Gettysburg July 2 63, Lieut. George S. 
Blake p June 20 63, Henry C. Kennison, Roscoe S. Farnham d at Hil- 
ton Head June 18 62, John M. Rockwood, Lorenzo H. Wallace, Wil- 
liam H. Lord, Charles L. Damrem, Sanford Bartlett k in R.R. collision 
June 1 62, Henry Frost, Henry Richard.son p at Cedar Mountain. 


Benton. — Reuel W. Brown, Rufus F. Brown, W. Scott Brown d Mar. 
1 64, Sumner Emery, William H. Goodale, Lieut. Nathaniel Hanscom 
d at Fair Oaks June 16 62, Asher C. Hinds, Nathaniel P. Hudson, 
Charles H. Pratt, Charles H. Preston p at Bull Run July 21 61, Chand- 
ler Reynolds, George H. Robinson, Joel C. Smiley, John McClusky, 
Erastus McKenney, John A. McKinney, Alonzo Wyman, Lorenzo 
Wyman, Bowman Wood, Luke B. Williams. 

China. — John H. Babcock, Asst. Surg. George E. Brickett, William 
V. Cook, Jacob Emery, John Farris, Augustus P. Jackson, Charles H. 
Johnson, Ira S. Jones, Capt. James P. Jones, Daniel B. Hanson w May 
6 64, Edward P. Hanscom p, Sylvester L. Hatch, Roscoe G. Hamlin, 
Western Hallowell, William Holmes d at Columbian Hospital Dec. 29 

61, Samuel W. Howes p Mar. 2 d in prison 6.5, John M. Hussey, Al- 
vanah Libby, Augustus Libbey, Samuel R. McCurdy, Isaac Morrill w 
Aug. 30 62, Charles H. Plummer, George W. Rogers, Charles L. Rob- 
tins d at New Orleans May 26 62, G. L. Robinson, George Stewart, 
George L. Spaulding p, Charles G. Thwing, Edmund Thombs, Chap. 
James A. Varney, Francis P. Ward, Daniel Ward, Joseph F. Winslow 
p at Bull Run, George N. Wiggin p at Winchester, Capt. Everett M. 
Whitehouse, Capt. Eli H. Webber, George Weymouth, Ora C. 

Chelsea. — Andrew J. Bailey w July 2 63, James W. Bailey, Robert 
Brawn, William H. Booker, Rinaldo Brown, John H. Cappers, Henry 
•Cappers w Oct. 19 64, Charles H. Caniston, Charles J. Dalton p, John 
F. Davis d at Baltimore May 26 62, Nathan Durgin, James S. Emerson, 
Joseph Irwin, G. H. Kimball, C. M. Kimball w, George W. Kenniston 
w at Fair Oaks, Benjamin F. Merrill, Daniel Moulton, John McPike, 
Franklin B. Neal, James Robbins, Henry Stevens, Harrison B. San- 
born, Joseph H. Stone d of wounds received May 12, Laratius Stevens 
d at Newport News Apr. 62, Austin Yelden. 

Clinton. — Franklin Bagley, Jonathan Bagley, Oliver Bagley, Wil- 
liam Bagley, Justin E. Brown, William Chandler, David Cole, Asbury 
Cole, Horace Cole, Patrick Connor, Gardiner L. Eastman, Alpheus R. 
Eastman, Sumner Flood, Almason Fly, Adam C. Goodwin w June 27 

62, James Gerald, Increase F. Goodwin, John C. Flail, Harrison D. 
Hobbs d from wounds July 1 62, Lieut. Alvin S. Hall d of wounds re- 
ceived May 6, Philander Hunter p May 2 63, Albert M. Harriman, 
Cyrus Hunter, Horace Hunter w and p at Richmond July 21 61 d in 
prison from wounds, William Hunter, Melvin Hunter, John Kelley, 
Orren Kendall, Augustus Knox, Jesse Kimball w at Drury's Bluff May 
16 64, John F. Lamb, Henry W. Livingston, George A. Lewis, Arthur 
F. Malcom, Ora M. Nason p at Gettysburg, Horatio N. Reed, Charles 
M. Reed, George Ricker, A. Riley Spaulding, James P. .Spaulding, 
George Sargent, David Spearin, Dustan Smith, Charles S. Thompson, 


James Thurston, John Winn, Warren Weymouth, Alonzo Weymouth, 
John Weymouth. 

Faruiiiigdalc. — Alvin Brann, Eugene D. Burns, Charles E. Carter, 
Eugene B. Carter, Joseph L. Colcord, Joseph B. Cannon, Albert J. 
Colcord, Edwin A. Colcord k Aug. 30 62, Henry C. Carter w at Manas- 
.sas, Benjamin F. Grover k at Chancellorsville May 3 63, Charles J. 
Higgins wat Middleburgh Ya. June 19 61, Alvin M. Johnson w at Mid- 
dleburgh Va. June 19 61, Franklin Lowell, Henry M. Neal, Reuben S. 
Neal p, George W. Rice, William J. Seavey d at Washington, Seth 
Sweetland p at Annapolis w at Chantilly, Frank Sweetland, Alonzo 
Sweetland, Frank W. Whitney, William A. Winter. 

Fayettc.~Q.2c^\. John E. Bryant, Charles E. Clough d July 14, 62, 
Edwin R. Crane d at Baton Rouge July 25 62, Otis Conant, Charles L. 
Crane w at Chancellorsville May 3 63, Capt. Lewis Chase, Arthur D. 
Chase, Stephen Fellov.'s, Stephen H. French, Allen Fisk, Charles H. 
K. French, Henry H. Folsom, Lewis C. Gordon, De Forrest M. Gille, 
Calvin S. Gordon, William H. Irish, Sylvester Jones, Daniel H. Mor- 
rill, Charles F. Palmer p at Winchester, James G. Palmer, George H. 

Palmer, Thaxter B. Safford, G. B. Sanborn, Sturdevant, Freeman 

C. Thurston d June 2 62, Calvin C. Woodworth. 

Gardiner.— ^\\\\2xa. A. Abbott, Peter Adlay, Lieut. George E. At- 
wood w, Lieut. George S. Andrews, Eben Andrews, Francis Anne, 
Ellis W. Ayer, Thomas O. Brian, Lieut. Thomas A. Brann, Daniel H. 
Backus, William C. A. Brown, Michael Burns, Roscoe G. Buck, Joshua 
H. Crane, John F. Crawford, Capt. James M. Colson, Lieut. Parlin 
Crawford w July 2 63, George B. Douglass, Roswell Dunton, Capt. 
Augustus P. Davis, Frederick W. Dahlman, We.stbrook Deane, Horace 
W Dale k July 2 63, John C. Dalton p at Fair Oaks w May 3 63, John 
S. Dennis w July 2 63, Alexander Fuller, Joseph M. Fuller, Sewell F. 
Frost p. Hamden A. Fall, Sylvester S. Fall w Aug. 30 62, Charles H. 
Foy w July 2 63. Lincoln Grover, William Garland, J. B. Grover, Lin- 
coln Grover, John H. Howe, Horace W. Hildreth, Charles A. Hildreth, 
Charles Hodges p, Osgood Hildreth d at Gaines Hill, Phineas B. 
Hammond, Lieut. Melvin S. Hutchinson, Leander C. Hinckley d at 
Alexandria Apr. 12 61, William Horn, George M. Houghton w, Albion 
T. Hutchinson, George H. Hutchinson, Horatio N. Jarvis k in action 
Aug. 30 62. Capt. William E. Jarvis, Orison D. Jaquith, Charles H. 
Jaquith, Augustus Jack, William Jordan, John S. Kelley, Capt. George S. 
Kimball k June 19 63, James W. Kimball, Samuel W. Kimball, Meltiah 
W. Lawrence, James M. Larrabee, William Libby, Lieut. Horatio S. 
Libby, Hiram L. Lawrence, Charles F. McLond, Joseph Lunt p June 9 
63, Parker G. Lunt, Thomas Lunt, James W. McDonald, John C. Meader, 
Charles H. Merrill, William Maher, Capt. John S. Moore, Lieut. Gus- 
tavus Moore, Joseph C. Morrison p May 2 63, Michael Murray, Bargill 
S. Newell, Ingraham Nickerson, Lieut. Thomas L Noyes, Thaddeus 


Page, Surg. Gideon S. Palmer, Sidney Patten, James H. Pope, Benja- 
min F. Pincin, Almon J. Packard, Nathan E. Quint, Peter Reaves p 
May 3 63, John Redman, Luther Ridley, Edwin M. Reed d of wounds 
received at Manassas, Hiram H. Ricker, Mellen Ring, Ira Rollins, 
Thomas J. Robinson, William H. Robinson, Osgood M. Sampson, 
William C. Stewart, David Stevens, David M. Stevens, George H. 
Smith d Feb. 13 63, John Sawyer, George F. Spear k July 2 63, Charles 
H. Spear, Hiram B. Stevens, George W. Stevens, William H. Sturte- 
vant, Eugene A. Smith, Robert A. Stinchfield p at Fair Oaks, Robert 
Strickland, William M. Stone, David Strong, Dexter Taylor, William 
F. Taylor, Abijah W. Tripp, H. D. Tarbox, Emerson Turner jun., Col. 
Isaac N. Tucker, A. B. Wakefield, George Ware, Hiram Wakefield d 
Jan. 11 62, William H. Wakefield, James Witham, John Webber, 
Frank Williams, Moses S. Wadsworth, Fife Maj. Moses M. Wads- 
worth, Lieut. Denola Witham k May 3 63, G. C. Wentworth, James F. 
Williams, Nathan Willard, Charles B. Winslow, Capt. Henry P. Wor- 
cester, Stephen D. W^akefield, Nathan N. Walker k May 23 64, George 
M. Washburn, Orrin H. Weeks, Charles H. Welch, William Weight. 

//rr/Zimr//.— Horatio N. Atherton, Henry A. Albee, Henry A. Ar- 
thur, Jesse Austin, Elijah Bartes, Plummer Butler, Charles H. Bubier, 
Charles M. Bursley p at Manassas May 10 64, Ammi A. Burgess, Martin 
V. B. Benman, Sumner H. Bryant d Jan. 8 63, Charles Bancroft w July 
2 63 k July 2 63, Albert S. Buswell, William F. Bragg, Hugh Burns, 
Erastus B. Burgess, John W. Bryant, Lorenzo Chamberlain, Horace 

E. Choate w Aug. 16 64, Daniel Calaghan, James S. Choate, George 

F. Chamberlain d Aug 21 63, Joseph D. Carr d at Harrison Landing 
July 4 62, Henry S. Currier, Joshua Cunningham, Sewell S. Douglass, 
Augustus L. Dunn, John Dunn, George F. Douglass, George H. Dear- 
born. Charles M. Dodge, Hazen H. Emerson p May 5 64, William J. 
Emerson, Nathaniel Ellery, David H. Ellery, Albert Fly, David 
Flavin, James Frank, George A. Francis, Lieut. George S. Fuller, John 
P. Greeley, Lieut. Franklin Glazier, Capt. George O. Getchell d May 
30 64, William B. Oilman, Capt. C. W. Gardner, Harry W. Gardner, 
Edwin S. Goodwin p May 3 63 d at Annapolis 64, Charles C. Oilman k 
May 1 64, Orlando Gould, George W. Oilman, Sherburne E. George, 
Weston Oilman, James H. Haskell, Joseph S. Haskell, Frank B. Howe, 
William W. Heath, William H. Hodges, Reuel M. Heath, James T. 
Howard, George W. Hubbard, Joseph E. Howe jun,, Frank B. Howe, 
John F. Hobbs, Lieut. John B. Hubbard, Lieut. Hannibal A. Johnson 
p July 2, Capt. Gorham S. Johnson, Thomas Keenan, Major Kelley, 
James Leighton, William E. Laughton, John H. Lowell, O. jSI. Charles 
H. Lincoln, Jackson M. Libbey, Byron Lowell, William E. Mathews, 
George O. Morrill w at Chantilly, Charles C. Morrill, Capt. John M. 
Nash, George E. Nason, J. Edwin Nye, Capt. George A. Nye, Alonzo 
D. Pottle, John A. Paine w July 1 63, George W. Piper w Oct. 19 64, 


Charles B. Rogers k July 2 63, Sanford E. Runnells d June 16 62, 
George S. Ricker, George O. Russell w at Manassas, Joshua Robinson, 
Frank B. Runnells, William F. Richards, Ferdinand S. Richards p 
Oct. 62, Lieut. John S. Snow, Joseph W. Swain, Frank E. Sager, Ben- 
jamin A. Smith, Lieut. John W. Sanborn, Charles Smith p, Spooner 
Simmons, Stephen Simmons, William B. Smith, Richard D. Smith, 
Henry A. Swanton, Stephen H. Simmons p at Richmond, Eben S. 
Stevens w at Malvern Hill, Charles Tobey, John Tommony, John 
Tomony, Thomas E. Wagoner, William White, Reuben A. Went- 
worth, Francis H. Weymouth, Noah F. Weeks, George S. Wood- 
bridge, William Wiley. Albert T. Wharton, Amos Webber jnn. d at 
Georgetown Jan. 14 62, William '\\'illis, Horace F. Woods, Charles H. 
Watson, George Webber w at Chancellorsville, Samuel Wannofsky 
p June 30 62, Edward Willis. 

Litchfield. — Surg. Enoch Adams, George Allen, George A. W. Bliss, 
William H. Bosworth, Lieut. James S. Burke, George S. Buker, R. 
Franklin Chase, Charles F. Campbell, Charles H. Chick, George H. 
Douglass, Edward H. Dunn w at Gaines Hill d Apr. 16 64, Watson 
Foster, Alphonso C. Gowell, Emery Gilbert, Frank Gilbert, Lewis E. 
Grant, Levi Gordon, w at Manassas, Page F. Grover, John C. Grover d 
at New Orleans Nov. 12 63, Charles M. Hattin, John H. Hayden, 
George A. Howard, Joseph E. Howard, Bradford T. Howard, William 
K. Huntington, G. H. Huntington, Edward L. Knowlton w at Chan- 
cellorsville May 3 63, Lieut. J. Edwin Libby d Sept. 16 63, Lieut. 
Joseph E. Latham, Benjamin Landers, Thomas H. Lombard p July 23 
63, George M. Maxwell k at Fredericksburg May 4 63, Darius Meader, 
George Meader, Joseph Meader, John W. Neal k in action June 19 63, 
John Potter w May 5 64, Joseph E. Perry, John Perry d Jan. 15 64, 
Joseph J. Perry, Cyrus Perry, Warren D. Stuart, Orrin A. True, H. 
S. Vining, Jones M. Waire, Hutchinson E. Williams, Thomas S. 
Wedge wood. 

Manchester. — Isaac L. Brainard d June 29 62 at New Orleans, Her- 
bert T. N. Brainard d Mar. 22 62 at Ship Island, Xerxes O. Campbell, 
James G. Cummings, Augustus A. Caswell, Greenleaf D. Greely, Seth 
D. Gordon, John L. Hatch, Joseph T. Hewins, Elias Howard, Silas F. 
Leighton w July 2 63, William H. Lyon w at Manassas, Henry F. 
Lyon k at Shepherdstown July 16 62, L. W. Merrill d Nov. 6 62, Wel- 
lington Murray d at Fernandina Aug. 22 62, Wellington Murney, 
Ira Mason, George B. Safford, Joseph H. Spencer, Thomas Sun, Alton 
M. Stackpole, George E. Tums, John H. Varney. 

Monmouth. — Nathaniel Billington d at Point Lookout Sept 18 62, 
William A. Bowers d Dec. 25 62, Nathaniel Boynton, Lieut. William 
H Briggs k May 30 64, William H. H. Brown, John Chick. Capt. Gran- 
ville P. Cochrane, Lewis H. Cushman, Asa W. Cummings d at Wash- 


ington, Warren S. Folsom d 62, Andrew J. Fogg w May 4 63, Frank 
M. Follynsbee, Horace C. Frost, Adj. Henry O. Fox w at Fair Oaks, 
Otis H. Getchell, Charle.s F. Oilman, John O. A. Oilson, Nathaniel O. 
Gilson, Joshua Oray, Valentine R. Orey, Oeorge B. Hall p at Antie- 
tam, Francis Hall, Silas E: Hinkley d Oct. 30 63, Charles H. Hinkley, 
John B. Hodsdon, George H. Hutchins, John Ingersoll, William H. 
Jones, Thompson S. Keenan, Charles K. Keenan, Henry F. Leach, 
Harlow Z. Murch, W. Scott Norcross w June 27 62, Capt. Greenleaf K. 
Norris, John B. Parsons, Shepard Pease d Aug. 6 62, S. B. Plummet, 
Solomon O. Prescott, Josiah T. Smith, George Small, Nathaniel M. 
Smith, Joseph S. Taylor, Emeelus S. Tozier, Milburn S. Tozier, Frank 
Wardsworth, Edward P. White, Lieut. Spencer F. Wadsworth, Lieut. 
John F. Witherell, Elias H. Wadsworth. 

Mt. Vcrno)i. — Ansel H. Cram, Roscoe G. Cram, Capt. John P. Car- 
son, Samuel Davis, Benjamin F. Griffin, Calvin C. Griffin, George W. 
Griffin, F. M. Oilman, John H. Gordon w at Slaughter Mountain, De- 
lano Leighton, Otis McOaffey d at Frederick.sburg Nov. 30 62, George 
McOaffey, William B. Morse, Daniel S. Norris, George G. Potter, Jo- 
siah F\ Pearl d July 6 63, George M. Rollins, Edwin L. Robinson d at 
New Orleans June 23 62, Wesley Storer d Jan. 29 62, C. E. Scofield, 
Henry Sargent, Leroy H. Tuttle, John R. Teague, Oliver Trask d in 
hospital May 10 62, Everard Thing p at Winchester w, O. J. Wells, 
Parker Wyman. Coolidge Whitney, Verona AVhittier, T. J. Woods p 
at Bull Run, George Whittier, James M. Wright, Charles B. Williams, 
George W. Woods, Lorenzo W^eston, Cyrus M. W^illiams. 

Pittston. — Walter N. Boynton, Daniel Brookings, John G. Boynton, 
Harrison H. Blair d Oct. 16 62, Kendall Bickford, Hiram W. Colburn, 
W^illiam Connor, Levi Connor, William Denene, Lewis Gray d Feb. 
20 63, vSeth Hunt, Capt. Eben D. Haley w Oct. 19 64, Simeon F. Hunt 
■d June 3 62, Rodney C. Harriman, Alexander T. Katon d July 8 62, 
Robert A. Morton, Daniel M. Moody w July 2 63, Andrew Nelson, 
John L. Newhall, George W. Nichols, Alvin A. Potter, David Potter, 
Daniel Plummer, Millen Potter, Thomas A. Richardson, Joseph A. 
Shea, Joseph W. Stewart, Calvin R. Sears, Joseph A. Spea, George W. 
Thompson, Franklin Trask, Charles L. Ware, C. L. C. Wease. 

RcadfiAd.—]dWxi F. Brown d at Hilton Head Dec. 5 61, Charles C. 
Brown w July 18 63, Henry G. Blake, Lewis F. Brown d at Little 
Washington Va. Aug. 4 62, Lemuel S. Brown, William P. Caldwell k 
July 4 62, Benjamin J. Cram, James L. Craig, Lieut Hamlin F. Eaton, 
Elias H. Gove, Robert Gordon, Lieut. Dudley L. Haines, John M. 
Howes, William H. Howard, Abner Haskell d Jan. 2 63, Lieut. Charles 
B. Haskell w at Fair Oaks d June 12 62, Herbert Hunton, Emory L. 
Hunton, Samuel Hunton, George W. Handy, George H. Holden, Den- 
nis B. Jewett, Lieut. Noah Jewett, Charles R. Kitteridge, Franklin 
M. La Croix, George Lyons, Capt. Melville C. Linscott, William H. 


Linscott, Joseph S. Merrill, David A'. Merrill, Elijah A. Mace, Joseph 
S. Morrill, Auburn Merrill, Charles S. Morse. Jacob P. Morrill w at 
Fair Oaks, Michael Moran, Hugh S. Newall, Anson B. Perkins, Chris- 
topher C. Putnam, Thomas H. B. Pierce, Thomas A. Packard, Oscar 
E. Robbins, Bradbury N. Thomas, Zadoc H. Thomas, Henry C. Thomas, 
Alvaro S. Whittier, Charles H. Williams, Elbridge G. Wright, George 
W. Wright, Hebron M. Wentworth, Cyrus B. Whittier. 

Rome. — Arthur Mclntire, Wheelock Moshier, William H. Charles, 
Russell Clement, Lafayette Clement, Abram S. Brooks. 

Sidney.— Z\i2iX\Q& H. Arnold p at Gettysburg July 2 63, Perry 
Arnold. Calvin Bacon, William E. Brown w at Gettysburg, Joseph A. 
Clark d in prison June 22 64, Francis O. Dealing, Allen H. Drummond 
w Dec. 13 63, William Ellis, Charles T. Ellis, George A. Ellis k at 
Chantilly, Henry Field, Ausburn Hutchins, James H. Mathews, - 
George W. Nason p May 2 63. Hiram G. Robinson, Greenleaf W. 
Robinson p May 2 63, Joel F. Richardson, Charles H. Robinson, John 
E. Shaw d at New Orleans Aug. 17 62, Augustus M. Sawtelle, August- 
ine P. Smiley w at Bull Run, Henry AV. Sawtelle, John R. Sawtelle, 
•Charles W. Smiley, Charles Snell, Allen Smith, James A. Thomas, 
■George F. Wixen, William Henry Young. 

Unity Plantation. — George Davis, Samuel A. Myrick. 

Vassalboro.—Q,\i2iX\&& F. Austin, Albert C. Ballard p at Richmond 
July 21 61, Llewellyn Ballard w and p at Richmond July 21 61, Lean- 
der Bean, Joab D. Bragg, Lewis Bragg, George E. Burgess, Jefferson 
Bragg, William H. Brown d Oct. 24 62, Daniel W. Buzzell, Edmund 
P. Buck, Frederick O. Chick. Eugene AV. Cross, Antone Cady, Benja- 
min B. Coombs, Alonzo P. Cortland, Daniel Eaton, Jeremiah A. Estes 
k Aug. 25 64, James R. Eaton, AVilliam Elliott, Lorenzo Farmington, 
George R. Freeman, George L. Freeman d at AVashington Dec. 19 61, 
James Farrell, H. P. Fairfield, Frank Forbes p at Bull Run July 21 
61 k May 5 64, John E. Fossett w at Chantilly and Gettysburg July 2 
63, Edwin P. Getchell, Edwin F. Getchell, A^an T. Gilbert, Alonzo 
Hinckley d Sept. 20 62, Thomas E. Home d Apr. 25 62, Orrick H. 
Hopkins, James W. Irving, AVilliam H. Irving, Asa AA^. Jaqueth, Ben- 
jamin Lamson, John W. Livermore, William AA''. Livermore w July 2 
63, Samuel Lisherness, Henry Lyon k in action, Timothy Merrow, 
Horace S. Mills w in action, John McCommic, Capt. Richard AV. Mul- 
len w at Baton Rouge, George C. Morrow, AVilliam A. Merrill d Feb. 
6 62, Cyrus M. Major d Dec. 9 63, Nathaniel Meigs d Nov. 13 62, John 
M. Mower, Allen W. Mills, John Morrow, Alamber H. Pray, Isaac C. 
Pratt, Benjamin Parker, Nathaniel P. Randall, George S. Rollins d of 
wounds received at Fredericksburg, William A. Robinson d Oct. 8 62, 
W. J. Rowe, AVilliam B. Shaw d Nov. 1862, George W. Sabins, Tim- 
othy Small jun., Edwin Small, Alonzo Stillings, George A. vStillings. 
Charles A. Smart w July 2 63, Lieut. Bradford AA^. Smart p at Manas- 


sas, Charles H. Stone, G. W. Seward, Cyrus Southards, James H. Tay- 
lor, Nathan P. Taber p at Bull Run July 21 61, Albert Varney k in 
action, Orrison Warren, Hermon S. Webber w at Fair Oaks June 4 62 
d Aug. 10 62, Elisha T. Weymouth, William Wentworth, Daniel 
Weeks, George A. Wills, James W. White, William Weiler, Charles 
H. Whitehouse, Eben W. Young p at Richmond. 

J"ic;nia.— H. G. Colby, Charles D. Hall, Daniel A. Lord, Jethro 
Brown, Marcellus Wells, Thomas Penn Rice, Warren Ladd d Dec. 24 
61, Stephen P. Evans, Francis W. Ladd p at Annapolis, Orren B. 
Whittier d at New Orleans Nov. 20 62, Henry W. King, George 
Lord, Emulus F. Whittier. 

JVayue. — Stephen Allen, William H. Bean, Rufus N. Burgess, 
Francis Burgoine, James W. Boyle, Franklin Burrell, David Berry, 
Charles D. Crosby, Lieut. Archibald Clark w May 17 64, Hermon 
N. Dexter, Samuel T. Foss d at Ship Island 62, Darius Harriman, 
Lieut. Nelson H. Norris w. Greenwood Norris d July 30 62, William 
H. Prince d at Baton Rouge July 30 62, William R. Raymond w July 
2 63, Ephraim D. Raymond d in New Orleans 62, George W. Ray- 
mond, Lyman E. Richardson w at Bull Run d at Manassas, Capt. Win- 
field Smith, John O. Sullivan, AVilliam Stevens. 

Waterville. — George T. Benson, George W. Bowman d May 13 62, 
James K. Bacon, George Bacon, David Bates w p at Richmond July 21 
61 d of wounds, Charles Bacon d Nov. 3 of wounds received Oct. 27 
64, Henry W. Barney, Levi Bushier, Thomas Butler, Daniel Black- 
stone, Horace Bow, John H. Bacon w July 2 63, William K. Barrett d 
at Richmond 62, William H. Bacon, Charles I. Corson, Andrew J. 
Cushman, Robert Cochran, Albert Corson d of wounds July 2 63, 
James M. Curtis, William H. Clapp, Henry Crowell, Baxter Crowell, 
George W. Davis w at Gettysburg, Henry Derocher p June 24 62, 
Charles W. Derocher, Lieut. John R. Day p June 20 63, James Dusty, 
Hadley P. D3'er, Luther N. Eames, Shepherd Eldridge w at Freder- 
icksburg, Charles A. Fenno, Henry N. Fairbanks, Hiram Fish d at 
Culpepper Oct. 4 63, Asst. Surg. Frank H. Getchell, John F. Goodwin, 
George Geyrough, Serg. Maj. Marshall P. Getchell, Cyrus C. Galusha, 
Henry Goulding p May 2 63, David B. Gibbs, David B. Gibbs jun. d 
Apr. 1 63, Lieut. Samuel Hamblen, Col. William S. Heath k at Gaines 
Hill June 27 62, Lieut. Col. Francis E. Heath, Lieut. Col. Frank S. 
Hesseltine, Capt. William A. Hatch, Charles A. Henrickson p at Rich- 
mond July 21 61, Adj. Frank W. Haskell, Algernon P. Herrick w at 
Chantilly, John S. Hodgdon, Albro Hubbard p, Isaiah H. James, 
Charles R. Kendall, George Lashers, George Littlefield, Albert G. 
Libbey, Solomon B. Lewis, Edward C. Low, Lieut. Charles AV. Lowe, 
Lieut. Edwin C. Lowe, Gott Lubier, Michael McFadden, Capt. George 
A. Mclntire, Watson Marston, John N. Messer, George M. Maxham, 
Hezekiah O. Nickerson, Sylvanus Nook, Paul Oeward, Lafayette Oli- 


ver, William Penney, Capt. James H. Plaisted, John H. Plummer, 
Nathaniel Parley, Henry P. Perley, Gott Pooler, George Perry w May 
20 64, William D. Peavey, Joseph M. Penney d at Waterville Nov. 19 
62, Joseph Perry k Aug. 80 62, Peltiah Penney, Peter Preo, Charles 
Perry, Edw. S. Percival, Frank D. Pullen, James Perry w at Gettys- 
burg July 2 63, Abram Ranco, Moses Renco, Lucius Rankins, James 

F. Ricker, Elisha M. Rowe, William Rowe, David Seavey, Charles R. 
Shorey, Jacob Shurburne, Major Abner R. Small, Jason K. Stevens, 
Frank O. Smiley, Charles W. Thing, Henry A. Thing, John Tallus, 
Welcome Thayer, Lieut. Henry E. Tozier w May 20 64, Albert Tozier 
d in Waterville, Asa L. Thompson d Dec. 26 62, Levi Vique, Hos. St. 
W. W. West, George L. Wheeler k at Chantilly, William W. Wyman 
w at Bull Run, Henry White d at Fredericksburg Oct. 20 62, Alvin B. 
Woodman, Eugene H. Young. 

IVest Gardiner. — Joseph Edwin Babb, Jeremiah C. Bailey, Amos J. 
Bachelder, George W. Bailey w July 2 63, Hiram Babb, Lieut. Alfred 

G. Brann, Lieut. Cyrus W. Brann, James S. Burns, Charles A. Cooke, 
William O. Davis, Stephen S. Emerson, Henry Fairbanks, George E. 
Grover, William F. Haines, Adams Johnston p at Bull Riin July 21 61, 
William H. Jewett, Seward Merrill. Charles J. McCausland, L. D. Mc- 
Kinney, Horace Morrill, Ferdinand A. Nudd, Dexter W. Page, Wil- 
liam H. Peacock, Cyrus S. Peacock, Hubbard C. Smith, Daniel S. 
Smith, Ari Thompson, Ebenezer Whitney. 

Windsor. — Samuel R. Cottle d in service 64, James O. Carroll p at 
Manassas, E. B. F. Colby, Albert A. Craig, Francisco Colburn .William 
Dockendorff, Byron H. Farrington d at Washington Aug. 22 62, Capt. 
John Goldthwait, George Gray, William H. Hewitt, Daniel Hallowell, 
S. C. Huntley, Francis J. Lacey, William Lisherness, William B. Mar- 
•son, George L. Marson, Melmouth M. Marson d Jan. 22 64, Oakman 
W. Marson, Daniel Melvin d at New Orleans Sept. 30 62, George A. 
Pollard, Nathan Peva, George H. Pevea, Freeman C. Pera, Harrison 
Reed, Seth Rhines, Edward W. Sanborn, Wentworth L. Sampson, Lu- 
cius S. vStarkey, David Stevens, Reuel W. Trask, Lieut. Marcellus Vin- 
ing w May 12 64. 

Winsloiv.—]. Holman Abbott, George A. Baker, Elisha S. Baker, 
Daniel Burgess, George H. Bassett, Rial M. Bryant w at Fair Oaks d 
June 7 62, George W. Boulter, Charles H. Burgess k June 20 64, Fran- 
cis E. Chadwick, Simon McCausland, George C. Drummond, Daniel 
H. Elliott, Serg. Maj. Andrew W. Fuller, James E. Fox, Edward F. 
Garland, Martin V. Guptill, John L. Hale, Llewellyn E. Hodges, Max- 
cey Hamlin. Charles W. Jackins, Assenius Littlefield, George L. Mor- 
rill, Isaac Morrill, George P. Morrell, Addison Morrill, Edward B. 
Merrill, Frank E. Nelson, Albion Osborn, Asa Pollard d at Yorktown 
June 62, Homer Proctor, Henry Pollard, Otis Pollard w July 22 63, 
Charles Pillsbury, William Pollard d Dec. 4 62, Hiram S. Pollard, 


Rufus Preble k at Antietam, George A. Pollard. George W. Pillsbury 
p at New Orleans July 21 61, William T. Prebble, Harri.s C. Quinby, 
Amasa Spaulding, Henry Spaulding, Charles E. Smiley, Sharon C. 
Taylor, William H. Taylor, Seward A. Wood, Hiram C. Webber d of 
wounds Aug. 18 63, Oliver W. Wilson d July 27 62. 

Wint/irop. — Andrew P. Bachelder d at Andersonville, Orrin G. Babb, 
William H. Burgess k July 2 63, John W. Bussell, George A. Butler p 
July 2 63 d Andersonville, Andrew C. Butler, William P. Bailey, 
Samuel Ballantine, Weston Burgess, John Bessee, Frank Beal w May 
16 64, Rish worth A. Burgess, Franklin S. Briggs, George W. Chandler, 
Franklin Buyer, Thomas M. Daniels, Charles H. Dearborn p Ander- 
sonville, Stephen H. Day mortally w Sept. 20 63, John Dealy jun. k 
June 9 63, AVilliam Durham mortally w Sept. 62, Lieut. William Elder,. 
James M. Forsaith, Melville N. Freeman, Thomas R. Forsaith, David 
P. Freeman w at Fair Oaks, Warren A. Friend p near Richmond June 
29 62, Albert H. Frost k at Gettysburg July 2 63, Calvin B. Green, 
David Grant d at New York June 13 62, Edwin Goldthwait, John F. 
Ga.slin w at Fair Oaks, Christopher Hammond, James M. Holmes, 
Ivory C. Hanson, Capt. Thomas S. Hutchins, Elijah T. Jacobs, Henry 
Judkins, Lieut. Bimsley S. Kelley, Lieut. Daniel Lothrop, Solomon A. 
Nelke, George Perkins, Daniel W. Philbrook p at Chancellorsville, 
Lieut. Henry Penniman w July 2 63, Elias Pullen, Orrin Quint, Capt. 
William L. Richmond, James C. Ricker p July 2 63, Sumner H. Stan- 
ley, Charles H. Smiley, Joseph H. Sterns, Charles J. Sterns, Patrick H. 
Snell, Charles D. Sleeper, Edward F. Towns, Edward K. Thomas k 
May 6 64, Stephen A. Thurston, George W. Upton d at Yorktown May 
19 62, George W. Williams, A. G. H. Wood w at Gettysburg July 2 63, 
William G. Wilson k in action, Andrew Woodbury. 

The president's call of July 2, 1862, for 300,000 volunteers chilled 
the hearts of men like the clang of a death-knell. The youthful pas- 
sion for war that gave the first summons all the joyous peal of the 
■wedding chimes had now subsided. The beautiful vista of valient 
achievements and brilliant victories which fancy painted had grad- 
ually faded away, and, like a dissolving view from the stereoscope, 
war, hideous in its vestments of blood and carnage, had taken its 
place on the screen. The days of filling state quotas by the impulse 
of chivalry were gone. Some inducement must be offered to exchange 
the then highly remunerative pursuits of civil life for the dangers of 
war. At the special session of the legislature called by Governor 
Washburn, to which the attention of the reader has already been 
called, a bounty equal to two months' pay was appropriated. 

As the novelty of war gradually wore off and men became more 
self-conservative, many of the towns offered an additional bounty. 
With this last call for volunteers the state promptly offered an increase 
of fifteen dollars for enlistments in new regiments, and twenty dol- 


lars to recruits for regiments already in the field. But even this and 
the liberal government bounty failed to arouse enthusiasm sufficient 
to insure the completion of some of the local quotas. To meet this 
emergency and counteract the effect of the exorbitant bounties offered 
by some of the wealthy municipalities in other New England states, 
many of the towns followed their example and appropriated sums 
reaching, in many instances, four hundred dollars per capita. 

The reader can readily apprehend the effect of this measure on 
some localities. The quota being based entirely on the population of 
the communities, those small towns which had not the accompani- 
ment of wealth with a large citizenship were unequally burdened. To 
meet and equalize this oppression of the less opulent localities the 
legislature of 1868 passed an act authorizing that each town, city and 
plantation should receive as a reimbursement from the state one hun- 
dred dollars for each man furnished for the military service for a term 
of three years, under the call of July 2, 1862, and all subsequent calls, 
and in the same proportion for any man furnished for any shorter 

A commission of three persons was appointed by the governor to 
audit the claims of towns. By this commission certificates were issued 
to the towns, duplicates of which were deposited with the state treas- 
urer. On presentation of a certificate to the latter functionary by the 
treasurers of the municipalities, bonds of the state were issued to the 
towns for the amount of their claims in even hundreds of dollars with 
a currency payment of all fractional excesses. A loan of $2,827,500 
was procured on twenty year bonds of the state bearing six per cent, 
semi-annual interest. No town which furnished its quota without 
the payment of at least one hundred dollars per capita was entitled to 
reimbursement under this act, unless the town appropriated the 
amount thus received to the benefit of the soldiers who enlisted, or 
were drafted, or, if deceased, to their legal heirs. Thus it became the 
duty of the selectmen of the respective towns to file lists of their 
citizens' military service under enlistments after July 2, 1862. These 
original rolls, by towns, authenticated by the selectmen's signatures, 
are among the most reliable documents in the adjutant general's office. 
The 3,813 names of enlisted men in the succeeding list aire from those 
documents, transcribed for these pages, by Captain Thomas Clark, of 
the adjutant general's office. 

A/h'ofi.— Moses Atkinson, Lieut. Amos J. Billings d July 28 63, 
Howard S. Bessey, Selden E. Brann, David Brown, Albert B. Brown, 
Emery Bruce, George Bolton, Charles A. Coleman, James A. Craig, 
Luther W. Crosby, Lewis H. Cofran, Seth R. Clark, Persia B. Clifford, 
John F. Clifford. Samuel Charlton, James H. Coombs, Isaac N. 
Coombs, John E. Copeland, William T. Cressey, Luther Davis, Charles 
A. Douglass, William D. Doe, Robert Dingley, John Donnough, Had 


ley P. Doe, Martin V. Eldridge, Caleb F. E^tes, Josiah Edwards, 
George W. Flood, Charles L, Feldtman, Albert P. Farnham, Charles 
G. Fowler, Edward Fox, John M. Gaslin, Henry S. F. Gerald, Joseph C. 
Gilman, George W. Gilman, Henry A. Griffith, Charles P. Gove, George 
W. Griffith, Adj. Sanford Hanscom, James Hodgkins, Cyrus S. Hamilton 
d, Eben Hanely, George F. Hopkins w May 6 64, Lewis E. Hopkins, 
Lewis E. Hovey, John M. Hussey, vStafford B. Jones, Charles Keene,Wil- 
liam G. Kidder, Joshua Knights, William Leonard w May 6 64, Charles 
H. Libby, Rufus F. Lancaster, George W. Longfellow, Albert P. Leavitt, 
Isaac H. Libby d June 28 63, Herbert E. Lewis, Samuel Longley, 
Davis McDonald, Andrew G. Mudgett, George F. Martin, George 
Meader, John Mains, Jeptha C. Murch, Joseph L. Nado, Albert Nor- 
ton, Isaac Y. Pierce, George F. Pease, Ezra A. Pray, Allen Parmeter, 
Alphonso C. Pray, Lieut. Osborn J. Pierce, George Rutledge, Calvin 
Rollins, Benjamin F. Runnels, Daniel Rollins, Simon Spaulding, 
Lieut. Joseph H. Spencer, Andrew H. Smiley d in Albion Aug. 19 63, 
Erastus M. vShaw, Edwin Staples, Warren B. vStinson, Orrin F. Stinson 
d Dec. 15 64, John F. Stackpole, William G. Stratton, Charles Seekins, 
Josephus Simpson, Gardiner P. Smiley d Mar. 28 63, E. N. D. Small, 
James M. Tyler k near Petersburg Oct. 24 64, Lieut. William H. Tabor, 
Charles B. Tabor, A. S. Weed, Algernon Weymouth, Isaac W. Whit- 
taker, George M. Wiggin, Eugene Worthens, Orrin T. White, Nathan 
S. Winslow d in rebel prison Aug. 13 64, Samuel Wilder, Charles T. 
Whitten, Olney Worthens. 

Augusta. — Peter Adley, Louis Alexander, Leverett A. Albee, George 
Allen w, Judson Ames, Charles Annable w May 12 64, Edward Ander- 
son, George W. Andrews, Lieut. William R. Anderson, Lieut. Hol- 
man B. Anderson, Charles Arnold, Daniel Anderson, W. F. Applegate, 
Edgar Atkins, H. D. Austin, Charles \V. Allen, Charles H. Arnold, 
Charles S. Avery paroled p Dec. 7 64, Riley B. Avery, George E. Allen, 
Orlando R. Achorn, Roscoe G. Avery, John G. Abbott, John F. Arnold 
w Oct. 13 64, Edward Austin d June 13 65, Charles F. Applebee, George 
Arbo, Josiah S. Arey jun., Charles M. Batchelder, Byron Branch, Wil- 
liam M. Brick, Cyrus Bishop, William Burns, Charles Bushey, Benj. 
F. Barrows w and p 64, Amasa M. Bennett, Q. M. George W. Brown, 
William W. Bruce, S. H. Billington, Thomas G. Billington, John S. 
Brown d in Libby Prison Nov. 63, James D. Brooks w Dec. 13 62, 
James Britt, Samuel G. Brannan, Stephen B. Brannan, Joshua E. Black- 
well, John H. Babcock, Darius Brooks d of wounds June 18 64, Joseph 
Brooks, William A. Brown, William Bolton, George H. Brick, Lieut. 
George A. Barton w May 6 64, James E. Bell, Benjamin Backliff, Ed- 
ward K. Bacon, Lieut. Silas C. Barker p at Manassas, Isaac D. Billing- 
ton, Edward Brady, Chap. Horace L. Bray, Thomas Brennan, Surg. 
George E. Brickett, Jesse M. Black, John W. Blomvelt, Walter L. 
Boynton, John W. Boynton, Peter R. Breen, Charles L. Brann, John 


H. Breene, Capt. Uriah W. Briggs, Col. Edwin Burt, Lieut. William 
H. Briggs, Jcseph L. Brown, Joseph Bushey, William Barber, William 
Bready, John Buderman, Jonas Bruce, Joseph Bunk, Frank Babbitt, 
Charles F. Berry, Samuel Berry, Charles H. Bradbury, William Buck- 
man, Hezekiah Bean, George H. Brackett, Isaac Bennett, Charles 
Clark, Augustus Chadwick, Charles C. Chagnon, Rodger Connelly d in 
rebel prison, Andrew Clark jun., Everett Colson, Richard Cunning- 
ham, Ezra G. Ca,swell jun., Thomas Cready, Thomas Clow, John Cun- 
ningham. John Canton, William Collins, James P. Capron, Alonzo 
Clark, Charles O., Thomas Cole, Anthony Conway, Morris 
Cogan, Rowland S. Clark d Feb. 27 63, Charles E. Caswell, David B. 
Cole, Albert Call, Lieut. William Campbell, William A. Campbell, 
Frank Carlin, Judah A. Chadwick. Elbridge G. Chick, George E. Cham- 
berlin d in rebel prison Nov. 11 64, Reuel Chamberlin, Horace Church, 
Leander M. Clark, Reuel Clark paroled p, .Stephen R. Clark, Theodore 
Clark d in rebel prison Nov. 1 64, George M. Clark, Clinton G. 
Clark, James H. Cook. John A. Clark, Llewellyn Clough, Joseph 
Cogan, John Connor, Lieut. George Cony, Lucius Cony, Robert A. 
Cony jun., Surg. Richard L. Cook, Eugene W. Cross, Robert Cochrane, 
Robert Crawford, Lieut. Warren Cox, Charles Cunningham, Maj. 
Nathan Cutler, Uriah Cunningham w June 26 64, D. H. Cunningham, 
Henry C. Daley, James Davis k May 8 64, David Day, Henry Day, 
William H. Day, Serg. Maj. John N. Dennen, George W. Dill d in 
hospital Feb. 4 6.^, William H. Dill, Benjamin R. Dingley, Lieut. Ed- 
ward P. Donnell, Benjamin Douglass w July 20 64, Thomas Doyle, John 
E. Dresden, Edmund M. Dunham, Dan forth Dunton, Capt. Robert T. 
Dyer, Sylvester Davis, James F. Doyle, George H. Devine, Thomas 
Doyle, John W. Dinsmore, Henry S. Donnell, George W. Dudley, 
Henry Dresser, Kneeland A. Darrow, Charles Dickson, William Dwyer, 
Peter Donnelly, George Donahoe, John F. Duggan, Frank Edgerty, 
Cyrus H. Elems w June 8 64, Charles F. Emerson, Sylvester S. Fall, 
Samuel S. P'arnham, Gustavus A. Farrington d Oct. 30 64, Edmund 
Fay, George E. Field, Dennis Finnegan, George H. Fisher, Roland R. 
Fletcher, Edward Fogler w Aug. 18 64, Henry G. Frizzell, D. FuUock, 
Eugen S. Fogg, Miles Frain, Francis J. Folsom, Augustine Fowler, 
John Fenney, John Feeny, John Fitzgerald, Patrick Flenning, William 
J. P'orbes, Andrew Fox, Alfred F. Gage, Marcellus Gale, Harvey R. 
Getchell, Artemus K. Gilley, P. P. Getchell, Lieut. Fred W. Gilbreth, 
Merritt Goodwin, Daniel Gordon, Charles H. Gordon d about June 15 
64, Solomon Gordon, James R. Gordon, Josiah H. Gordon, William O. 
Grady, Leonard J. Grant d Mar. 6 64, Mark C. Grant, Calvin P.Green, 
John F. Greeley, Elbridge Gardiner, Edward Grover, John Greene, 
Lorenzo W. Hackett, Elisha Heath jun., Otis Haskell, William F. Hus- 
sey, Warren C. Harlow, Thomas A. Harvey, Abner Haskell, Hadley 
O. Hawes, Charles R. Haynes, John Hayes, Capt. Albion Hersey, Ed- 


ward H. Hicks, Charles E. Higgins, Henry Hodsdon, William H> 
Holmes, William Holmes, Charles P. Hubbard, George A. Hussey w 
July 3 63, Merrill Hussey, John F. Hussey, Capt. Charles K. Hutchins, 
Alonzo F. Hill. George H. Heath, Henry W. Hawes d Apr. 9 63, Simon 
Higgins, Amos A. Hansom, Greenfield P. Hall, Harvey A. Hovey^ 
Valentine Holt, Daniel W. Hume, Patrick Hynes, David Haggerty, 
James Higgins, Henry Hugh, John Howard, F. H. Hamilton, John 
Hogan. Harry Ingraham, Martin Ingraham w June 14 63, Thomas F. 
Ingraham, John Jenkins, James Jordan, Lieut. Hannibal A. Johnson, 
John Johnson, William J. Johnson, Frank Jones, Llewellyn Jones^ 
William Jung, William O. Kaherl, John Kavanagh, Stephen Keating, 
Edward B. Keene, Isaac Keene, John W. Kenney, Michael Kennedy, 
George Kelly, Thomas H. Kimball, William King, Henry G. Kimball 
w Aug. 16 64 d Dec. 12 64, Charles N. Kincaid w May 18 64, George 
W. Ladd, Frank H. Lailer, Col. Moses B. Lakeman, Nathaniel Lane k 
May 6 64, John Larrabee p June 29 64, Cyrus A. Langton, Hampton 
W. Leighton w at Gettysburg 63, Thomas Lilley d in rebel prison Nov. 
16 64, Robert A. Lishness, Ruel Littlefield, Amasa Lord, Converse 
Lowell, Judson A. Lovejoy, Newman B. Lane, Robert Lishness, John 
Leighton, John Laughton, Daniel Lane, Martin Lynch, George 
C. Lawrence, Nelson G. Libby, Reuel Lambard, Timothy Lucey, Cor- 
nelius Lane, William H. Lyon, David S. Lyon, Henry A. Mann, Adj. 
Joseph H. Metcalf, Josiah M. Morse, William Morgridge, Hiram C. 
Moody, Daniel McGrath, James McGrath, John H. Moore, H. W. Mer- 
rill d of disease Mar. 27 65, Francis McBride, Patrick Maloney, Joseph 
Meek, Stephen S. Morse, Daniel B. Morey w May 20 64, John McMas- 
ter jun., John McMaster, Daniel Mahoney p Oct. 63, James W. Miller, 
Melville Merrill, Milford Mahoney, George E. Maloon, Charles J. Mar- 
den, Ambrose Marriner, Alfred J. Marston p June 22 d Sept. 12 64, 
Benjamin R. Marston, Charles L. Marston, Henry C. Marston, George 
T. Mason, Enoch Merrill, Amos Merrill, Florentus R. Merrill, Capt. 
Joseph H. Metcalf, Eben McFarland, John H. Miller, Stephen Miller, 
Charles Mile, Stephen McKenney, Henry A. McMaster, Wilder Mc- 
Mitchell, Charles F. Moore, James Moren, Edward Miner, James Mc- 
Grath, James McGann, John Murphy, William Murphy p, Capt. J. D. 
My rick, Timothy Mahoney, Thomas Mmton, Fred E. Marshall, Daniel 
Murry, Fred Morrison, James Malone, Hugh McKenna, John R. 
Meyer, William F. Moody, Capt. William C. Morgan, William N. Mur- 
ray d of wounds Apr. 2 65, Eugene Moraney, Oliver Marr, Isaac 
Moody w May 6 64, William G. Merrill d of disease 63, Thomas Mur- 
phy, Jeremiah Murphy k at Middletown Oct. 19 64, Thomas J. Nary, 
Albert H. Norcross, Patrick Naughton, Albert P. Nichols, Lieut. A. J. 
Nichols, Charles F. Nichols w June 63 p June 28 64, John W. Nicholas, 
Col. Joseph Noble, John B. Nutting, John O'Brien, John O'Neal, Pat- 
rick O'Gara, Whitman L. Orcutt, James Orrick, Samuel Orr, Dennis 


O'Brien, Samuel A. Packard, Albert H. Packard, James E. Parker, 
Charles B. Patterson, Daniel Pease, Frank W. Peaslee dof disease Mar. 
6 65, George Peva, John W. Phinney, Augustus W. Plummer, Charles 
M. Phillips d Feb. 19 64, Allen Partridge, Capt. Edward C. Pierce, 
Phillip Piper p Oct. 19 64, George E. Pond, Charles H. Powers, Michael 
Powers, Joseph Pluskey, Jones F. Pratt, Eben E. Pushor, Nathan E. 
Quint, John Rappel, Sewall R. Reeves, Moses Richards, Orlando W. 
Richardson w May 16 64, Albert Ricker, James Rideout, Thomas B. 
Rideout, Andrew J. Riley, Lieut. George E. Rines, George F. Ray, 
Charles C. Rideout d Apr. 13 65, John Rollins, James B. Robbins w 
May 19 64, Philander W. Rowell, Franklin Ruffin, William Reed, Jo- 
seph Ruggles, Silas H. Runnell, Michael Ryan, Hollis M. Sabine, 
Capt. James M. Safford, Omar F. Savage, George Scates, Stephen M. 
Scates, Adj. Henry Sewall, Capt. Samuel G. Sewell, Lorenzo D. Shaw, 
Thomas Singleton, William B. Small, Augustus C. Smith, Augustus 
L. Smith, Charles F. Smith, Corp. George W. Smith, Wilson C. Smith, 
Lieut. William T. Smith. William E. Smith d in rebel prison Nov. 64, 
Orrin P. Smart w June 6 64, Greenlief Smart, Richard N. Smart, Jo- 
seph Snow, James F. Snow, Bt. Maj. G. T. Stevens, Lorenzo D. Stev- 
ens, George Stewart, Edward P. Sargent, John F. Short, David W. 
Small, John Stewart w July 9 64, Charles O. Stone, George A. Snow, 
Edwin F. Stone, Joseph M. Springer, Abraham Stickney, George H. 
Smith d at Augusta Maine Aug. 15 63, Homer R. Stratton, Albert M. 
Scott, Fred A. Sullivan, Daniel B. Savage, David Stuart, Michael Sul- 
livan, Patrick Sullivan, Jacob Sleeper, John Smith, August Smith, 
George Taylor, Howard W. Taylor, Richard C. Taylor, William W. 
Taylor, Everett Temple, Augustus G. Thomas, Lieut. James L. 
Thompson d of wounds June 6 64, Actor P. Thompson, William O. 
Tibbetts d of wounds May 1 64, Lauriston G. Trask, Anson T. Tilson, 
James R. Tibbetts, Henry Towle, Charles F. Tibbetts, Joseph A. Tur- 
ner, Sumner W. Turner, Albion R. R. Twombley, Nicholas Vickolby, 
Charles Victor, Theodore C. Van Clasburg, Charles De Villenenoe, 
Charles H. Wade, George Wall, Lieut. William H. H. Ware, Jeremiah 
Watkins, John O. Webster, Col. James W. Welch, Thomas Welch, 
Benjamin Wells, John P. Wells d in rebel prison Jan. 12 65, Eben 
Wellman, Benjamin H. Wescott, Charles H. White, Caleb F. Wade, 
William A. R. Withee, Andrew P. Webber, William T. C. Wescott, 
Philander E. Worthley, Stephen Wing, Oliver P. Webber, Joseph 
Whitney, Henry A. Whitney, Eben B. Whitney, Michael Whalen, 
Charles Woodman, John L. Watson, George N. White, Frank White, 
Oliver Woodbury, Joshua R. Webber d May 28 63, William H. H. 
Ware, John Wentworth d at Barrancas Fla. Dec. 10 64, Nathaniel W. 
White, True Whittier, Fred A. Wilson, John Wil.son, Albert N. Wil- 
liams d July 3 63, Frederick A. Williams, Henry Williamson, Holmes 
B. Williamson, Reuel Williams, John Wills, Gilmore S. Wing, Atwell 


M. Wixson p 63, John H. Woodbury, Capt. Edward F. Wyman, Charles 
O. Wyman, William C. Young p d Aug. 24 64, David H. Young, A. J. 

Belgrade— ]ose])\\ A. Ackley, isaac Adams, Charles Allen, Bowman 
V. Ames, George E. Andrews, John W. Austin, Thomas J. Austin d 
of wounds Oct. 27 64, Theodore Ayer. Charles A. Bailey, Edwin L. 
Barker, William B. Bates, Charles M. Bickford, Milford Bickford, 
Thomas M. Bickford, William Bickford d Mar. 24 63, George F. Bliss, 
Franklin Brann, George H. Boston, George F. Breeden, William 
Brooks, Frederick C. Brookings, Franklin L. Bumpus, William Bushee, 
James Cavanaugh, Sylvanus W. Chamberlain, Nathaniel F. Clark d in 
hospital July 29 65, George Clark, Charles A. Clement, Thomas Crosby, 
Asa J. Cummings, Joseph S. Cummings, Charles C. Damren, James C. 
Damren, Willard H. Darmen, Charles A. Davis, George Dow, Charles 
F. Ellis, Freeman Ellis, George W. Emerson, Amasa T. Fall, Lorenzo 
Farnham, Otis B. Faulkingham, Samuel Fitzherbert, Thomas W. 
Flint, Daniel L. Folsom, William T. Foss, Sylvester W. Giles, William 
Garrett, George Guptill w Oct. 19 64, George Grant, Lieut. Henry W. 
Golder, Charles B. Goldsmith, George W. Grose, Henry Grover, 
Franklin Grant, John J. Gundlack. Guard Guard, George W. Glidden, 
John Hammond jun., John Harris, Rufus H. Hopkins, Ausburn 
Hutchins, Levi Higgins, William H. Huskins, Cyrus Huff, Rodna 
Flegwood, Charles A. Hinkley, Charles L. Hutchings, P. P. Hutchins, 
Henry L Hotchkiss, Henry Huff, Samuel Jobbot, William Joneas, 
Silas P. Leighton, James A. Lombard, Allen Leavitt, Charles H. Lit- 
tlefield d at Frederick Md. Apr. 25 65, Acel A. Littlefield k June 20 64, 
Manselus N. Libby, William H. Leighton, William Mathews, Harthorn 
Marston, Edward H. Merchant d in hospital July 18 65, Asal L. Mer- 
chant d in hospital July 25 65, Lyman Maxwell p, H. A. Mills, Alex- 
ander McDavitt, Michael McLaughlin, George McMullen, Edwin G. 
Minot d in hospital Sept. 17 64, Stephen C. Mills, Alphonzo W. Mc- 
Kay, George W. Morrill, Ambrose Merrow, Charles B. Moseley, Flor- 
ence McCarty, James R. Nickerson, Everet A. Penney, William A. 
Parker, Fred B. Philbrick, John Patridge, Greenwood C. Pray, John 
W. Pray, Reuben H. Pray, John Putman, Fred E. Patridge, Leonard 
H. Pratt, George F. Parks, Gideon Powers, Asst. Surg. Ingraham G. 
Richardson, Joel Richardson, Royal Richardson d Aug. 15 63, J. D. 
Rhoades, William Rankins, Henry Richardson, Peter W. Swan d Apr. 
1 64,' Cathbert E. Stonehouse, Charles Simmons, Henry J. Spaulding, 
Edward L. Smith d Oct. 7 64, Aaron Simpson, George B. Stevens, Cy- 
rus Shaw, Elijah J. Stevens, Joel Spaulding, Jesse Spaulding, David 
Strong, George F. Smith, Arthur Stewart, Ezra W. Trask w May 5 d 
Sept. 14 64, William A. Tibbetts, Miles J. Temple, Thomas C. Wadley, 
John Worster w at Petersburg June 19 64, Hiram G. Wellman, John 
W. Weaver, Charles H. Webber, George Warren, William V. White- 


house k July 24 64, George D. Wyman, William E. Willey, John M. 
Williams, Ruel Williams, A. J. Woodbury, William Wilbur, Thomas 
S. Wyman, Alphonzo H. Wadley d of wounds July 2 64, Jotham D. 

Benton.— Oliver Averill, Daniel R. Bartlett, Isaac S. Bicknell, Al- 
pheus Brown, James A. Brown, Charles S. Buken, Benjamin F. Buz- 
zell, Asbury Cole, Abijah Crosby, John Crowley, Daniel F. Davis, 
William L. Davis, Loren Dodge, John E., Leander H. Dow 
d from injuries May 19 65, George W. Flagg, Gershan Flagg, Stephen 
Flood, Daniel S. Foss, James H. Foster, Charles Gage, Alvin Gibson, 
Charles Giles, George W. Grace, John Gray, Albert Gray jun., Charles 
Goodale, David Goodale d of disease Apr. 28 6a, William H. Goodale, 
James Goodale, John M. Goodin, Joseph Conner, Freeman Hansworn, 
James F. Hern, Theodore V. Hill, James Henderson, Benjamin Hun- 
ter, John H. Hyer, Aaron Johnson, Henry Johnson, Isaac W. Kenner- 
son, John F. O. Malloy, Watson D. Marston, David Mason, John O. 
Dodge w Oct. 27 64, Frank McGray, S. F. McKenney, John A. McKinney, 
William H. Morrill, Richard McVinet, Charles Noble, Henry Noble, 
Thomas Pamphay, Noah S. Paul, Lyman Pettigrow, A. R. Preston, 
Frank Raneo, Charles B. Reed, Henry M. Reed, Albert Rideout, 
George A. Roundy, George F. Runnells, James Ryan, Cyrus Savage, 
C. W. Smith, John Smith, Charles H. Spaulding, Charles Spauldiug, 
Henry E. Spaulding, William Spaulding, John Spaulding, Hollis 
Spearing, Charles Spencer, Charles A. Speneer, Samuel Stacy, John 
H. Stephens, Alonzo Sylvester, Gershom F. Tarbell, Isaac Trask, 
Orrin S. Usher, Bowman Wood, Daniel Wood, Henry Wood, Ephraim 
Win.ship, Lorenzo Wyman. 

Chelsea.— Charles E. Ames, Charles M. Bailey k Apr. 6 64, William 
H. Bolton, George T. Blanchard, Samuel L. Blanchard, Cyrus Brann, 
Daniel C. Brown jun., Rinaldo Brown, Plummer H. Butler, Edwin 
Cappers, Rinaldo A. Carr, John M. Chase d Feb. 20 63, Stephen Cobb 
w May 27 63, Alfonzo C. Collins, Augustus H. Collins k July 30 64, 
Augustus Collins, Frank Condon, Albert Cooper, Frank Cooper, 
Uriah Cunningham, David P. Cornish, William A. Drake, James S. 
Emerson, George A. Evans, Charles F. French. Stephen H. French, 
Arnold L. Foye, William A. Foye, Joseph L. Haskell, James F. Has- 
kell, James Hogan, Joseph Irving, Ruel W. Keene. Wilbert W. Ken- 
iston, Otis W. Littlefield, Lorin N. Marston, Nathaniel H. Meader, 
Andrew Morang w May 12 64, William Morgan, Calvin Morang, Ce- 
phas Morang d July 17 63, Simon Morang, James G. Morang, Hiram 
Moulton, George H. Neal, Lyman C. Neal, Henry L. Patterson, Isaac 
L. Page, Reuben H. Page, John E. Page, George M. Perkins, Augus- 
tus H. Pinkham, Solomon H. Preble, Mark L. Rollins, Harrison B. 
Sanborn d 64. Charles M. Searls d June 8 63, Henry Stevens, Eben 


Tasker, James Wellman d July 7 64, Fred H.White, Henry E. White, 
Arad Woodbury d May 17 64, James M. Wright. 

China. — Edwin Alley, John L. Allen, John C. Andrews, Joseph E. 
Babb, F. S. Barnard, AVilliam Bell, Asst. Surg. David P. Bolster, 
•George A. Bosworth, Edmund Bragg, Everett H. Bridgham, John S. 
Briggs, Orpheus P. Brann, John Brown, Alonzo Burrill, John Burrill, 
Thomas E. Carpenter, Lendell S. Caswell, Gustavus B. Chadwick, 
-Charles F. Choate, Stillman Choate, Thomas F. Clark, Osgood Coffran, 
Ezekiel L. Cole p Aug. 19 61 d Feb. 2 65, William J. Cole, Elias Colla- 
tnore, Elisha Cooley, William B. Coombs. Joseph Coro w at Gettys- 
burg 63, Atwell J. Cross, Watson W. Cross, Greenlief P. Curtis, Philip 
W. Day, Aaron Davis jun., John D. Davis, Wallace A. E. De Beque, 
Addison G. Deering, Adolphus W. Doe, George L. Dow, John Doyle, 
James H. Ellis, Orren Emerson, Jacob Emery d Aug. 27 64, Jeremiah 
H. Estes, Isaac W. Fairbrother, William H. Fairbrother, Reuben M. 
Farrington d 64, John Farris, Alvanna V. Farris d July 24 64, Oscar M. 
Fernold, Abisha B. Fletcher, Capt. Alfred Fletcher, Charles B. Fletcher, 
Eben L. Fletcher, Edward A. Fletcher, Edwin A. Fletcher, Charles 
Fowler, Alden H. Frazier, Oscar S. Frost, James E. Fulton, Frederick G. 
Gage, Samuel S. Galligar, Joseph Gelcott jun., Samuel D. Giddings, F. 
C. Goodspeed, Charles B. Greeley, Alfred M. Hamlin, Thomas E. Har- 
rington, Joseph H. Haskell, Orrin A. Haskell, Oscar H. Haskell, 
George S. Hawes, Thomas E. Harrington, Myron C. Harrington, Am- 
brose B. Hanson, Quimby H. Hamilton d of disease Apr. 19 63, Ste- 
phen Harmon, Sylvester L. Hatch d of disease Sept. 23 65, Sumner 
Haskell, Joseph Hatch, J. W. Hall, Samuel C. Haskell, Edwin H. 
Hana, Andrew B. Hubbard, George K. Huntington w May 20 64, Fred 
E. Hutchinson, George H. Hussy, Charles H. Jackson, Willis J. James, 
Charles H. Johnson, Amos Jones, John Jordan, Edwin Kelley, Charles 
A. Ketchen d Jan 13 64, Charles Kellran, Amos Keller d Aug. 18 64 
in Florida, J. Kempton, James Knichler d Sept. 18 64, Edwin D. Lee, 
Aaron Libby, Albanah H. Libby d in rebel prison, Llewellyn Libby, 
Moses Libby, Capt. Willard Lincoln, Charles F. Lord, Bartice vS. Luce, 
John C. Marston, Orville W. Malcolm, John S. Marsh, James H. 
Mathews, Edward A. Maxfield, Frederick Maxfield d at China 63, 
Henry W. Maxfield, Dustan McAllister, Charles McCavron jun., Gar- 
diner F. McDaniel, Burnam McKeene, Franklin Mitchell, Judson A. 
Mitchell d of di.sease Dec. 7 62, William W. Murphy, Winthrop Mur- 
ray, James E. Mosher, Charles H. Nelson, Erastus F. Nelson, John 
Norris, Thomas Norton, Henry B. Page, Laforest Parmater, James H. 
Peavey, George S. Percival, Avery Percival d of disease July 30 63, 
William Perham, Franklin A. Perry, Mark Porter, Abraham R. Pow- 
ers, Alden H. Priest, Charles Proctor, Lorin Proctor, George H. Ram- 
sell, Henry C. Rice, Franklin D. Robbins, John L. Robbins, William 
Robbins, Everett Robinson, H. G. Robinson, Timothy Robinson, 


'Henry A. Rogers, David Savage jun., Orrin L. Seco d Oct. 11 64, John 
H. Seekins, Eliab W. Shaw, Appleton W. Shorey p Aug. 19 64 d Feb. 
64, Edwin Small, Herbert M. Starbird, Augu.stus H. Starkey d July 64, 
Samuel C. Starrett, William H. Squires, Benjamin F. Stetson, Charles 
F. Stevens, Charles B. Stuart, Alvin Sylvester, Henry H. Talbott, At- 
well A. Taylor, Samuel A. Taylor, Charles H. Temple, Charles E. 
Thomas, William L. Toby, William B. Toby, Ambrose E. Trask, 
James O. Trask, Charles W. Turner, Elias Tyler w July 2 63 d July 15 

63. Charles F. Waite, Orren B. Ward d Aug. 10 64 in New Orleans, 
Wilbur N. Ward, George Wentworth, Abner D. Weeks, Albert R. 
Ward, Freeman C. Ward. Howard G. Ward, Uriah E. Ward, Thomas 
B. Washburn, Richard Welch, George Wentworth, Charles W. Wey- 
mouth, E. A. Whitney, John Q. A. Whitley, Andrew D. Wiggins, 
James M. Wright, Charles Worthing, William P. Worthing w May 12 

64, James Wyman, Lorenzo York, Edwin F. Young. 

<r//«/^«.— Albert Ames, Charles Andrews, Moses H. Arthur, Thomas 
Armstrong, Benjamin G. Bagley, Franklin Bagley, John H. Balow, 
George Barrow, Capt. Charles W. Billings d of wounds July 15 63, 
William M. Brown, Leroy T. Blackwell, Edward P. Blood, Alvin 
Brann, William Brenney, Charles S. Brimner d 63, John W. Brown, 
Rufus N. Brown, Capt. Samuel S. Brown, Jfimes L. Bush, Eben Bur- 
ton, Peter Cane, Ezra S. Chase, Francis A. Chamberlin, Edwin J. 
Chase, James F. Chaney. John D. Chandler, Charles H. Clark or Card, 
George L. Cole, John S. Cleveland, Horace Cole, Patrick Connor k 
May 16 64, Jeremiah Conway, James L. Colmer, Patrick Dacey, Oliver 
W. Dickey d Mar. 17 63, Enos Dow, Gardiner L. Eastman, Shepard 
Eldridge, Freeman Emery, John Flarety d of disease June 24 63, 
Henry R. Flood, Francis P. Furber w May 6 64, Oliver P. Gates, James 
A. Gardiner, William F. Gerald w 63, Increase F. Goodwin, E. C. Good- 
win d Mar. 28 63, Horace Goodwin, Jeremiah Goodwin, John H. Good- 
ale, Lieut. Stephen R. Gordon, H. F. Harwood, George W. Hall, Simon 
Hall, John C. Hall, Isaac C. Hodgdon, Asa Holt, George W. Holt d 
Apr. 11 63, John D. Hoffman, Osgood Howland, Q. M. Albert Hunter, 
Melvin Hunter, Charles A. Jaquith, John M. Jewell, James Johnson, 
Stephen M. Johnson, Henry P. Jones, Lyman B. Kimball, Jesse Kim- 
ball, Samuel Leighton, Amos Leonard w 64, Wilson C. Lewis, Jopa- 
than Lewis, Joseph G. Linnell, Francis Low jun., Nelson Mallett, Al- Manson, Alexander McDonald, Albert C. McMaster, John Mor- 
rill, John McKenney, Hason McNully, George S. Mullen, Thomas J. 
Murphy, Milford Nye, Adelbert L. Orr, Oliver P. Paul, William H. 
Pearson, Herbert D. Perkins, Charles C. Pierce, John G. Pierce, 
Thomas A. Patter, Samuel D. Prescott, Stephen H. Powell, William 
Pre.scott, Michael Quiley, Horatio N. Reed, Ezra R. Reed p June 22 
64, John RenchlerrStephen B. Rhodes, Perley H. Richardson, George 
Ricker, Joseph F. Rolf, Peter Rudnick k Nov. 12 64, John Ryan, Wil- 


liam Ryley, Elias D. Rowell, Lieut. Marcus Rowell. Theodore H. 
Smith, Albert T. Snow, Franklin Snow, Daniel Y. Sullivan, Oscar Al. 
Sabine, Thomas Scanlon, Francis Seede, George E. Snow, Perry Snow, 
Albion Spurling, James C. Spaulding, Lewis B. Spaulding, John 
Spikes, Merritt Stinson, Era.stus Tarball k May S 64, Calvin Taylor d 
Apr. 24 64, James Thurston, Charles F. Tibbetts, John H. Taylor, 
John Thompson, Jeremiah Thornton, Daniel Thurston, Charles L. 
Totman d of disease Mar. 2 63, John A. Totipan w May 27 63, John F. 
Townson, Laforest P. True, Montgomery Tuttle, Norman Vault, 
Henry F. Waldren, James W. Waldren, David S. Wardwell, John C. 
Walter, Retire W. Webber, Daniel J. Wells, Alfred Weymouth, John 
Weymouth, Marshall Weymouth, Osgood Weymouth, Warren We}'- 
mouth, George Whitten, Otheo W. Whitten, John W. Willey, Charles 
T. Winslow, Henry Young. 

Faruiingdale. — James Andrews, Alverdo Averell, Horace W. Baker, 
Marcellus Blair, George W. Briggs, Edmund J. Brookings, George 
Campbell, Ezekiel Chapman, John Clery, Charles A. Cooke, James S. 
Cote, Charles R. Curtis d July 8 64, William H. Curtis w July 1 63, 
James R. Dill, Joseph C. Dill, Alfred Douglass, George S. Fogg, Sum- 
ner Gardiner, Samuel S. Glidden, Jonathan S. Goodrich, John P. 
Greeley, Timothy Higgins, Benjamin S. Hodgdon, John Holmes, 
Joel Howe, G. W. Hunt, Charles W. Johnson, Edward Kelley, Joseph 
S. Lowell, John A. Lyons, Albert McCausland, Alonzo McCausland, 
Moses B. McCausland, Charles Meader, Charles B. Millett, Gustavus 
Moore, Henry M. Neal, John H. Pease, J. A. Perkins, Charles T. Rice, 
George W. Rice, John G. Robie, George H. Seavey, Reuben Seavey, 
Daniel R. Shaw, Joseph E. Sims, Horace L. Smith, Lieut. Emilus N. 
D. Small, George H. Stone, Frank Sweetland, William H. Sweetland, 
James D. Tibbetts, Samuel L. Tibbetts w, S. C. Thomas, John W. 
Waterhouse, Nathan W. Walker, William Wiley. 

/rt,,f//,.._Philip C. Adams, C. H. Bacheldor, Osbert L. Basford, 
Benjamin F. Bruce, Michael Buckley, Milton W. Burnham, Francis A. 
Bryant, Arthur D. Chase, Lieut. Adolphus J. Chapman, Martin V. B. 
Clark, Loren S. Clough, Charles L. Crane, Francis A. Crane, Mark F. 
Ditson, John F. Dwyer, Isaac Emerson, Samuel H. Fifield w Dec. 13 62 
d Dec. 29 63, William H. Fish, H. H. Folsum, Stephen H. French, Asst. 
Surg. Albert G. French, Charles H. H. French, Clarence C. Frost, Ste- 
phen Fellows, Lovell L. Gardner, Calvin S. Gordon, Lewis C. Gordon, 
John C. Gurney, William Hasty, Edgar Hathaway, Charles Hunter, 
William H. Irish, Charles L. Jones, Edwin C. Jones p Aug. 19 64, 
Moses I. Jones, Sylvester H. Jones, Daniel Lennon, Henry Magan, 
John Mangan, Elijah D. Marden, George L. Moore d of wounds May 
20 64, Daniel W. Morrill, Timothy Nickoles, Tyler Newton, Albert A. 
Palmer, Thomas Powers, William H. Richmond w May 19 64, E. P. 
Sanborn, James Scott, Marcus M. Small, James W. Smith, Robert 


Smith jun., Jnsiah H. Sturtevant, Lewis F. Sturtevant, John H. 
Thurber, Edward M. True, Lieut. John H. True, Isaac Warren, Sam- 
uel D. Weed, James M. Wiswell, Charles W. Wing. 

Gardiner. — John E. Atkins. Capt. Eleazer W. Atwood, Col. George 
AL Atwood, Adj. George E. Atwood, Peter Aliff, Lieut. Ellis W. Ayer 
k Sept. 9 64, Lieut. Alfred G. Brann, Sanford Brann, Appleton Babb, 
Edward Bird, James H. Booker, Mark G. Babb, George A. Bowie, Ros- 
coe G. Buck, Daniel Brann d in rebel prison Nov. 1 64, Lieut. Cyrus 
W. Brann, George H. Baker, William Brann d in hospital P'eb. 1 64, 
James S. Benson, George H. Berry, Charles P. Brann, Lieut. Freder- 
ick H. Beecher, Emery H. Brann, S. S. Bennett, Lieut. Thomas A. 
Brann w at Fair Oaks, Lanson G. Brann d of disease May 11 64, Dan- 
iel Booker, Edward Brush, John W. Bennett, John Burke, Michael 
Burnes, Gideon Bowley jun., Edward Brown, Daniel Brooking, Daniel 
Black, Emery M. Brann, David R. Campbell. Albert E. Clary, George 
W. Church, Cornelius Card, George W. Cheney, John H. Crowell, John 
P. Church, George W. Cross, Abiel Cowen, Pell Clason, George Clark, 
John Coleman, Patrick H. Cummings, Pell Clason, Albert Dudley, 
Charles W. Dill, Charles B. Dexter, Ambrose Dudley. Dorson M. Dale, 
Aaron Dudley, John S. Dennis, Frank W. Dirgen, James Delaney, 
John Ducott, Ambrose S. Douglass, Silas A. Dixon, Charles E. Deer- 
ing, J. W. Douglass, Stephen W. Dana, Charles F. Davis, Robert 
Davis w at Gettysburg July 1 63, Charles W. Dill, Thomas Douglass d 
Mar. 3 64, Jcseph C. Dill, Albert Dudley, Ruel M. Dunlop, Augustus 
Dudley, L C. Dalton, Howard Doyle, Randall Eldridge w Aug. 18 64, 
John H. Emerson, Franklin Eastman, Amasa P. Elwell, B. F. Flan- 
ders, E. B. Follett, Charles F. Garry, George W. Gardiner, O. M. 
Franklin Glazier, Edward Gould, James A. Goodwin, Ichabod Gray, 
Nathaniel P. Goodwin, Charles H. Godney, James Gallagham, Benja- 
min F. Goodwin, William H. Gardiner, Rufus C. Gerry, Frank Gil- 
bert, Fred E. Gowell d Sept. 15 64, William C. Gardiner d Nov. 16 64, 
C. F. Gray, William Garland, John Grant, George. H. Hooker, David 
Haines, A. M. C. Heath, Ora K. Hinkley, William H. Huntington w 
at Gettysburg July 9 63, Israel W. Holbrook, Phineus B. Hammond, 
Henry Harrison, Joseph S. Hill, Charles A. Hildreth, Surg. Thadeus 
Hildreth, Silas N. Hinkley, James Horn, Warren Hooker, Lieut. 
Melvin S. Hutchinson, Albion T. Hutchinson, Ora K. Hinkley, Seth 
C. Hutchins, William W. Hutchinson, George H. Harrington, George 
N. Houghton, Daniel R. Hodgdon w Feb. 6 64, William Hall, George 
Holmes, Charles F. Hutchinson, P. B. Hammond, Charles E. Handy, 
Joseph E. Hooker, William R. Hutchins, Andrew Hooker, C. A. 
Hooker, Capt. Charles T. Hildreth, William H. Hodges w Feb. 6 64, 
George Jackson, Eli.sha James jun., Abram Jordan, Thomas P. Jordon, 
William Jordan d Nov. 21 64, Joseph A. Jordan, Stephen E. Johnson 


Freeman A. Johnson, Major Kelley, George W. Kelley, Edward Kel- 
ley, Samuel W. Kimball jun., Henry Kimball, John P. Kirk, Capt. 
George S. Kimball, Benjamin C. Kittridge, Alfred W. Knight, John 
Lawson, Charles F. Lawrence, Lieut. Horatio S. Libby, William Libby 
jun., Benjamin Lincoln, Ivory Littlefield, Frank Lord, William H. 
Lunt, Nicholas Maker, Smith R. Morrill, John Montgomery, Amos 
Muzzy, Augustus W. McCausland w July 1 63, Albert McFarland w 
Dec. 13 62, Asa Moore, John C. Meader, Rufus S. McCurdy, Charles 
H. Merrill, John A. Mann, William H. Merrill w June 12 64, Jesse A. 
Meader, James S. Morang, James H. Morang, Nicholas Maher, George 
Moore, Charles H. Martin w Feb. 6 64, Alfred A. Mann d of wounds 
Apr. 22 65, Patrick Mulligan, Peter McCann, George E. Maker, John 
Miller, Amasa R. Meader, Benjamin A. Merrill, Ansel L. Meader, 
Thomas McNamara d Aug. 15 64, Clark D. Meader, James H. Morang, 
Loring C. Marriner, John F. Merrill d Nov. 11 65 in Florida, Mitchell 
R. Nobridge p June 25. Ingraham P. Nickerson, Gideon P. Noyes, 
Alden Norton, Luther Oliver, Alfred Oliver, James R. Peacock, 
Thomas Page, David Page, Charles H. Potter d of wounds June 2 64, 
David Potter, Almon'j. Packard, Jacob Patterson, William S. Peacock, 
George R. Parsons, Sidney Porter, Lieut. James A. Pray, k June 18 64, 
Joseph J. Perry, Leander Potter, Samuel F. Pope, C. W. Price, Lorenzo 
Quint, Joseph A. Ricker. Peter Reves, Benjamin F. Ring, Daniel W. 
Robinson, James R. Rosignal, John F. Royal, Hiram H. Ricker, 
George E. Rhodes, John Ray, William H. Robinson p July 63 w in 
action 64, William J. Rowe, Charles M. Stevens, David H. vStevens, 
William F. Sherman, Jacob M. Steward, Mandred O. Savage w May 6 
64, Everett B. Small, Charles Senaque, William H. Simmons, Capt. 
George W. Smith, William C. Stoddard, John Shea, H. W. Smith, 
Leander Stanley, David S. Stevens, Calvin W. Smith, George B. Saf- 
ford, Benjamin S. Smith, Horace Sturtevant, Martin C. Stephenson, 
Merrill Savage, Harrison A. Sturtevant, William H. Stackpole, Charles 
L. Swift, Eugeane A. Smith d Aug. 22 64 at New Orleans, James L. 
Stoddard, Frank W. Sawyer d Oct. 9 64, Alex. Simpson w May 10 64, 
Timothy W. Sheehan, Robert S. Starbird d Aug. 4 63, Benjamin C. 
Smith, David S. Stevens, Thomas E. Smith w Apr. 1 65, Naham Spear, 
George F. Strong, Charles D. Smith p in 64, William K. Savage, 
Charles Sprague k Dec. 13 62, Aaron Stackpole, James O. Smith, Lieut. 
Sanford W. Syphers, William F. Swift, Francis A. Taylor, William F. 
Taylor, Simeon P. Taylor, George F. Taylor, Abijah W. Tripp, George 
W. Taylor, Silas H. Taylor, George W. Tyler, Martin Tyler w June 3 
64, Elbridge Thomas, Caleb Taylor p July 30 64, William F. Taylor, 
Martin Taylor, John S. Towle, Peter Thorp, Alonzo F. Tinkham, 
Charles H. Tabor d at Annapolis Sept. 17 63, Leonard L. Taylor, 
Elijah Towsier, Edmund S. Towsier, Emerson Turner jun., David H. 
Wakefield, William Wallace, William S. Ward, Charles M. Winslow, 


Charles A. Washburn, William B. Webber, Charles H. Welch, Charles 
W. Webber, William H. Wilson, William White, Owen Woods, Wil- 
liam H. H. Waterhouse, Cyrus K. Witham, Chester Whitney p Sept. 
27 64, Thomas B. Whitney, George W. Wakefield, Franklin Williams, 
Stephen D. Wakefield, Andrew Ware, William Wallace, George M. 
Washburn, Winfield S. Witham, Moses S. Wadsworth, Phineas 
Witham, James T. Williams, Wesley Webber, George M. Wentworth, 
Warren E. Welch d Jan. 26 65, Joseph W. Welch, Charles O. Wads- 
worth w June 24 64. William O. Wakefield, Warren C. Waterhouse, 
George E. Webber, John M. Webber. 

Hallowell.—CyrviS Allen, Eben P. Allen, Moses H. Arthur, John D. 
Bailey, Asa E. Bates, Elijah H. Barter, William C. Bartlett, Josiah 
Bean, Rufus Besse, George W. Booker, Albert Borner, Charles M. Bur- 
ley, Hugh Burns, Charles A. Brown, Albert S. Buswell, Horace E. 
Choate w Aug. 16 64, George L. Crummett, Alvah H. Davis, Winfield 
S. Dearborn d of disease June 14 63, George F Douglass, Thad. H. 
Fairbanks, Albert Flye, William Flye, William A Forrest, George A. 
Francis, Samuel S. George, Owen Getchell, Eugene B. Getchell, Wil- 
liam H. Oilman, Edward R. Gould, William C. Gray, Surg. John Q. A. 
Hawes, William W. Heath, John R. Holt, Joseph E. Howe, James 
H. Howard, George W. Hubbard, Col. Thomas H. Hubbard, Alvin 
T. Huntington, Buzzella L. C. Hussey, Horace S. Jackson, Henry 
A. Johnson, Lewis E. Kauffer, Morris Kennedy, Thomas Keenan 
supposed prisoner, Waldo B. Keen,William H. Libby d in New Or- 
leans June 28 64, Thomas C. Littlefield, Michael McCoUer, Edward 
Minor, George O. Morrill, Capt. Charles E. Nash, Winslow Niles, 
John O. Northy, Darius Nye, Simon C. Paine, Lieut. John A. A. 
Packard, Silas Palmer, Thomas L. Palmer, Charles E. Pinkham, Sanford 
L. Pinkham, Levi W. Pitts, Ashbury F. Pottle, Ellas N. Remick, 
James K. Reynolds, George S. Ricker d Mar. 21 64, Levi Robinson, 
John W. Rogers w, George S. Rowell, Lieut. Edwin W. Sanborn, 
Lieut. John W. Sanborn w Sept. 19, George E. Shurborn, Augustus H. 
Smith k May 5 64, Emery N. Smith, Thomas Smith d in hospital Oct. 
12 64, Richard D. Smith, Michael T. Smith, William R. Stackpole, 
Nahum R. Stone, Francis B. Swan, Joseph W. Swan, Jeremiah Sulli- 
van, Charles H. Thing, William Thurston, Elijah C. Town, Elisha 
Towns, Reuben A. Towns, Capt. Orville T. Tuck, Thomas E. Wagon- 
er, John W. Welch, Reuben A. Wentworth, George Whitcom d of 
wounds June 6 64, Charles H. S. White, George O. White w at Gettys- 
burg, Robert A. Witherell, William P. Wood, Samuel Wynoskey, 
Dunbar H. Young. 

Litchfield.— ChRvl&s H. Adams d Oct. 20 62, Thomas B. Aderton p 64, 
d in prison Dec. 12 64, Franklin A. Bailey, G. W. Baker, Lieut. William 
C. Barrows, Allen G. Barrows, William Berry, William H. Bosworth, 
George W. Brown, William O'Brien jun., Cyrus E. Burke, Morrill 


Burke, John S. Buker, James H. Buck, Lieut. Joseph W. Burke, Joseph 
Cameron, John C. Chandler, Charles G. Clifford, William W. Cook d 
of disease Apr. 1 63, Davis S. Curtis. John H. Davis, George P. Day, 
George R. Douglass, Clement H. Douglass, John Dyer, Henry D. Earl, 
Dennis Gatchell, Andrew J. Goodwin, Marcellus Goodwin, Amaziah E. 
Googins, Levi Gordin, Nathaniel O'Gowell, John D. Gowell, Abiel W. 
Hall, David Harmon, Augustus Hatch, Joseph S. Hatch,Wilson M. Hat- 
tin, Charles M. Hattin, John Holland jun., Daniel G. Huntington, Fred 

E. Hutchinson, Nelson G. Hutchinson d of disease Aug. 14 63, Benjamin 
G. Hunter, Lieut. Amos M. Jackson, Joseph E. Jack, Samuel Jackson, 
William L. Johnson, Thomas H. Lambert, Joseph E. Latham, Jo.seph 
Sawyer, John Lewis, Napoleon D. O. Lord, Daniel McAlister, Josiah A. 
Marston, Joseph Y. Maxwell, Joseph H. Maxwell w Apr. 24 64 d July 5 
64, Isaac Meader p 64, George Meader, Joseph Meader, Augustus Mer- 
rill, David Mitchell d Sept. 11 64, Alexander McNear, Elijah Nickerson, 
Jonathan Newell, James O. Nickerson, Edward E. North, Charles E. 
Parks, Daniel W. Perry, George S. Perry, Charles W. Potter, John 
Potter, Alden H. Powers, James W. Powers, Corrector K. Richardson 
k May 6 64, Lorenzo M. Richardson d Apr. 13 65, James Ricker, Daniel 
W. Robinson, Andrew S. Robinson, Charles G. Runnells, George E. 
Safford, John D. Smith w June 22 64, David G. Smith w May 17 64, 
Charles A. Smith, Richard Spear, Col. Isaac W. Starbird, Charles D. 
vStarbird w Aug. 14 64, William W. Stevens, James O. Stevens, Joseph 
B. Stevens, George N. Thurlow, Orrin A. True, Daniel G. True, Anson 
Turner, Jones M. Waire, George D. Wakefield, George S. Wedgewood, 
Newton J. Wedgewood, Baptiste Willet jun., William C. Williams, 
Henry Wilson, Tom Wolf, Daniel W. Woodbury, William Wyman. 

Manchester.— K\or\zo C. Atkins w Oct. 2 64, John H. Avery, Brad- 
ford S. Bodge, Elbridge Y. Brainard d June 21 64, Edward A. Bow- 
man, James Brazor, William C. Blake, Heman B. Carter d in rebel 
prison Jan. 20 64, Alonzo Campbell, Hiram W. Campbell, John B. 
Campbell w at Gettysburg 63, Leonard' Dearborn, Joseph L. Dow d 
Apr. 26 65, Nathaniel F. Dow, Lieut. Loring Farr, Frank S. Harriman 
d Jan. 10 64, John H. Haskell, John Harlor, Joseph T. Hewin, Thomas 
Hill, William H. Hock d at home Aug. 10 63, Elias Howard, John F. 
Hutchinson, Charles F. King, Voramous Kimball, Charles W. Lincoln, 
John P. Lowell d of disease Aug. 7 63, George A. Levering d July 20 
63, Byron Lowell, Ira Mason, Thomas Mason, James F. Mears, William 

F. Nickerson, Augustus Parsons, Charles W. Sinclair, James Smith, 
Joseph A. Spencer, Marshall Thaxter, Jairus Towle, James Wade, 
Daniel H. Wheaton, Alden Wright, Marcellus Wells. 

Moninojith.—]& H. Allen, Charles W. Ayer, Edwin F. Bailey, 
Samuel W. Barker, David Bartlay, Mathias A. Benner, Samuel D. 
Blake, Samuel T. Blake d of wounds June 5 64, Lieut. Ara C. Brooks 
d Sept. 26 62, Horace Burrill, Michael Burke, John S. Chandler, Wil- 


Ham B. Chick w May 20 64, James H. Chick, Leander L, Clark, Simon 
Clongh, David H. Coburn, William Coburn, Con Collins, Charles H. 
Crowell, C. F. Cummings, Alexander H. Day, Charles E. Day d in 
Libby Prison Dec. 19 64, Silenus Decker, George E. De Witt d of dis- 
ease Nov. 9 64, Almon B. Donnell, Edwin L. Donnell, James E. Dud- 
ley, Edward Durgin, Nathaniel J. Emerson, Charles C. Ellis p June 30 
64, Stone G. Emerson, Warren Farrar, James S. Field, Lemuel T. 
Field d Apr. 23 64, Andrew J. Fogg, Daniel W. Folsom, Alpheus S. 
Folsom, George D. Frost d Sept. 64, George W. H. Frost, Horace C. 
Frost, Samuel A. Frost, William B. Frost, John Fuller, John F. Fur- 
bush, David H. Gilman, William Gray, Joseph D. Greenlief, Alan-son 
G. Hall, David S. Hall, George E. Hathane, Willard K. Hathorn, Wil- 
liam C. Hannaford, Charles H. Hinklay k May 12 64, Joseph E. How- 
ard, John F. Howard, George S. Hutchinson, James Jaquith d Dec. 1 
63, John H. Johnson p .Sept. 16 64, Thompson S. Keenan p 64, George 
J. Ketcham, Samuel J. King, Philip Kighrigan, George L. Landers, 
Lewis Lane, Lyman E. Leach, Benjamin F. Leighton p June 29 64, 
Cephas H. Leighton, Charles H. Leighton, George W. Marston, David 
T. Moody, Frank G. Moody, Frank S. Mountfort, Charles E. Nason, 
Charles A. Norcross, Constant F. Oakman, W^illiam Paddaux, John 
Perry, James A. Pettingill d of disease Jan. 12 63, Andrew B. Pink- 
ham, Joseph W. Pinkham, Charles E. Plummer w May 5 64, Charles 
H. Prescott, James M. Prescott, Herald A. Price, Wilbur F. Priest, 
George H. Putney p at Antietam, Edwin G. Randall, Charles A. Reed 
d Feb. 17 64, William Regan, Carlton K. Richardson, Edward A. Rich- 
ardson, Lieut. James D. Robie, Frank Ronco, James F. Rowe, William 
Rowkes, Albert J. Sharp, William H. Shorey d July 4 63, Josiah 
Smith, Jeremiah Spelman, Lucias C. Stockin, Lander C. Thompson, 
Charles F. Thurston, Jerry E. Thornton, Nathaniel W. Titus, Howard 
P. Todd, John F. Tolman, Samuel T. Torsey, Charles E. Towle, Wil- 
liam A. Tozier, Francisco W^adsworth, Cyril N. Walker, Thomas 
Ward, Peter Wedge, Philip Wedge, Edward P. White w Apr. 1 65, 
Edward Wilkes, John A. Wilcox w at Antietam 64, David Wilson d of 
disease Mar. 8 63, Samuel F. Wing, Samuel S. Wyman. 

Mi. Vernon. — Charles A. Allen, James M. Allen, Jonathan Allen, 
Orlando V. Andrews, John Bartlett k Apr. 1 65, Charles P. Bazin, 
George W. Bean, Moses T. Bean, George Blake, John D. Blake, James 
Bennett, D. C. Bagley, Josiah P. Bradbury, John Bubier, Alvin Butler, 
Henry H. Cain, George A.Carson d Nov. 21 64, Almon B. Carr, Gilman 
N. Carr, Stephen Carroll, Benjamin J. Cram, Stephen A. Cram, Charles 
B. Creighton, Henry A. Davis d May 5 63, Samuel Davis, Heman N. 
Dexter, Charles Dolloff, John Doe, Hiram T. Drew, George E. Dudley, 
Calvin Dunn, Cornelius Dutton, Jo.seph W. Fogler, Frank M. Furber 
d of Sept. 19 65, Charles H. Gordon, Emery H. Gordon w May 
27 63, John H. Gordon, John S. Gordon, Henry S. Gordon, Samuel H. 


Gordon d of wounds June 30 63, Nelson Gould, Madison F. Glidden, 
Benjamin Hamilton, William H. Hantoon, George W. Hanna d Dec. 
14 64, Leroy D. Hopkins d Dec. 26 04, Thomas vS. Hopkins, Lieut. 
Georg-e C. Hopkins, Frank Hubbard, Samuel G. Hutchinson, William 
C. Jackson, William H. Jack.son, Charles N. King, Erastus O. Kelley, 
Gancelo King d July 30 63, George E. Knox, John A. King w May 27 

63, Edwin L. Ladd, Edson M. Lougee, Nicholas R. Lougee, Delano 
Leighton w, Leander S. Leighton d July 18 63, Timothy Leighton, 
James E. Linscott, William McGoud, Harthon Marston, William B. 
Morse, Stephen Norton jun., Charles Oaks, Melvander Packard, Ben- 
jamin F. Paul w 64, Fred B. Philbrick, Dudley O. Philbrick, Maurice 
S. Philbrick, Milton P. Philbrick, Lemuel Porter, Orestes H. Porter d 
Mar. 8 63, Orville Porter, George Prentice, John Ryan p Apr. 9 65, 
George O. Reed, Joshua B. Smith, Henry G. Smith, John Smith, Ar- 
thur Smith, Marcellus Smith w May 12 64, Ezra Smith w Sept. 4 64, 
James Shaw, Leander Shaw, Richard Shorey, Lloyd H. Snell, Francis 
C. Stewart, John M. Stockwell, Emulus D. Small, Hilton H. Sidelinger, 
James M.Stevens, George A. Storer d Aug. 24 64, John Swatz, Charles 
"h. Smith w May 12 64, Everett Thing, Charles Thompson, John R. 
Teague, Walter Vail, Joseph AVard, James Wardwell, Elisha L. Wells, 
George Whittier, James L. Whittier, Samuel Whitney, Albert L.Willis, 
John Willitt, Charles B. Wyman, Lieut. George W. Woods. 

Pittston. — William Allen, Charles Allen, Edmund Allen, Alvin G. 
Bailey d June 22 63, Hiram Barker, John Berry, George L. Blair w 
July 13 63, William Blair, Eli Blair, John F. Blodgett, George H. 
Blodgett, Eben N. Brann, Edward Brown, Eben Brookings w Aug. 16 

64, Samuel C. Brookings k July 2 63, John Brookings, Mark C. Cass w 
Oct. 19 64, Elisha S. Chase, John L. Clark, William Connor, James S. 
Colburn, Isaac Crocker, Benjamin F. Crocker, Llewellyn Crocker, 
Roland H. Cutts, John Desmond, William Day d Apr. 19 64, Fred 
Dobson, Michael Donovan, E. H. Doyle, Thomas Doyle, John G. 
Drake, Edwin Dudley, Lewis H. Dudley, Lewis C. Dudley, William H. 
Dudley, Charles E. Fillebrown, O. B. Frank, John Gallagher, Wilbert 
H. Oilman, Frederick Goud, Humphrey Grant, John Grant, George 
W. Goodwin, Albert Goodwin, Hamilton Goodwin, Joseph H. Good- 
win, James A. Hall, William D. Hanover, George T. Haley, Benjamin 
B. Hanson, Adj. Charles C. Hinds, Enoch Hollis jun. p Aug. 25 64, 
Charles Hunt, Kingsbury Hunt, Lewis Hunt d Dec. 4 64, Reuben 
Heseltine, Thomas Hunnewell, Charles A. James, James Jackson, Jo- 
sephus James w July 3 63, George W. James jun., Hiram S. James, 
Lewis W. James d of disease Apr. 9 63, Charles H. Jones, Albert Jor- 
don d of Mar. 19 63, Joseph C. King, William King d of 
wounds June 18 64, William Katon d in New Orleans Oct. 4 64, Howard 
Lamson, Lieut. Eugene Leeman, Clarence Leeman, Elbridge Mames 
d of disease Dec. 10 62, Alden Mar.son, Charles B. Mansir d at home 


July 10 64, Alden Marson, Benjamin Marson d of wounds July 11 64, 
George H. Martin, Sawyer McLaughlin, Charles W. Moody, Edwin 
W. Moody, Leonard Moody, Lucius Moody, Edward Morton, Edward 
Mosher d on transport May 23 64, John Moulton, Wesley Murphy d in 
hospital Aug. 12 64, William H. Noyes, William W. Paris w June 4 
63 p Dec. 18 64, P. W. Parker, William H. Paris, Melvine Parsons, 
George W. Palmer, James H. Peacock, Hartley Peasley, Myrick Per- 
ham p June 22 64, Ellery Pinkham, Thomas D. Pinkham, William 
Pinkham d at Point of Rocks Aug. 13 64, Mellen Potter. David Pottle, 
Moses Pottle, Hiram Pratt, Loren A. Pushard, Fred P. Pulsifer, Charles 
E. Ramsdell w May 6 64. Sew. D. Ramsdell, Eben Richardson, Brad- 
ford H. Reed, Jesse Reed, T. A. Richardson, Capt. Asbury C. Rich- 
ards, Daniel W. Robinson, Patrick Ryan, David F. Shea, Lincoln L. 
Sheldon, Joseph W. Stuart, Joseph F. Silver, O. A. Sibley, Joseph A. 
vShea, James L. Small w May 18 64, David Small d of wounds May 13 
64, Calvin C. Smith, John H. Sprague, John B. Stevens, George W. 
Stevens w July 15 64, John Stewart, Harrison Stewart, A. M. Stilphen, 
John W. Tarr, Henry Thompson, James F. Thompson, Jesse M. 
Troop, Lieut. Melvin C. Wadsworth, Alphonso R. Warren, Charles 
M. Warren, Charles N. Ware, Moses A. Ware, Warren Ware, Auguste 
Wagner, Charles E. Webster, Frederick L. Wells, Joseph A. White, 
David White, Pary R. Winslow, Albert O. Wood, John Wyman, Lieut. 
George T. Yeaton, Benjamin Young w July 3 63. 

RcadJicU.—\\\ H. H. Adams d Apr. 18 63, Freeland N. Albee w, 
George L. Armstrong, Reuben Atwood, George R. Allen, James 
Barnes, Milton A. Bean, Edward Beathan, Benjamin B. Brown, Charles 

C. Brown w July 18 d at Hilton Head Dec. 5 61, Samuel E. Brown d 
Mar. 18 63, Charles H. Bubier, George B. Bodwell, Walter C. Boying- 
ton, Charles H. Chapman d Mar. 19 63, William Coakley, Charles B. 
Cobb, Lewis E. Clark, Albanus Clough w June 3 64, Francis D. Clough, 
John S. Craig, Edwin H. Cram, Charles S. Crowell, Robert M. Cun- 
ningham, Capt. Hiram A. Dalton, Charles L. Davenport, Thomas 
Devins, George Diplock, William H. Dunham, J. P. Dudley, Orrin C. 
Estes, Elnathan S. Fairbanks d July 7 63, Dudley S. Fogg, Enos 
Foster w d Sept. 4 63, Francis J. Folsom, Edwin Freeman, John Gal- 
vin, Stillman P. Getchell, John W. Gilman w Sept. 30 64, Martin Cod- 
ing, Robert Gordon, Daniel E. Gordon, Joel H. B. Goss, George W. 
Graves d of wounds, Charles E. Hall, Charles W. Hamlin, Abba C. 
Hicks, Henry Holmes, Jonathan Howe, William H. Hunt, Jefferson 

D. Hunton, Emery L. Hunton, William H. Hutchins, George W. 
Jackson, Noah Jewett 2d, Dennis B. Jewett, Joseph P. Johnson, Moses 
king, Frederick S. Knowlton, James M. Ladd d Mar. 7 63, George M. 
Lane, Frank Lancaster, William H. F. Libbey, Samuel Lisherness, 
John Little, Daniel H. Lovejoy, Frank Manson, Levi Martin, F. R. 
McKeen, William Morrill, Frank J. Norton, Charles E. Palmer 


Ansel B. Perkins, Nathan Peva, Charles H. Pbilbrick, Henrj^ Pooler, 
John Putman, C. V. Putten, A. A. Robertson, William L. Robbins, 
Joseph F. Rogers, Michael Russell, Lieut. George A. Russell, Nahum 
Q. Sanborn, Thomas Sawtelle, Gustavus Smith, Lucias Smith, Nathan 
Smith, Asa V. Starville, Daniel Sullivan, John B. Tarr, Dexter Taylor, 
Silas C. Thomas, H. C. Thomas, Ferdinand Tinker jun., Charles H. 
Torrey d Apr. 28 65, James Turner, George H. Waugh, Lewis Web- 
ber, Nathan Wentworth, John M. Williams, George R. Williams, 
Leonard L. Wing, Thomas J. Woodworth, Eben H. Wing, Horace G. 

Rome. — Benjamin Austin, Arthur E. Charles, Benjamin F. Charles 
w at Gettysburg 63, William H. Cook, Lorenzo Cookson, George H. 
Cunningham, Moses Cunningham, William Dinnon, Hartley Rasters, 
Frederick Z. Eaton, Charles Edwards, James H. Erskine, George Fair- 
banks, George E. Fifield, Ebenezer Foss d Jan. 1 63, William H. Foss, 
Levi Gorden, John McGraw, Ira Hammon, Charles Hunnan, David 
AL Kelley, Otis B. Kelley, John Loftus, Joseph P. Littlefield, Edward 
L. Martin d Mar. 3 63, Mark McLaughlin, Abram L Meader, William 
H. Merrow, William Meyor, Baxter C. Moshier, Charles R. Moshier, 
George Mo.shier jun., Israel Moshier, William Moshier, Abram H. 
Mundy, Albert Page, Andrew C. Perkins, Flezekiah S. Perkins, Rob- 
ert Perkins, Robert A. Ripley, Edward A. Robbins, Emons Robinson, 
John F. Robinson, Isaiah M. Sawtelle, Levi E. Stevens, Samuel I. 
Stevens, Charles Taylor, William Thomas, Edward Thompson, Henry 
Turner, William H. Ward jun., Moses Warren, Increase E. Watson. 

Sidney. — Henry A. Annis, AVilliam A. Arnold, Charles E. Avery w 
and p May 5 64, Artemus R. Bacon, Charles H. Bartlett, William H. 
Bean w May 27 63, William Bennett, Thomas S. Benson, Hartson M. 
Bragg, Austin Bragg, George B. Brown, William M. Burgess, Charles 
Butler, Edward Butler, Frank Butler, Alfred L. Burgess d July 4 63, 
Ephraim L. Chamberlain, Enoch S. Chase, Lieut. Martin V. B. Chase, 
Lorenzo D. Clark d Oct. 8 63, George A. Clark, Franklin L. Connor, 
Amasa L. Cook, Benjamin T. Curtis d Aug. 5 63, Jedediah Cronkhite, 
Thomas J. Cunningham, Henry C. Davenport d May 6 63, Roscoe G. 
Davenport d Feb. 27 63. Charles H. Davis, Andrew Denifer, John 
Dexteeter, Benjamin F. Dow, Henry J. Dyer d on transport Oct. 12 64, 
Sullivan Ellis, William Ellis, Patrick Falney, Eben M. Field, AlbusT. 
Field, Jo.seph F. Field, Eben M. Field, Timothy R. French w June 3 
64, Mark Frost, Joseph A. Gray, Horace Hall, Henry A. Hallett, Q. M. 
John Ham, Enoch B. Hamlin, Albert H. Hallett, Simon C. Hasting."--, 
H. W. D. Hayward, William W. Hersom, Melville Irish, John Kelley, 
Harvey M. Leighton, Granville B. Libby, Joseph M. Lincoln, Samuel S. 
Longley, Sewall Lovejoy w May 6 64, David Low, David A. Low, John 
Mahon, Fred FI. Mann k June 3 64, James S. Marble p May 10 63, Darius 
Meader, Daniel McLaughlin, John McLaughlin, John McRay, Winslow 


H. Mclntire d of wounds June 15 61, Charles H. Nason d Aug. 1 64, 
Hiram B. Nichols, Thomas M. Packard, David O. Parks, Henry R. 
Perkins, Mulford B. Reynolds p June 24 64, William H. Reynolds, 
George M. Reynolds w, Asa Robbins d Sept. 22 64, Hiram Robinson, 
George W. Rollins, Joseph Royal, Edward B. Sanderson, Charles W. 
Sanderson d of wounds June IS 64, Charles E. Sawtelle, Justine A. 
Sawtello, Samuel W. Scofield, Charles Sherman d Mar. 24 63, A. B. 
Sibley, Augustine Smiley d at Stevensburgh Va. Jan. 5 64, Eben 
Springer, George E. Staples, Jeremiah C. Stephens, Daniel Sughire, 
Jethro H. Sweat w May 16 64, William H. Stewart, Leavitt Thayer, 
James W. Vanwart, Silas N. Wait, George W^hitney, Alexander Wil- 
son, Richard W. Withee, Alonzo Wixon d Aug. 27 63, Edward Wixon, 
Vernal A. Woodcock, Adj. Joseph T. Woodward. 

Unity Plantation. — Orison T. Brown, George W. Flagg, Sicard 
Felix, George A. Hanson, Elisha Libby, Joseph McClure, William A. 

Vassalboro. — Benjamin Adams, Peter Aikin d in hospital Nov. 13 
65, George J. Allen, George E. Allen, James U. Atwood, Charles L. 
Austin, William A. Austin w Mar. 27 63, Stilman G. Bailey d Nov. 24 

62, George Baker, George Baldwin, George W. Barnes, Lieut. Edwin 
C. Barrows, Charles Baxter, Isaac F. Bourne, Oliver Brackett, Joseph 
O. Bragg, Robert C. Bragg, Lewis Bragg, Jefferson D. Bragg, Robert 
C. Brann, Hiram N. Brann, Frederick Bridge, Benjamin Bubier, C. D. 
Bubier, Ambrose Burgess d Dec. 26 62, Antome Cady, Michael Cain, 
Darius Cain, James R. Carney, Henry F. Chadwick, Samuel Chute,- 
Edwin W. Clark, George W. Clififord, Robert Cole, Edmund G. Cole- 
man, Charles E. Collins, William E. Cox, Charles S. Crowell, John 
Dalton, Albert F. Day, H. G. Dickey, Samuel K. Doe, Lewis B. Doe 
accidentally k Jan. 4 63, James R. Eaton, John Emerson, James S. 
Emery, William English, Redford M. Estes, John H. Estes w July 2 

63. Gustavus K. Estes k Oct. 27 63, William D. Ewes, H. A. Ewes w 
July 1 64, George W. Fairfield, Orrin Farnham, Lorenzo Farrington, 
Elbridge C. Fassettd July 12 63, Andrew Flanigan, Thomas Flanigan, 
John H. Frazier, Charles A. Freeman, John M. Fogg, Willard O. Fogg, 
Robert M. Fossett d Oct. 25 62,- Joseph E. Fossett, Norman H. Fossett, 
James Footman, George H. Gardner, Henry W. Gardner, Joseph C. 
Gardiner, Abraham Gorow, Eliheu Getchell, Van T. Gilbert, Charles 
Gibson win action May 27 63, Joseph A. Glazier, E. R. GofT, Lawrence 
Griffin, Rishworth Gray, Henry A. Hamilton, Charles L. Hamlin w at 
Gettysburg 63, James H. Handy d Apr. 17 63, John Hart, iMichael Har- 
mon, Edwin P. Hatch w, Michael J. Hanlin, William P. Hawes, G. 
Hayford, Henry Heath, Charles H. Holt, Stephen A. Hoyt p July 1 63, 
C. W. Hussey, Isaac Hussey, George H. Hussy k in action May 12 64, 
Waterman T. Hutchins, John F. Irving d May 18 63, James W. Irv- 
ing, Preston B. Jones, R. F. Jordan, William Keaton, William Keefe, 


Robert J. Kitchen d Sept. 30 64, L. R. Lambard, Samuel R. Latte. 
Wardman Littlefield, Ezra B. Lord, Prescott M. Lord, George M. Luf- 
kins, H. W. Lyon, Lieut. Thomas A. Maxfield, John McCormick w in 
head at Manassa.s, William McCormick, Fred E. Mellen, Shepherd H. 
Marrow, James McGuin, Horace S. Mills p Apr. 1 65, Albion B. Mills 
d of wounds Aug. 7 63, Jacob N. McKay p May 2 63 w, Artemas Mc- 
Kay, Robert McMahon, Peter McNalley, Simon Morrison, Charles A. 
Morse w 63, Thomas Moody, Alexander Murrey, Daniel Nicholas, 
James Nicholas, John Olson. Joseph P. Phillips, James Phillips, 
Frank W. Pierce, Greenlief Pillsbury, John T. Pratt, Albert H. 
Pratt, Orrin Prebble, H. F. Priest k at Gettysburg July 1 68, Edward 
A. Priest d at New Orleans Mar. 7 65, James S. Priest, N. P. Randall, 
William Reed, John Regan, F. T. Reynolds, Orson F. Richardson 
d Oct. 62, Edward Rice, Reuben F. Robbins, Oliver P. Robbins, 
Harlan P. Robbins, Lieut. Henry H. Robbins, Albert F. Roberts, 
George W. Sabin, Isaiah C. Sabins, Varnum B. Saulsbury, Charles H. 
Savage, Warren Sennett,Warren vSeward p from Aug. 18 64 to Mar. 65, 
Charles F. Shaw, Edmund R. Shaw d of wounds Apr. 24 64, G. F. 
Shaw, Eugene Shaw, George Shaw, Charles W. Shaw, Walter B. Shaw 
w May 12 64, Melville B. Sherman d Apr. 9 63, Charles Simpson, Rob- 
bert H. Sinclair, Lieut. Bradford W. Smart, Robert Smart, Sylvester 
Smart, Wilbur F. Snow d of wounds June 1 64, W. M. Starkey d Mar. 
13 63, AVilliam R. Starkey, Samuel J. Starkey, Alonzo Stillings, Charles 
Sullivan, William Sweeney, Frank P. Taber d at Warrenton, William 
• F. Taber, Charles F. Tarbell k in action May 27 68, C. W. Taylor, John 
Tibbetts p Sept. 16 64, AVilliam W. Tibbetts, C. E. Tobey, Warren H. 
Tobey, Jo.siah Totten, AVilliam LTowne, J. M. Underwood, George H. 
AValdron d Apr. 15 68, George AA'. AVard, Henry AA'are, Edwin A.War- 
ren, A. S. AA'ebber, Gustavus H. AA^ebber w in action 63, A^irgil H.AA^eb- 
ber k at Gettysburg July 1 63, Charles E. Webber d Apr. 4 63, Ben- 
jamin Weeks, William AVhite, James D. White, Hollis M. White, 
Henry W. White, George C. Wentworth, Edwin A. Wentworth, Frank- 
lin Wentworth d Feb. 6 64, AA^illiam AA'entworth, George H. AVilley, 
Samuel W. Wood, Jacob H. Woodsum w May 27 63, Ed. E. Worth, 
Francis Worth d at Washington Jan. 14 64, Benjamin F. Worth w 
Aug. 18 64. 

Fz>;/;/rt.— Robert Baldwin, George AA^ Barker, Isaac A. Bent, James 
H. Bean, Leonard Bean, John Brown, Orlando Brown, Rice Brown, 
George W. Briggs, Charles S. Bunker, Jonathan Burgess, Nahum Cole, 
Jo.seph O. Colley, Valentine S. Cumner, Almon Cunningham, Edward 
E. Davis, Henry E. Dexter p July 1 68, Lendall C. Davis, Emulus M. 
Dearborn, Calvin H. C. Dearborn, Henry F. Dowst, John Alanson 
Dowst w May 19 64, Selden M. Dowst, vSewall Dolloff, Samuel D. Eaton, 
Frank Fairbanks, Josiah M. Fellows, Freeman C. Foss, Asst. Surg. 
Stillman P.Getchell, Dennis Grover d Nov. 20 62, Noah Hoyt, Upham 


A. Hoyt, Isaac M. Hutchins, George R. Ireland. John F.Johnson, Fred 
A. H. Jones, Silas R. Kidder, Samuel W. Kimball, Charles W. Kim- 
ball, Charles Ladd, Anthony W. Little, George Lord, Arno Little, 
Ethan Little, Eugene E. Mooers, John Augustus Morrill, John Morrill, 
Nathaniel B. Moulton, Charles L. Nichols, Charles E. Philbrick d in 
prison Dec. 28 64, James A. Pettengall, Augustus F. Smart, George A. 
Smith w May 6 64, Ephraim M. Tibbetts, Llewellyn Tozier, Daniel 
Tozier, Marcellus Wells, Alvah Whittier. Emulus F. Whittier, Fred 
M. Whittier, Henry Whittier, Howard Whittier, John Almon Whit- 
tier, Perley Whittier, Reuben D. Whittier, Charles H. Wight, Martin 
V. B. Williamson, Richard H. Wills, John R. Witham d in hospital 
July 3 65. 

IVaf^rviUf. —ChcLTles Abear, Manley Allen, George E. Alexander, 
Leroy Atkinson, John Avery, Col. Isaac S. Bangs, Charles Bacon, An- 
drew J. Basford, John H. Bacon, Alexander Bailey, John W. Barnes, 
John H. Bates, William Bates k at Gettysburg July 1 63, Nelson G. 
Bartlett, Portal M. Black, John Blair, Charles H. Blackstone, Daniel 
Black.stone, Capt. William E. Brooks, George C. Blackstone, William 
Blalentine w, Bennett Bickford, Cyrus Bickford, Hiram Billings, Asst. 
Surg. Frank Bodfish, Warren Boothby, Henry H.Bowden, Lieut. Mar- 
tin T. V. Bowman, Orrin Bracket, Elisha R. Branch, Milton H. Branch, 
James Brown, William W. Brown, John Bubier p, Levi Bushy, George 
H. Bryant, Charles M. Branch, John G. Calder, Joseph Cary, Henry A. 
Chandler, George Chase, Isaac Check, Albert M. Clark, Charles H. 
Clark, Selden I. CliiTord, Augustus Campbell, Moses W. Cook w at 
Gettysburg July 1 63, Andrew Cookran, Alonzo Copp, Lieut. William 
H. Copp, John H. Caruth, Prentice M. Cousins, Levi Coyonette, Carl- 
ton Cress, Charles E. Cross, Joseph Cross, Francis M. Cunningham, 
Walter L. Cummings, Arba S. Davis, Daniel B. Davis, Octavus A. Davis 
p Sept. 16 64 d in prison Nov. 14 64, George H. Dearborn, Thomas 
Dearborn, George Delaware, William H. Dewolfe, Henry A. Dore, 
Levi A. Dow, George H. Downs, Nelson Drake, Frank Dusty w May 
12 64, Hadley P. Dyer w May 27 63, James A. Dyer, Luther Ellis w 
June 6 64, Paul Enwan w Apr. 23 64, Stephen Ellis, Sullivan Ellis, 
Francis H. Emery, Leander H. Evans, Nathaniel S. Emery, William 
H. Farnham, Lieut. C. A. Farrington d of wounds June 27 64, Dennis 
M. Foster, Dudley C. Frazier, George B. Frezzille, Henry W. Frost, 
Franklin Q. Fuller, Moses H. Gallefer p Sept. 16 64, John Garland w 
May 17 63, George Garney, Ezekiel Gerald, Lieut. George C. Getchell, 
J. F. Gibbs, George R. Gleason, Russell Gleason, Albert J. Gray, Jo- 
seph Greene, Lieut. Alonzo Goff, Daniel F. Goodwin, John F. Good- 
win, Lieut. Foster D. Goodrich, George Cormier, Charles W. Mc- 
Guyer. William H. Ham d Nov. 25 64, Fred C. Hatch, Joseph H. 
Hatch, Wilson Hawes, Thomas G. Herbert, Milford Hersom, Samuel 
T. Hersom, William H. Hersom, Albert H. Higgins, George Hill, 


Frank E. Hitchings, Hiram Horn w Oct. 10 64, Llewellyn Horn, David 
F. Houghton, Lieut. John H. Hubbard w in action May 27 63, Lieut 
George W. Hubbard, Henry C. James, Frank Jilcott, George J. Jones 
Sidney Keith, John King, John J. Kirby, Sylvanus Knox, William 
Knox, Chap. Henry C. Leonard, Capt. Addison W. Lewis, Lieut. Ed 
ward C. Leon 2d, David J. Lewis, Henry H. Libby, Charles W 
Louden, William Love, Charles W. Low w, William H. Low 
Frank B. Lowe, A. M. Lowell, Charles F. Lyford d Dec. 14 62 
James M. Lyford p July 1 63, William Henry Macartney, Joseph 
Marshall, Daniel E. Martin. Hugh McDonald, Deugald McDonald 
Harrison Merchant, Charles W. Merrill, Daniel McNeal, John McGil 
vey, Timothy McLaughlin w Feb. 6 64, Daniel Magrath, John Morri 
son. Earnest Morton, Francis B. Mosher, Madison Mosher, George 
Mayers jun., Charles D. Murphy, Joseph Murrey, Lewis Murrey, George 
E. Muzzey, George E. Muzzey, William H. Newland, Frank H. Oliver, 
Ezekiel Page, Benjamin Parker, John H. Parker w July 27 64, Orlando 
I. Pattee, John M. Peave}', Charles H. Penney, Everett A. Penney, Ira 
D. Penney d in rebel prison Jan. 10 65, Williain H. Penney d at New 
Orleans Mar. 5 64, James L. Perkins, Howard Perkins, Richard Par- 
ley, Charles Perry, George Perry, George Pierce, Lieut. Andrew Pink- 
ham, Edwin Plummer, John H. Plummer, Ephraim Pooler, Joseph 
Pooler d July 14 64, Andrew H. Porter, John Porter, Edmon E. Pres- 
cott, Peter Preo, Alexander W. Pulcifer, Clement Ouimby, George 
Ranco, William Rankins, Lorenzo D. Ray, Robert Rey, Joseph Rich- 
ards, Moses Ring, John Roderick, David Rowan, Ervin J. Rogers, Ad- 
dison H. Rowe, Joseph Sands, Capt. George S. Scammon, Stephen D. 
Savage w May 6 64, James A. Sawyer, Edgar Scates w Sept. 30 64 d 
June 3 65, William J. Sharp, Resolve Shaw, Alfred .Shepherd, Elbridge 
Shepherd, Richard A. Shepherd k at battle of the Wilderness May 6 
64, Lieut. Charles R. Shorey, Albert R. Smiley, Charles N. Smiley, 
Allen Smith, James T. Smith d Nov. 29 62, John M. Smart, Martin B. 
Soule w, Josiah Scule d June 6 65, Cyrus Southards, Nathan F. Spauldin, 
Edwin C. Stevens k Aug. 18 64, George E. Stevens, William H. Stev- 
ens, William D. Stevens, Capt. William A. Stevens, Charles H. Stew- 
art, Nathan M. Sturtevant, Reward A. Sturtevant, Martin Tallows k 
Oct. 8 64, Vedar Tashus, Got Teatlip, George Teatlip, Adin B. Thayer 
p 64, George S. Thing, David T. Thomas, John P. H. Thomas, James 
Thompson, James H. Thorn, Samuel J. Thayer, Albert F. Tozier, 
Henry M. Tozier, Capt. Henry E. Tozier k Dec. 10 64, Walter N. 
Tozier w Apr. 9 64 d in hands of enemy Apr. 14 64, George C. Tracy, 
Alexander Trask, Elbridge Trask, Thomas E. Treson, Levi Vique, 
James Wade, N. A. Ware, Andrew P. Watson, James H. Webb, James 
B. Welch, Moses A. Welch, David Woodbury, James O. West w May 
12 64 d May 23 64, Howard W. Wells w at Fredericksburg, John C, 
Willey, George A. Wilson, Henry Wingate, Hiram C. Winslow, An- 


drew J. Williams, Albert B. Witham, William W. Wyman d of wounds 
June 1 63, Hiram Wyman, Hiram R. Wyman, Increase Wyman, 
Eugene H. Young. 

Wajnie.— Samuel W. Adams, Paschal B. Allen, Thomas J. Bartlett, 
Benjamin F. Berry, Square F. Bishop, Josiah M. Bishop d Nov. 2 64, 
James Boutin, David L. Boyle, Orison S. Brown, Freeman W. Bun- 
nell, James H. Carson, Martin Cassey, James Colkins, Thomas Clark, 
Charles M. Connor, Othna Crosby, Francis M. Cumner, Edmund F. 
Davis, James Davis, Patrick McDermott, Edward G. Dexter, George 
M. Dexter, Henry A. Dexter, Nathan P. Downing, Sidney F. Down- 
ing, Lieut. Henry N. Fairbanks w Apr. 28 64, 0. M. O. A. Fillebrown, 
John Forrester, Levi F. Foss d Jan. 12 65, William H. H. Foss, Albion 
B. Frost, Lieut. Clarence C. Frost, David G., Charles Hall, Lieut. 
George W. Hall, Edwin W. Harrington, Michael Hart, Chauncy Hig- 
gins, William H. House, F. A. Hutchinson d Dec. 24 64, Seth W. Jen- 
nings, William H. Johnson, William Jones, Cyrus Keller, James Kel- 
ley, Elijah Knapp, Davis E. Lane, Daniel Lothrop. Charles M. Love- 
joy w 64, George G. Luce, John Maguire, Andrew J. Maxim d Nov. 18 
62, Benjamin F. Maxim, Daniel H. Maxim, Charles H. McNear, James 
Murphy, Solomon A. Nelke, Capt. Grafton Norris, George O. Norris, 
Augustus Parlin, Joseph A. Penley, Sewell Pettingill, Adelbert Pratt, 
William W. Pratt, Elias H. Raymond, John S. Raymond, John R. 
Raymond, Russell F. Reynolds, Charles V. Richards, E. K. Richard- 
son, Abington H. Ridley, John P. R. Sleeper, Elhanan Smith, Lieut. 
Joseph O. Smith, Orrin A. SnoM% John L. Spear d Dec. 29 64, James B. 
Stetson, George S^ Sturtevant, Valmore Sturtevant, William V. Sturte- 
vant, Cleveland Swift, Millard F. Thing, Henry W^ Towns, James O. 
Trask, John E. Welch, William Wilson, Charles E. Wing, Leonard L. 
Wing d in hospital at New Orleans, Llewellyn T. Wing, Lewis H. 
Wing k before Petersburg Sept. 11 64, William A. Young w June 2 64. 
IVfst Gardu/t-r.—Anhuv B. Andrews, Hiram Babb, Jonathan C. 
Bartlett, Charles H. Bailey, John Blanchard jun., Lieut. Alfred G. 
Brann, Calvin N. Brann, John E. Brann w May 6 64, David Campbell, 
F. A. Chesley, Daniel M. Cole d July 30 63, Charles O. Crosby d Aug. 
12 64 at New Orleans, Allen T. C. Crowell, William H. Crosby, R. 
Cunningham, James A. Cunningham. Oliver L. Dennison, Charles E. 
Dillingham, Charles H. Dill, John Edgecomb, A. K. P. Edwards, Wil- 
liam W. Eslar, Benjamin F. Fairbanks, Edwin Fairbanks, William H. 
Fairbanks, George S. Fogg, W. Forrest, George W. Fuller, Gustavus 
Fuller, Gardiner H. Fuller, George W. Garland, Hannibal George, 
Alfred Grover w June 2 63, George E. Grover, Lester Guilford k Feb. 
64, Charles E. Howard, David H. Haines, Hiram Haines, William F. 
Haines, Robert G. Hildreth d 63, John T. Hatch, William H. Jewett, 
Charles O. Knox, August Kuehew, James Marston, George E. McCaus- 
land d July 28 63, Charles H. Merrill, F. L. Merrill w 64, M. A. Morse,, 


James A. Mosher, Joseph H. Neal, George W. Newell, George 
Newell, vSimon Nudd, William Parker, Dexter W. Page, Jacob Page w 
at Antietam, Charles W. Patterson, Solomon E. Peach w 64, Edward 
Peacock jun., Solomon Peacock, Thomas A. Pinkham, Augustus B. 
Plummer, Ansel L. Potter, Emerald M. Potter, Simeon Potter, John 

A. Potter, Rosco H. Potter, George F. Reed, James W. Robinson, 
James Robinson, Gardiner Roberts jun., George A. W. Rooker, George 
Ross, Alonzo Sampson, Elisha P. Seavey, Hubbard C. Smith, Charles 
Small, Lieut. Oliver R. Small, Alvin Spear, Charles A. Spear, Franklin 
Spear d Feb. 4 63, John A. Spear, John Spear 2d, John A. Spear, 
Joseph M. Spear, Joseph F. Spear w Feb. 6 64, Justin F. Spear, Milton 

C. Spear, Richard H. Spear k June 23 64, Gardiner Todd, Joseph Traf- 
ton, Edward W. Wakefield d of disease, Tene Wendenburg, A. W. 
Whittier, Elbridge E. Whittier, Nickolas Williams. 

Wmdsor.— Charles H. Ashford, Homer P. Barton, Charles H. Bar- 
ton, Eloin C. Barker d of disease at Alexandria Va., Reuben W. 
Brown, Abram Bryant, Frank U. Butler, Charles J. Carroll d July 10 

63, Freeman Casey, Abram Choat, Henry B. Coombs, Warren H. 
Colby, Decator S. Chapman d May 28 63, Elbridge B. F. Colby, Joseph 
Carver, Thomas M. Clark, George G. Colby, George W. Craige, Albert 
N. Craige, George W. Chapman k May 6 64, A. C. Davis, William H. 
Dearborn d May 8 63, Moses J. Donnell, George F. Doe d of wounds 
received Aug. 25 64, Yeaton Dunton, James W. Dackendoff, Laforest 
Dunton d Feb. 26 63, George Duval, James M. Evens, Charles E. For- 
saith, Stephen L. French, Charles F. French, George H. French, 
James Garrity, Maddison T. Glidden, Granville Coding, John W. S. 
Gould, Alonzo E. Gove, Elias Gove, Elijah S. Grant, Nathaniel N. 
Gray, Capt. John Goldthwait, Daniel Hallowell, John Hallowell jun., 
William Hallowell, David D. Hanson, William H. Harriman w Aug. 
23 64, William H. Hilton, Charles A. Hilton, John Hutcherson, Daniel 
W. Hutcherson, John B. Hunt, Ira B. Hyson, John F. Hyson, Jeremy 

D. Hyson, Daniel L. Jackson, John Johnson, Daniel H. Jones, Benja- 
min R. Jones, William G. Keen, James W. Kendall, William Laskey, 
Edward H. Leach, Franklin P. Lewis, Marcelous C. Lynn, John Lynch 
d Mar. 17 63„ Andrew K. Maguire, Erastus Marr, George L. Marson, 
John Martin, Charles H. Maxwell w May 20 64, George W. McDonnel, 
Leonard H. Merrill, Melvin A. Merrill, Enoch Merrill, George W. 
Merrill k in action May 6 64, Abram Merrill, James F. Merrill, Isaac 
N. Marsh, George R. Mitchell, Benjamin H. Moody, Appleton Mer- 
rill, John McPherson, Daniel McDickens, Andrew J. Murch, John B. 
Murray, James O'Brien, James O'Donnell, William H. Peva w Aug. 16 

64, Nathan R. Peavey, Fred C. Perkins, Lieut. Warren H. Pierce, Al- 
phonzo Pierce d Nov. 64, Isaiah H. Pierce d of wounds received May 
18 64, Everts P. Plummer, David Potter, William F. Proctor, Sumner 

B. Proctor, Samuel Reeves, Charles A. Reynolds, Timothy W. Rey- 


nolds, Roswell Richardson, Jasper Robinson, William Russell, David 
O. Sawtell, John Simmons, Rockwell Scribner, William H. Seekins k 
May 27 63, Frank Smith, John Smith, James Stanley. Nathaniel W. 
Stetson jun., Levi W. Sterns, Joseph A. Stewart, Samuel S. Thompson, 
James B. Tobin, Stephen Trask d Sept. 25 63, Ruel W. Trask, John 
Tye, Marcelous Vining, Granville B. Warren d Aug. 3 63, Charles 
Watson d Oct. 64, Charles O. Watson, L. H. Whitehouse, John Q. 
Wentworth, Andrew F. White, James S. Wingate, Lieut. Frederick 
D. Wight, Luther Witham, George P. Wyman, Reuben Vining. 

U'iHs/ou'.— Ashman Abbott d Apr. 16 63, Edward S. Abbott d Apr. 
17 63, Stephen H. iVbbott, Daniel B. Abbott, Albert A. Abbott, Mel- 
ville C. Blackwell, Samuel M. Bragg, Joseph Brown, William Brown, 
Lemuel Bubier, Eben A. Brook, Daniel Burgess, Charles M. Bryant, 
Orin Burgess, Alfred H. Buchard, William Cohoon, Charles A. Cole- 
man, George W. Cushman, J. S. Dodge, Alfred T. Dunbar, Benjamin 
F. Dunbar d of wounds June 14 63, Capt. Joseph Eaton jun., Albert 
Ellis, Henry Ellis, Henry W. Ellis, John R. Flagg.William H. Flagg, D. 
French, Lieut. Charles P. Garland, Capt. Joseph P. Garland, Henry W. 
Getchell, Adelbert M. Gray, Leonard Goodrich, George E. Gullifer, Wil- 
liam Gullifer, Henry A. Hamlin, John Harris, Charles Hollis, Ira D. 
Hodges, George W. Hodges d May 3 63, Francis D. Hodges, Josiah D. 
Houston. William A. Keag, Albert S. Kelley, Frederick King, Edward 
Lynch, Charles E. Low, Sumner Merrill, James Moony, George P. 
Morrill, Albert A. Morrill, Isaac Morrill, Addi.son Morrill, Frank E. 
Nelson, Oscar W. Nichols d in pri.son, L. W. Packard, H. 
Palmer jun., John Palmer k Feb. 4 65, William T. Patridge, George 
W. Pillsbury, Hiram S. Pollard, Charles Pillsbury, Albert Plummer, 
John R. Pollard, Charles Pollard, George A. Pollard p Oct. 19 64, John 
R. Pollard, Homer Proctor, David O. Preast, William T. Preble, John 
T. Preble, Albert Plummer, Hanes C. Quimby, Ansel P. Rankin, 
Thomas G. Rice, Elmerin W. Richards, Seth M. Richard.son, Alex. A. 
Richardson, Edward B. Richardson, Francis E. Robinson d Sept. 16 64, 
Zenas M. vShaw, Winthrop Shurland w June 18 64. Winthrop Shurland, 
Hollis Simpson, Albert R. Smiley, Ellis Smiley, Charles E. Smiley, 
Isaac Sanborn, Albert Southard, Theodore M. Southard, George L. 
Spaulding. Henry Spaulding. John W. Storkey. Howard H. Taylor, 
AVilliam Taylor k at Gettysburg 63, Richard W. Underwood. John F. 
Walker, Charles E. Washborn, John B. Wheeler, Howard R. Wilson, 
John S. Wilson d of wounds Nov. 13 64, Albert Withee, Bradley B. 
Withee. John Withee. William F. Wood k May 6 64, John P. Wyman. 

lVi/i//{ro/>.— Ruel D. Allen, John L. Armstrong w May 6 64, Willard 
S. Axtelle w May 5 64, George A. Batchelder d July 20 65, Roswell D. 
Bates, Asst. Surg. John F. Bates, William H. Bates, Frank Beal, George 
W.Beal, Watson C. Beals. William H. Beny, Samuel D. Besse, William 
Bird, Darius Blanchard, Benjamin A. Bragdon, William Breckler, 


Henry F. Bridgham, Franklin S. Briggs d Aug. 3 63 in hospital, James 
M. Brown, Sewall M. Bubier, Andrew J. Burgess, Benjamin F. Bur- 
gess, Roswell Burgess, Jacob T. Byron, Josiah B. Byron, Joseph H. 
Caulfield, Solomon B. Gates, Albert Chandler d of wounds July 1 64, 
Charles H. Chandler, Charles W. Chandler, Charles A. Chandler d of 
wounds July 2 64, Enoch S. Chase, Samuel G. Chandler w July 2 63, 
Edgar U. Churchill, Isaiah M. Cookson, Samuel B. Coombs, Eli N. 
Cookson, Josiah L. Cobb, Thomas Connor, Charles E. Cottle, Reuben 
H. Crosby w, John F. Cummings d of disease Aug. 4 63, Thomas M. 
Daniels, Calvin Dearborn, Charles H. Dearborn, Thomas Dealy, 
Harry Dickey, Frank S. Dwyer, John Dyer, Josiah N. Eastman, Lieut. 
William Elder, William H. Emery, Joseph W. Esty, David Farr, Mel- 
ville N. Freeman, William F. Frost, David P. Freeman, Lieut. John 
F. Gaslin, Bethuel P. Gould, Rufus H. Gould, John C. Gaslin, Samuel 
M. Gilley, Apollos Hammon d Sept. 29 64 at New Orleans, Samuel 
Hanson, William H. House, Joseph A. Hall, Stephen P. Hart, Charles 
W. Heaton, AVillard C. Hopkins. George Howard, Henry A. Howard, 
John L. Hutch, Samuel Jackson, David D. Jones, John A.Jones, John 
W. Jones, Lennan F. Jones, William H. Jones d of disease Apr. 1 64, 
Shepherd H. Joy, William DeForest Kelley, John O. Lawrence d, 
Henry S. Lane, Edward N. Leavitt, George W. Leavitt, James W. 
Leighton, Lewis R. Litchfield, S. W. Lovell, Edwin Ladd, Charles H.. 
Longfellow. Augustine R. Lord, John E. Lowell, Lieut. Daniel 
Lothrop, Nelson H. Martin, Albert Moore jun., George H. Morton, 
Alden F. Murch, Roy P. Moody, George W. Nash, Henry O. Nicker- 
son, James Nickerson, Owen St. C. O'Brien, Thomas A. Osborn, Ho- 
ratio M. Packard, Isaac N. Packard, Thomas M. Packard, Andrew P. 
Perkins, Benjamin C. Powers, George Perkins, William H. Pettengill 
w May 12 64, John Pettengill, Winfield S. Philbrick, Silas Perry d July 
24 64, Elias Pullen, George F. Rankin, James M. Robinson, John Rob- 
bins, Jacob Savage, John Shea, Enoch H. Skillings, Benjamin B. 
Smith, George L. Smith d at Annapolis Oct. 28 64, Harrison N. Smith 
d July 16 65, Frank W. Stanley, Henry H.Stevens, J. Wesley Stevens, 
Lorenzo D. Stevens d July 26 6o, Daniel W. Stevens, Capt. E. Lewis 
Sturtevant, Hiram H. Stilkey, Newell Sturtevant, Josiah Snell, Aaron 
S. Thurston, Stephen A. Thurston, Charles A. Thompson, Gustavus 
A. Thompson, Frank B. Towle, Henry F. Tilton, Joseph A. Toby, 
Joel W. Toothaker, Charles L. Towle jun. d in service, Edwin F. 
Towns, William P. Varney, Isaac W. Wardwell, Dura Weston, Isaac 
Watts d Oct. 20 65, Sullivan R. Whitney, Edward P. Whiting, George 
W.Williams, George W. Wing, Henry O. Wing, Hubbard R. Wing d 
Sept. 1 64, Thomas F. Wing, Henry D. Winter. Elias Wood, Franklin 
Wood, George W.Wood, Amaziah Young d Aug. 14 64, John F. Young. 
Records had been kept showing the bounties paid by the respective 
towns to promote these later enlistments, to employ substitutes and. 


to relieve their citizens who were drafted. The total disbursements 
for these purposes, and the amounts refunded to the several munici- 
palities from the state bonds were as follows: 

Albion paid, $21,265.00 received, $8,033.33 

Augusta " 100,456.00 " 44,466.07 

Belgrade " 43,080.00 " 9,041 .67 

Benton " 26,575.72 " 5,775.00 

Chelsea " 11,266.05 " 4,441.67 

China " 47,735.34 " 12,708.33 

Clinton " 40,625.00 " 10,175.00 

Farmingdale " 14,966.19 " 3,641.67 

Fayette " 16,920.00 " 4,966.67 

Gardiner " 65,070.53 " 23,108.33 

Hallowell " 16,421 .00 " 7,808.33 

Litchfield " 24,860.00 '• 9,158.33 

Manchester " 12,330.00 " 3,408.33 

Monmouth " 32,950.00 " 9,216.67 

Mt. Vernon " 27,650.00 " 9,258.33 

Oakland " " 

Pittston " 33,939.14 " 11,208.33 

Randolph " " 

Readfield " 40,003.00 " 8,008.33 

Rome " 25,675.00 " 3,666.67 

Sidney " 30,039.00 " 8,183.33 

Vassalboro " 73,100.00 " 14,750.00 

Vienna " 15,557.44 " 4,213.33 

Waterville " 68,016.00 " 19,888.33 

Wayne " 22,280.00 " 6,091.66 

West Gardiner " 22,374.00 " 6,291.67 

Windsor " 35,044.00 " 7,925.00 

Winslow '• 25,658.00 " 7,375.00 

Winthrop " 50,430.00 " 12,350.00 

Unity Plantation " 1,850.00 " 291.67 

From other sources than Captain Clark's preceding lists we find 
some records of soldiers claiming residence in Kennebec county. The 
brief record is appended: 

A ii^nsta.— Daniel D. Anderson July 18 63, Alden S. Baker w Oct. 19 
64, William H. Berry d Aug. 28 64, John F. Brett d July 3 64. Jason 
R. Bartlett d in prison 64, Charles F. Bennett k Oct. 19 64, George W. 
Bemis d Aug. 63, Brad S. Bodge d of wounds May 8 64, John Bradley 
w, Thomas J. Bragg d May 28 64, Joseph Bushea k July 63. Phillips 
N. Byron k at Cedar Mt. 62, Henry C. Chandler d Mar. 1 65, Benjamin 
F. Colby p Aug. 19 64, Daniel C. Cunningham d Feb. 5 63, Elisha 


Cooley w Aug. 18 64, John Curtis d in prison, Lewis E. Clark w 
May 20 64, Eugene Cate d Oct. 9 64, William Dewall w June 17 64, 
Benjamin Douglas w July 63, Charles A. Davis w Apr. 4 65, Lieut. 
James Davidson, Leroy Farrar w June 64, Albert V. French w May 12 
64, Seth B. Goodwin p 62, Charles Gannett p July 63, Artemas K. Gil- 
ley d July 64, Col. Thomas Hight, Antoine Harrogot w Sept. 64, Rod- 
ney C. Harriman d Sept. 64, William H. Hayward k May 16 64, James 

A. Jones p 62, Augustus Kachner p, Hiram Kincaid w Sept. 64, Sam- 
uel Lisherness d June 64, Virgil G. Lanelle d in pri.son 64, William H. 
Lowell d Feb. 65, Thomas B, Lambert p July 63, George ]\IcGraw w 
May 10 64, Henry Mullen d Apr. 65, George G. Mills d Nov. 64, Hiram 

B. Nichols w Aug. 64, William O. Nichols w Apr. 8 64, John B. Parker 
d of wounds May 64, Levi A. Philbrook w May 64, Charles K. Powers 
d of wounds July 64, Asa Plummer k May 64, Franklin Perry k May 
64, Glenwood C. Pray d Apr. 65, Ezekiel Page w, Lieut. Nathaniel H. 
Ricker, William D. Randall w Sept. 64, John Riley k May 64, Charles 
W. Richards d Feb. 64, Morrill Rose w May 64, Charles F. Shaw d 
Jan. 65, Samuel Stevens w Oct. 64, Edward A. Stewart d May 63, 
Henry G. Smith w May 64, Henry Smith p 62, James Shortwell w May 
64, William B. Small w June 64, Joseph H.vSpencer d at Andersonville 
64, Thomas B. Tolman dof wounds July 64, Henry W. Towns w June 
64, Warren D. Trask d 64, Joseph Weaver d Jan. 64, Charles H. War- 
ren w, Alonzo S. Weed d in Richmond prison Oct. 63, vStephen Wing 
k May 64, Baptiste Willett jun. w 64, Frank Williams w May 64, Capt. 
James M. Williams d of wounds June 64. 

Albion.— Yr&nV Brown d July 15 63, Chandler Drake d Mar. 62, 
Charles Gage w May 64, Lieut. Maxey Hamlin, Warren G. Johnson d 
Mar. 62, Edward L. Pray d Mar. 62, Oscar Rollins d Sept. 62, Allen 
Shorey d Mar. 63. 

Belgrade.— "^Ahridige Bickford w 62, Asa J. Cummings d Mar. 62, 
Thomas W. Damon d 64, Elias Freeman d Mar. 24 63, Owen Getchell 
d July 64, James A. Lombard w 62, Hiram A. Mills d Oct. 64, Lyman 
Maxwell d Nov. 64, William L. Rollins w Oct. 64. 

Be?!ton.^A\^)ionzo C. Brown d in hospital 62, Jefferson W. Brown 
d Sept. 62, Alvin Gibson p 63, Royale B. Rideout d Oct. 62, James M. 
Rideout d Nov. 62, Albert M. Spaulding d Mar. 62. 

Chelsea.— y[\\\s O. Chase d Dec. 22 63, Lieut. William O. Tibbetts. 

<:/«■««.— Charles W. Allen d Oct. 13 64, Asst. Surg. D. P. Bolster, 
Joseph Babin w May 64, John W. Chisam d June 64, William Doe 
w 65, Henry A. Hamlin d in prison Aug. 64, William Holmes d Dec. 
6], Israel D. Jones d June 63, William F. Priest d Feb. 63, Benjamin 
C. Studley p 62, Charles E. Washburn w 64. 

Clinton. — George W. Emery d May 65, John Marco k at Fredericks- 
burg, John H. Stevens w July 63, Herman P. Sullivan mortally 
w Aug. 64, George A. Weymouth k near Richmond Mar. 64, Thomas 


E. Whitney w d in prison June 04, David H. Whitten d Feb. 65, Elisha 
Whitten w 64. 

Fartningdalc. — Byron Lowell \v Malvern Hill, William H. Mayo p 
Sep:. 64. 

Fayette.— ?xa.nQ.\s. J. Folsom w Oct. 64, Charles W. Judkins w 65, 
Charles F. Palmer d of wounds May 64. 

Gardiner. — George W. Austin w at Gettysburg 63, Arrington Brann 
d June 64, Calvin W. Brann d Sept. 64, Lieut. Calvin Boston d July 64 
of wounds, George Clough d May 62, Charles A. Douglas w 64, Daniel 
Fitzpatrick k June 64, C. W. Gilpatrick d in prison 64, Frank Johnson 
w Aug. 64, Charles A. Jordan p 64, Danforth M. Maxcy d Aug. 63, 
Barney McGraw p 61, George H. Nason d Aug. 64, Joseph M. Ring d 
Dec. 63, Capt. George W. Smith, Capt. Oliver R. Smith, Franklin W. 
Swift w 64, John Smith w May 64, James W. Taylor k June 64, George 

F. Tyler w 64. 

/i^rt/^wr//.— Joseph L. Bailey w Oct. 64, Charles F. Campbell w 64, 
James S.Emerson k June 64, Edwin R.Gould k May 63, Lieut. Charles 
Glazier, Capt. Samuel L. Gilman, Henry D. Otis d Sept. 64, Joseph 
Pinkham d Aug. 64, Lieut. John A. A. Packard, John W. Rodgers d 
Jan. 65, Frank Sweetland d 65, George S. Sherborn w July 63,William 
F. Sherman d in prison 64. 

Litchfield.— Cc^^t. George W. Bartlett, Merton Maxwell d at Alex- 
andria Sept. 62, Asst. Surg. Silas C. Thomas. 

Manchester. — Josiah H. Mears w 64. 

Monmouth. — Loring P. Donnell d Oct. 62, Corp. Lot Sturtevant d of 
wounds Apr. 65, Thomas Keenan p Oct. 64. 

Mt. Vernon.— Krno Little w Oct. 64, David G. Morrell k May 64. 

Pittston.— George H. Blair d July 63, George F. Bliss d July 64, Jo- 
seph S. Call k May 64, Lorenzo Cookson w May 64, Reuel M. Heath d 
of wounds May 64, Xenophen Heath d Oct. 62, Moses King w May 64, 
Warren Maines d of wounds June 64, Warren H. Moores w 64, Lieut. 
James G. Rundlette w June 64, Aaron Tucker d April 64. 

Readfie/d.— Chap. George C. Crawford, Lewis E. Davis d May 62, 
Albert L. Deering w 63, Henry C. Kennison d June 62, Asst. Surg. 
Joseph D. Mitchell, Charles H. Robie w May 62, George W. Smith d 
Aug. 64. 

Rome. — Capt. Hiram AL Campbell, Russell Clement w 62, Frank 
Fairbanks d Nov. 62, Lieut. Stephen H. Mosher, Joseph Meader k 
Oct. 64. 

Sidnej'.—Asst. Surg. John S. Gushing, William H. Farnham Mar. 
63, Thomas R. Holt mortally w July 64, William H. Hoxie p May 63. 

Vienna. — Joseph O. Colley w, Nathaniel F. Dow d July 62, Ben- 
jamin F. GrifSn w Aug. 64. 

Vassalboro. — Josiah S. Arey d Aug. 64, A.ndrew J. Burgess d Mar. 
65, Jeremiah Estes k Sept. 63, Charles H. Gibson k Sept. 64, Edwin 


W. Gould w June (14, Joseph H. Header d of wounds July 64, Timothy 
Nicholas w May 64, George E. Pishon d 63, Benjamin Weeks k May 

64, Osa C. Wyman p 64. 

IVtrvj/c. — Rufus Bessee d June 64, Edward P. Bussey d June 64, 
Valentine S. Cumner k June 64, Lieut. Clarence E. Frost, Robinson 
Sturtevant w and p 64, Thomas B. Wing d July 64. 

WaUrviV/c— Davis P. Arba w Sept. 64, Bickford Bennett d May 64, 
William Chapman k in battle 64, Hiram Cochrane d Dec. 63, John G. 
Gay d Dec. 64, Lieut. Daniel F. Goodrich, Joseph Jerow d in prison 64, 
Moses King p 64. Charles Love w 63, Lieut. Frederick Mason w Apr. 

65, Euarde Paulette d of wounds July 64, James B. PoUon w and p '64, 
Henry Porter d July 64, Albert Quimby d 64, George Robinson k July 
64, William A. Stevens k June 64, Joseph D. Simpson k July 68, Ellis 
Stephens k May 63. 

IVest Gardiner.— GsLTdiner H. Fuller d Sept. 64, George M. Garland 
d Sept. 64, Sanford L. Pinkham d June 64, James H. Peacock d Apr. 
64, Michael T. Smith d June 63, George W. Tyler d May 63. 

Windsor.— Sylvenus T. Hatch p 64, Elias T. Libby w 64, John 
Scales p 64. 

PVins/ou'.— William F. Good d at Gettysburg 63, Christopher C. 
Sanborn d July 62, Hiram Wixon w Mar. 62, George L. Webber d Dec. 

/r'V«///r<?/.— Lieut. Charles B. Fillebrown, Franklin M. La Croix d 
Jan. 63, John W. Leavett d Mar. 64, Orrin Perkins d June 6 64, Wil- 
liam H. Pettingill w May 64, Capt. Albert H. Packard d of wounds 
June 64. 

It would not be possible, at the present time, to secure a complete 
record, nor, probably, a complete list of the sons of Kennebec who 
performed their faithful, honest duty in the days of the nation's need. 
Many are known to have served in the navy, in the regular army and 
in the regiments of other states. The remaining list in this chapter 
includes the names of many of these, whose homes had been in the 
towns named. 

Albion. — Reuben C. Jaquith, William H. Kidder, Augustus Drake, 
Alphonso Crosby, George W. Plummer, Crowell Robinson, Horatio 
Robinson, George Stratton. 

Augusta. — Edward Boston, Ward Burns, Edwin T. Brick, Charles 
Goldthwaite, Benjamin A. Swan, Albert E. Snow, Fred O. Fales, 
Charles H. Gowen, J. A. Snow, William H. Davenport, Dana Estes, 
Henry T. Hall, George Albee, Henry W. Hersom, Lieut. Horace P. 
Pike, George Hamlin, Thomas Jones, Charles F. Moore, David Mc- 
Farland, Benjamin F. Rust, Jesse Stover, Charles C. Hartwell, William 
Place, William W. Lord, James Newman, David Young, A. A. Whit- 
temore, Paymaster Augustus H. Gilman, James McGrath, Henry Pond, 


William E. Tobey, Andrew Williamson, Brig. Gen. Seth Williams, 
Joseph Wedge, Charles Savage. 

Belgrade. — Frank Abbott, George O. Austin, Charles Knox, Lendall 
Yeaton, Cyrus Q. Pray, Calvin Weaver, Robert Damon, James H. Dun- 
lap, David Titcomb. 

Benton. — Hiram Robinson, Charles Preston, Edward Preston, Abi- 
jah Brown, 

Chelsea. — John F. Camiston, vSamuel Chase, George Booker, Jerome 

China. — Dana H. Maxfield, Daniel Norton, Hiram Robinson, Fran- 
cis A. Starkey, Edwin Ward, Frank Ward, Francis P. Ward, Jedediah 
F. Trask, Sandford Cotton, Wilder W. Mitchell. 

Clinton. — Charles Hobbs, Richard Richardson, Roswell Welch. 

Farnmigdale . — James T. Hatch, W^illiam R. Hatch, William H. 
Higgins, Timothy Higgins. John E. Lombard, Alonzo M. Neal. 

Fayette. — James W. Smith, Isaac M. Wentworth. 

Gardiner. — Sewall Mitchell, George Merrill, Benjamin Rollins, Au- 
gustus Carleton, George E. Donnell, Mason G. Whiting, Charles E. 
McDonald, Charles F. Palmer, Charles R. Lowell, Charles W. Rich- 
ardson, George W. Richardson, Nathan Willard, Michael Burns, Oliver 
Colburn, Hiram E. Davis, Augustus Dixon, Benjamin Lawrence jun., 
Joseph A. Sturtevant, Horace E. Neal. 

Hallowell. — John Edson, Dwight Miner jun. 

Litchfield.— YldaX-woW Keyes, John H. Keyes, Sylvanus D. Water- 
man, Melville A. Cochrane, Arthur L. Allard, Joseph G. Allard, Wil- 
liam Henry Baker, Horace L. Smith, James Woodbury. 

Manchester. — Henry Winslow, Charles B. Goldthwaite. 

Monmouth. — Henry C. Thurston, Jonathan V. Gove, James R. Nor- 
ris. Charles H. Ballou. 

Mt. Vernon. — Horace O. Blake, Eugene A. Gilman, Orlando V. An- 

/'///i-/w^.— Alfred G. Hanly, Henry Allen, Franklin H. Cole, William 
H. Gray, Samuel Gray jun., George W. Stevens, Albion Still, John 
Still, Henry V. Thomas, William Warren, L. A. Albee, David B. 
Brookings, John P. Hale, John Handren, David McDonald, Sewell 
Ramsdell, Isaac D. Seyburn. 

Readfield. — Augustus Hutchinson, Roscoe Luce, Horace A. Ma- 
comber, George D. Norton. 

Rome. — Henry Perkins, Benjamin Tracy 3d. 

Sidney. — Anson B. Barton, Henry Kenney, George Sawtelle, Allen 
H. Smith, Charles H. Brown, William L. Kelly, Henry W. Brown, 
Thomas F. Sanborn. 

Vassalboro. — Amory Webber, George A. Emery, James S. Emery, 
Frederick A. Hopkins, Walter Phillips, John B. Elliott, Simon B. El- 


liott, John B. Stowe, Henry R. Calder, Zachariah B. vStewart, Eugene- 
Whitehouse, Henry W. Worth, Harlow D. Weeks. 

Watcrville. — Alonzo Copp, John F. Gibbs, .Samuel Haines, Albert 
W. Percival, Henry W. Percival, Benjamin C. Allen, Samuel H. Black- 
well, John AV. Emery, Samuel D. Emery, John W. Soule. 

fFrtj/w.— Lloyd Clark, Charles A. Hall, William H. Holman, Dan- 
iel W. True, Williston Jennings. 

West Gardiner. — James Whitney. 

Windsor. — George W. Jackson, James Noon jun. 

Winslow. — Horatio Morse, Edward Shurtleff. 

Wintlirop. — Lennan F. Jones, Charles E. Parlin, George W. Parlin, 
Lewis K. Littlefield, Moses B. Sears. 

General Seth Williams.— Prominent among the many able offi- 
cers who rendered valuable service in the war of the late rebellion, 
was Brevet Major General Seth Williams, of Augusta.' He was born 
at Augusta March 22, 1822; received a military education at West 
Point and graduated July 1, 1842; was made second lieutenant of the 
First Artillery in 1844 and first lieutenant of the same regiment in 
1847. His first service was in the war with Mexico, where he served 
with credit as aid-de-camp on the staff of General Patterson and was 
brevetted captain April 18, 1847, " for gallant and meritorious con- 
duct at the battle of Cerro Gordo." He was appointed adjutant at 
West Point in September, 1850, and served three years, having re- 
ceived in August, 1853, the appointment of assistant adjutant general, 
with the rank of captain, in the Adjutant General's Department at 
Washington, and served in that capacity until the breaking out of 
the rebellion. In the West Virginia campaign of General McClellan, 
in the early part of the war, Captain Williams served as adjutant gen- 
eral on his staff. He returned to Washington in July, 1861, and in following was promoted to the rank of major in the regular 

In 1861, when General McClellan succeeded General McDowell, 
Major Williams was appointed to the position of adjutant general of 
the Army of the Potomac, and on September 23, 1861, was commis- 
sioned as brigadier general of volunteers. The duties devolving on 
him were arduous, calling for .severe application, yet he filled the 
position to the entire satisfaction of the several commanders of that 
army through the many eventful battles and campaigns until January 
12, 1865, when from failing health, though naturally of a vigorous 
constitution, he was relieved from this position and assigned to duty 
on the staff of General Grant, as acting inspector general of the armies 
operating against Petersburg and Richmond. He was ordered to 
Savannah and other places in the South on a tour of inspection, but 
returned in season to participate in the closing campaign of the war. 


and had the honor of conducting in part the negotiations for the sur- 
render of General Lee's army. 

In recognition of the very able services rendered he received the 
following promotion.s in the regular service during the war: Lieuten- 
ant colonel, July 17, 1862: brevet brigadier and brevet major general, 
both bearing date March 13, 1865. His last special service was upon 
the commission which convened in Boston in Januar)', 1866, to inves- 
tigate the charges made by the Prussian government in relation to 
the enlistment of some of its subjects into our army. His last assign- 
ment to duty was on the staff of General Meade, as assistant adjutant 
general of the Military Division of the Atlantic. Soon after, indica- 
tions of a serious disease became manifest and he was conveyed to 
Boston for skillful medical treatment, where he died March 23, 1866, 
from inflamation of the brain, after an illness of about four weeks. 

The distinguished merits of General Williams as an officer, and 
his unblemished private character as a man, are already parts of the 
warp and woof of our nation's history. It may be truly said of him: 
" A braver soldier never couched lance, 
A greater heart did never sway in court." 
Though unflinching in the discharge of his official duties — how- 
ever disagreeable they might prove to others — in his private charac- 
ter, when the cares of the camp were laid aside. General Williams was 
one of the most lovable of men. He was possessed of a rare charm of 
manner, a delicate and discriminating tact, and a never failing court- 
esy that drew all hearts to him, and made him as beloved as he was 
respected and admired. There is probably not a Union soldier alive 
to-day to whom the name of General Seth Williams is unfamiliar, and 
certainly there is not one of his intimates whom death has spared, in 
whose memory there is not a dear and sacred niche for the noble 
spirit who virtually laid down his life in his country's service. 

G. A. R. Posts.— Nineteen Grand Army Posts have been organized 
in the county during the last quarter of a century. Nearly all of them 
are in a fiourLshing condition, if the ravages made by death in the 
ranks of the gallant defenders of our country are taken into consid- 
eration. The Posts are mentioned here in their numerical order. 

Heath Post, No. 6, of Gardiner, dates from November 15, 1867. 
They purchased a vacant church in Gardiner and transformed it into 
one of the finest Post buildings in the county. The first commander 
was Captain Eben D. Haley. His successors have been: Gustavus 
Moore, P. H. Cummings, A. B.Andrews, Giles O. Bailey, S. W.Siphers, 
Levi Goodwin, M. C. Wadsworth, John S. Towle, Frank B. Williams, 
Edwin A. Libby, William Wiley, A. J. Packard, A. J. Hooker, Charles 
O. Wadsworth, George H. Harrington, Edwin C. Teague, Edwin E. 
Lewis, James Walker, J. R. Peacock, J. W. P. Johnson and A. W. Mc- 


Seth Williams Post, No. IS,--" was organized July 20, 1872, in the 
armory of the Capital Guards in Augusta, with ihe following named 
charter members: Selden Connor, Henry Boyuton, B. B. Murray, jun., 
A. L. Smith, S. J. Gallagher, H. M. Pishon, W. B. Lapham, Charles E. 
Nash, George E. Nason, F. M. Drew and John D. Myrick. The name 
it adopted was in honor of General Seth Williams, of the United 
States army. During the early life of the Post its growth was quite 
slow, caused doubtless by the unfortunate ending of the O. O. Howard 
Post, which had previously had an organization here; but as the real 
principles upon which the order rested became more generally under- 
stood the increase became much more rapid, and at the present time 
from the small beginning it stands among the largest in membership 
of any in the state. John D. Myrick was the first commander, and 
the following named comrades have also held the position m succes- 
sion: William B. Lapham, Selden Connor, Charles E. Nash, Samuel J. 
Gallagher, Arthur L. Brown, R. C. Clement, Henry F. Blanchard, John 
E. Fossett, Samuel W. Lane, Lorenzo B. Hill, George Doughty, Wil- 
liam A. Swan, John O. Webster, Henry G. Staples, Edmund McMurdie, 
Lewis Selbing, William McDavid and Prentiss M. Fogler. 

W. S. Heath Post, No. 14, of Waterville, was organized December 
29, 1874, with twenty-six charter members. The following is a chron- 
ological list of the commanders: F. E. Heath, I. S. Bangs, Atwood 
Crosby, G. M. Matthews, Charles Bridges, A. O. Libby, J. G. Stover, 
D. P. Stowell, N. S. Emery, George W. Reynolds, S. S. Vose, George 
A. Wilson, P. S. Heald and J. L. Merrick. 

John B. Hubbard Post, No. 20, of Hallowell, organized October 24, 
1877, with fourteen charter members, was named in honor of Captain 
Hubbard, who fell at Port Hudson while serving on the staff of Gen- 
eral Weitzel. The meetings have been held at Fraternity Hall, Hallo- 
well, which was fitted up expressly for its use. Its present member- 
ship is fifty-three. The commanders of the Post have been: George 
S. Fuller, D. E. Shea, Major E. Rowell, J. W. Bussell, C. A. Brown, J. 
L. Chamberlain, D. B. Lowe, W. R. Stackpole, H. O. Hawes and J. D. 

The Albert H. Frost Post. No. 21, named after a private who was 
killed at Gettysburg, was organized at Winthrop June 5, 1879, and 
now has seventy-seven members living mostly in the towns of Win- 
throp and Wayne. Meetings are held twice each month in the village 
of Winthrop. L. T. Carlton, the first commander, has been succeeded 
by Alexander G. H. Wood, Franklin Wood, Sewall Pettingill, E. O. 
Kelley, F.J. Davis, L. K. Litchfield, Charles E. Wing, George R. Smith 
and Thomas Dealy. 

The North Vassalboro Post, No. 33, was organized with eighteen 
charter members, and named in honor of Richard W. Mullen. The 

*Sketch by Major P. M. Fogler. 


successive commanders have been: Nathan Stanley, Reuel C. Burgess, 
John Withee, George H. Ramsdell, E. C. Coombs, Isaac Hussey and 
R. C. Burgess. This Post has a membership of forty-two. 

Hildreth Post, No. 56, was organized at South Gardiner May 19, 
1882, with sixteen charter members. E. E. Lewis was first com- 
mander, and has been succeeded by J. A. Ripley, J. H. Lowell, C. L. 
Austin and Joseph Burgess. With less than one hundred dollars in 
their treasury, the Post built a commodious hall in 1887, that cost over 
$2,000. The present membership is twenty. 

Billings Post, No. 88, was organized October 9, 1883, at Clinton, 
with nineteen charter members. The commanders have been: Alpheus 
Rowell, 1883-5 and 1888; James Thurston, 1886: Daniel B. Abbott, 
1887: H. F. Waldron, 1889-91. The Post musters at Clinton village 
in Centennial Hall. The present membership is twenty-two. 

Libby Post, No. 93, was instituted at Litchfield in 1884, with 
twenty-four charter members. Captain E. D. Percy was the first com- 
mander, and has been succeeded by Alfred T. Jenkins, Herbert M. 
Starbird, Joseph S. Hatch. Amaziah E. Googins and A. C. True. 
Since its organization sixteen members have been admitted by mus- 
ter and two by transfer. The Post has lost one comrade by death, 
three by transfer, and two have been dropped from the roll. There 
has always existed a spirit of fraternity and harmony among its 
worthy members. 

Sergeant Wyman Post, No. 97, was instituted at Oakland in Decem- 
ber, 1883, with twenty-five charter members. J. Wesley Gilman was 
commander two years, and was followed successively by J. M. Rock- 
wood, W. H. Macartney, Hiram Wyman, C. W. Shepherd, C. W. 
Heney, D. E. Parsons and Abram Bachelder. Twenty of the members 
are incorporated by special act of the legislature as " Trustees of Ser- 
geant Wyman Post Corporation," who own Memorial Hall, erected by 
the citizens in 1870. 

James P. Jones, No. 106, was organized at South China April 
23, 1884, with twenty-five charter members. Charles B. Stuart was the 
commander for several years, succeeded by Samuel Starrett, Franklin 
Goodspeed, Augustus Webber, Sylvanus Haskell and Alvah Austin. 
The Post met in the A.O. U. W. Hall until their present commodious 
hall was erected. Their building is complete in itself, containing a 
large hall, offices, rooms for Sons of Veterans and a Woman's Relief 
Corps, and suitable banquet hall. 

Vming Post, No. 107, of Windsor, was organized June 2, 1884, and 
named in honor of Lieutenant Marcellus Vining. The first commander 
was H. A.N. Dutton, who was succeeded by Francisco Colburn, George 
E. Stickney, G. L. Marson, Cyrus S. Noyes and Luther B. Jennings. 

Amos J. Billings Post, No. 112, is located at China village. It was 
■chartered June 17, 1884, with twenty members. The successive com- 


manders have been: Llewellyn Libbey, John Motley, B. P. Tilton, J.. 
W. Brown, Henry C. Rice, Robert C. Brann, A. B. Fletcher and John 

Joseph W. Lincoln Post, No. 113, of Sidney, was mustered May 24, 

1884. with eleven charter members. The commanders have been: 
Nathan A. Benson, A. M. Sawtell, Thomas S. Benson, John B. Saw- 
tell, Simon C. Hastings, James H. Bean, Silas N. Waite and Gorham 
K. Hastings. The Post meets in the Grange Hall, in the building of 
which its members contributed considerable labor. The present mem- 
bership is twenty-six. 

G. K. Norris Post, No. 127, was organized January 6, 1885, with fif- 
teen charter members, although more than thirty had signed the ap- 
plication for a charter. The commanders have been: Simon Clough, 
Henry O. Pierce, Horace C. Frost, Edwin A. Richardson, Sylvanus R. 
Simpson, Adelbert C. Sherman, Athan Little. The Post, with a pres- 
ent membership of thirty-six, occupies a hall at Monmouth Center, 
elegantly fitted for its use by Comrade Simon Clough. 

R. H. Spear Post, No. 140, was organized in December, 1885, at 
West Gardiner. Its very comfortable hall used to be the old academy 
building, and stands near Spear's Corner. The Post has a member- 
ship of eighteen veterans, of whom the following have been com- 
manders: John A. vSpear, Leander Spear, Edwin Small, Hiram Babb, 
Joseph E. Babb and George W. Pelton, who now holds that position. 
The Post was named for Sergeant Richard Henry Spear. 

Cyrus M. Williams Post, No. 141, was organized at Mt. Vernon 
May 27, 1885, with twenty-four charter members. The first com- 
mander was Alvin Butler and his successors have been: John Carson, 
F. M. Gilman, Levi W. French and F. C. Foss. This Post comprises 
the towns of Mt. Vernon, Vienna and Fayette, and has at present 
about thirty members, who meet each month in Masonic Hall. 

Daniel Brooking Post, No. 142, of Randolph, was organized June 18^ 

1885, with seventeen charter members, and now numbers forty-six, 
who meet at G. A. R. Hall, over Kelly's store. The commanders have 
been: Robert vS. Watson, George W. Marston, Eben Brooking, Charles 
H. Dunton, A. P. Thompson and William H. Dudley. C. H. Dunton 
is adjutant. This Post has an appropriation from the town at the 
March town meetings to defray the expenses of Memorial Dav, and 
the graves of veterans of Randolph and Pittston receive a tribute of 
flowers. The Post decorates 126 graves in the two towns yearly,, 
which number includes the soldiers of 1776, 1812 and 1861. 

Monuments. — With the surrender of Lee's army, the rebellion 
practically closed. The events which intervened between this and 
the capture of Jefferson Davis were but the dying struggles of the 
confederacy. The return of the boys in blue, the tattered flags, the 


glad welcome, the tears of joy — these for the poet's pen, not the his- 
torian's ! 

Old Kennebec had borne well her part in the sanguinary struggle, 
and of all the regiments from Maine, none returned more heavily 
loaded with honors than hers. But, alas ! there were tears that were 
not of joy. All along the line of march, on the battle-field and in the 
depths of the surging ocean, were scattered the heroes who welded 
with their blood the parting bonds of the Union. To their memory, 
in many of our larger towns, monuments have been erected by a 
grateful people, on which are inscribed the names of these honored 

Of all these monuments, perhaps the most beautiful is the memo- 
rial tablet which has been erected in Memorial Hall, at Waterville, to 
immortalize the alumni of Colby University who dropped their books 
and grasped the sabre at the nation's first appeal. Surmounting this 
tablet of richly veined porphyry is a well executed copy, in pure Car- 
rara marble, of Thorwaldsen's " Lion of Lucerne." This beautiful 
stone edifice cost $8,000 and is the first structure of its kind dedicated 
to the memory of the soldiers of 1861-5. The tablet bears 151 names, 
of which 101 were commissioned officers and 23 were privates. 

Next to this in point of beauty, and far more imposing, is the 
soldiers' monument of Augusta. Its base is triangular. The three 
faces are suitably inscribed. The southeast side records that — 










A. D. 1881. 

The west side bears the names of the following officers: Lieut. 
Col. Seth Williams U. S. A. and Brevet Maj. Gen. U. S. Vols.; Lieut. 
Col. Edwin Burt; Lieut. Col. Harry M. Stinson, aid to Gen. Howard; 
Capts. Charles K. Hutchins, Albert H. Packard, James M. Williams; 
Chaplain George W. Bartlett; Lieuts. Warren Cox, James L. Thomp- 
son, William O. Tibbetts, William Campbell; Quartermasters Ivory J. 
Robinson, David S. Stinson; Sergts. Niles A. Hanson, James M. Has- 
kell, William F. Locke, Daniel B. Morey, Asa C. Rowe, Alonzo P. 
Stinson, Albert N. Williams, John P. Wells, Orison Woods; Corps. 
Charles S. Avery, Edward S. Baker, Jason R. Bartlett, William H. 
Brock, Daniel Chad wick, George L. Fellows, Daniel W. Hume, George 
A. Lovering, George S. Mills, Charles R. Powers, Greenwood C. Pray, 
Charles C. Rideout, Samuel E. Remick and William E. Smith. 

The names of 120 privates are also inscribed: George Allen, George 
W. Andrews, Homer S. Bean, George W. Bemis, William H. Berry, 


Isaac D. Billington, James Boyce. John S. Brown, Thomas j. Bragg, 
Byron Branch, George F. Burgess, Francis M. Caswell, Miles O. Chase, 
G. E. Chamberlain, Theodore Clark, John Code, George Cunningham, 
Rodger Connelly, Edward H. Austin, Josiah L, Bennett, Charles F. 
Beal, Eli A. Black, Charles F, Bennett, Darius Brooks, Bradford vS. 
Bodge, Calvin H. Burden, John E. Britt, Eugene Gate, Jo.seph Bushea, 
Rowland S. Clark, John Curtis, Henrv A. Chandler James Davis, 
Jesse M, Clark, D, Cunningham, William H, DeWolf, George Dill, 
Benjamin Douglass, Danforth Dunton, Gustavus A. Farrington, Ed- 
mund Fay, Elisha S. Fargo, Edward Flood, Samuel H. Gage, Charles 
H.Gordon, Artemus K. Gilley, Rodney Harriman, Henry W. Hawes, 
Elijah L. Horn, John C. Holbrook, Cieorge A. Kimball, Henry G. Kim- 
ball, Thomas Lilly, John Leavitt, Ira B. Lvon, William H. Lowell, 
Howard W. Merrill, James W. McGregor. William C. Moore, James 
W. Miller, William N. Murry, Henry Mullen, John B. Parker,' John 
O'Connor, Frank W. Peaslee, Alonzo L. Page, Charles E. Philbrick, 
Fred B. Philbrick, S. H. Prescott, Charles M, Phillips, Enoch vSampson, 
John Riley, Greenlief Smart, George H. Smith, Alonson G. Taylor, Ed- 
ward A. Stewart, Alfred Trask, Warren P. Trask, John O. Wentworth, 
Thomas H. Welch, Stephen Wing, Atwell M. Wixon, George H, Gor- 
don, William A. Hayward, Leonard J. Grant, Alonzo, James A. 
Henderson, Virgil G. Lanelle, John "W. Jones, Samuel Lishness, Na- 
thaniel Lane, Alfred J. Marston, Ruel W". Littlefield, AVilliam G. Mer- 
rill, William E. Marriner, John M. Mosher, Edward :\Iiner, Thomas 
Murphy, Jeremiah Murphy, Eben Packard, William Nason jun., 
Franklin A, Perry, Henry E. Patterson, Noel Byron Phillips, James 
Perkins, Samuel Remick, Asa Plummer, John N. vScott, Charles W. 
Richards, Joseph H, Spencer, Charles F. Shaw, Fred A. Tiffany, 
George W. Stone, Aaron C. Varney, Moses B, Tolman, Alonzo S. 
Weed, Joshua R. Webber, William D. Wills, Joseph Weaver and Wil- 
liam C. Young. 

The monum.ent at Waterville bears the plain, modest inscriptions — 







The Hallowell monument is a fine, square shaft of granite. Its 
west face is inscribed— 





The other faces preserve the names of the patriot dead, with the 
company and regiment in which each served: Capt. John B. Hubbard, 
Capt. George O. Getchell, Capt. George A. Nye, Lieut. Charles M. 
Bursley, Ensign Walter S. Titcomb, Sergt. Henry A. Albee, Sergt. 
George L. Chamberlain, Charles Bancroft, Samuel D. Besse, William 
H. Booker, Sumner Bryant, Joseph Bushea, William H., 
Western Burgess, Joseph D, Carr, Edwin C. Miner, Charles E. Mor- 


rill, Alonzo D. Pottle, William F. Richards, George W, Ricker, Charles 

B, Rogers, John W. Rogers, Sanford Runnells, Frank B. Runnells, 
William F. Sherman, Emerv N. Smith, Augustus Smith, Thomas 
Smith, George Whitcomb, Robert A. Witherell, Heman B. Carter, 
W^infield S. Dearborn. Sewall Douglass, Hazen H. Emerson, John C. 
Edson, Nathaniel Ellery, Sherburn E. George. Charles C. Gilman, 
Edward R. Gould, Edwin Goodwin. Thomas Keenan, John Leavitt, 
William K. Libbey, Edwin McKenney, and William Matthews. 

The Gardiner monument is of Hallowell granite and stands within 
an octagonal enclosure of iron, in the city park. Its north face is in 

scribed — 








A, D, 1875. 

The other faces bear these 71 names: T. A. Pray, J. M. Ring, G. F. 
Spear, C. H. Tabor, G. W. Tyler, J. W. Taylor, G. R. Parsons, F. W. 
Sawyer, H. B. Stevens, R. S. Starbird. Denola Whitman, E. M. Reed, 
A. O. Wood. G. W. Weeks, W. E. Welch. G. E. Webber, N. W. Walker, 
A. F. Tinkham, C. A. Whitney, T. B. Whitnev, James Siphers, Hiram 
Wakefield, C. W. Richardson, C. C. Card, H. W. Dale, G. R. Moore, 
D. N. Maxcy, William Jordon. A. M. Jordon, A. L. Meader, C. D. 
Meader, G. S. Kimball, j. F. Merrill, H. W. Huntington, Oscar Hil- 
dreth, J. A. Foye. A. A. Mann, G. H. Smith, C. D. Smith, W. H. Noyes, 

C. H. Potter, J. H. Peacock, W. H. Peacock, Charles Sprague, James 
McNamara, Thomas McNamara, E. A. Smith. E. W. Ayer, B. A. Babb, 
M. G. Babb, G. H. Berry, C. N. Brann, C. W. Brann, Daniel Brann, 
G. H. Clough, S. S. Bennett, E. T. Chapman, Calvin Boston, Westbrook 
Dean, J. G. Card, William Brann. E. O. Blair, L. G. Brann, F. E. Gow- 
ell, H. N. Jarvis, G. E. Donnell, L. C. Hinkley, A. M. C. Heath, 
Thomas Douglas, W. W. Hutchinson, and Arrington Brann. 

At Oakland a Memorial Hall, valued at $10,000, was erected by 
private subscription, and dedicated to the memory of the fallen sol- 
diers, by the Memorial Association of that town. Subsequently, by 
an act of the legislature, tlie property was conveyed to Sergeant Wy- 
man Post, No. 97, G. A. R. 

The Winslow monument was authorized by town vote in 1887. 
The Lockwood Company donated a site and the town appropriated 
$1,000 for the stone. It was furnished by I. S. Bangs, of Waterville, 
who cut the statue which surmounts it. In 1892, having been removed 
to its present site, it was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies. Its 
inscriptions show that it was ''Erected by the town of Winsloiv in mem- 
ory of her dead soldiers, 1889." 


The thirty-one names recorded on it are: Ashman Abbott. Edward 
Abbott, Joseph Brann, George H. Bassett, Eben Brooks, Charles L. 
Crowell, Benjamin F. Dunbar, Capt. Joseph Eaton, Andrew W. Fuller, 
Henry W. Getchell, George W. Hodges, Frederick C. Jackins, A. Lit- 
tlefield, Asa Pallard, Charles Pollard, William Pollard, John S. Preble, 
William T. Preble, John Palmer. Winthrop Shirland, Christopher C. 
Sanborn, Henry Spaulding, William Taylor, Howard H. Taylor, Al- 
bert E. Withee, William F. Wood, John S. Wilson, D. W. Wilson, H. 
C. Webber, George L. Webber, and Lieut. Thomas Green Rice. 



Early Trading.— The Beginning of the Lumber Trade.— Kennebec Log Driving 
Company.— Steam Towage Company.— The Fish Supply.— Manufacturing.- 
Shipbuilding.— The Ice Business.— Captain Eben D. Haley.— The Granite 
Industry. — Governor Joseph R. Bodwell. 

THE law of compensation is never-failing in its exact adjustment 
of natural conditions that, at first sight, are apparently anti- 
thetical. Thus, while the early settlers of Kennebec county 
doubtless complained of the rigors of its climate, and the harsh, un- 
promising aspect of the landscape, seamed as it was with rock and 
covered with trackless forests, the great law of compensation was, in 
the course of time, to turn these seeming disadvantages into sources 
of wealth, prosperity and happiness, and literally to make "the wilder- 
ness blossom as the rose." The severe winters produced the ice that 
was afterward destined to find a profitable market in states and coun- 
tries far removed ; its granite ledges were to furnish inexhaustible 
material for the purposes of art and architecture; and its spreading 
forests were to supply the timber for thousands of homes, and scores 
of vessels, whose flags were to be seen on every sea; while the clear- 
ings thus made and constantly increasing with the flight of years 
were afterward to become the scenes of varied agricultural pursuits, 
noticed in the following chapter. 

The first small beginning of the vast and varied commercial rela- 
tions of the county with the outer world were laid in the trade in furs, 
along the river, with members of the Plymouth colony, soon after 1629. 
The first settlers and the Indians purchased the neces.saries of life 
with the skins of the otter, beaver and moose. James Howard was 
licensed to sell tea and coffee at the Fort in 1763, and Samuel, his 
brother, sailed a sloop; and cord-wood, skins, furs, staves, shingles, 
salmon and alewives were taken for merchandise, and in turn ex- 
changed at a profit for goods to fill the store. The Indians exchanged 
their furs with the white man for powder, shot and rum. 

The first industry of the settlers was to erect saw mills, and the 
lumber business was one of profit. As the lands were cleared the 
product of the mills found ready sale, being sent out in large rafts as 
^oats, or in vessels; while the many tanneries, of which every town of 


the county had two or more, made market for the hemlock bark, which 
was also an article of export. 

. The first period of the lumber business began with the operations 
of the pioneers, wh'ose chief aim seems often to have been the clear- 
ing of the land and the destruction of the forest. Better facilities for 
manufacturing and marketing the product checked these wasteful 
tendencies and large revenues were derived as the forests disappeared. 
The great lumbering interests in this county at the present day belong 
to an entirely distinct period and are strictly manufacturing enter- 
prises, dealing not with the product of the county, but, at the great 
mills along the river, fitting for the markets of the seaboard the prod- 
ucts of the vast timber lands around the sources of the Kennebec. 

On March 27, 1835, at Sager's Inn, in Gardiner, was organized the 
Kennebec Log Driving Company, now the oldest existing transporta- 
tion company in the county — simply a cooperative association of lum- 
ber dealers to hire their logs run down the river in the best manner, 
the actual expense to be paid by pro rata assessment. The estimated 
amount of lumber in the logs handled during the year 1891 was 
140,846,000 feet, which cost about thirty-five cents per thousand feet 
for driving. The company owns a number of booms and dams. D. C. 
Palmer, of Gardiner, has held the office of clerk since 1863, his prede- 
cessor, Daniel Nutting, having filled that office from the organization 
of the company. From twenty-five to one hundred men are employed 
by the company during the busy season. 

The Steam Towage Company was organized at Gardiner, May 21, 
1881, by twenty gentlemen. Abraham Rich, W. H. Ring and Celon 
L. E. B. Gooden have been the presidents. The duties of secretary, 
treasurer and agent were performed by F. B. Dingley till 1889, and 
by W. H. Ring since that time. The company owns the tugboats 
Cliarles Laivrcucc and the Stella. 

Prior to 180(), the principal products of the county — in addition to 
those of lumber and fur — were potash and pitch, though the abundant 
supply of fish in the inland ponds, as well as in the Kennebec, was a 
reliable food supply for the early settlers, and ultimately became the 
basis of one of their important industries. Sturgeon were so plentiful 
before the white man came that the Indians had named the vicinity 
of Gardiner " Cobbosseecontee " — the place of many sturgeon. Ken- 
nebec salmon, always so excellent, and once so plentiful, have now 
disappeared; and where thousands of barrels of herring were seined, 
as late as 1825, they are now practically extinct. 

The various manufacturing enterprises throughout the county have 
been so generally the principal interests of the cities and the little 
hamlets in which they are found, and their origin is so closely 
related to the settlement or growth of those localities, that they have 
been regarded and treated as proper branches of the succeeding town 


histories. It may, however, be stated here that the leading enter- 
prises in 1820 included 81 saw mills running 91 saws, 63 grist mills 
with 107 run of stones, 43 tanneries, 42 carding machines, 29 fulling 
mills, 15 spinning machines, 3 distilleries, and 2 cotton and woolen 
factories. The combined capital invested in these industries was 

The manufacture of paper is an industry of considerable import- 
ance, the location of the pulp and paper mills, and their daily capacity 
of production being as follows: Augusta Pulp Company, 20,000 lbs.; 
Cushnoc Fibre Company, Augusta, 20,000; Hollingsworth & Whitney 
Company, Gardiner, 26,000: S. D. Warren & Co., Gardiner, 26,000: 
Richards Paper Company, Gardiner, 16,000; Richards Paper Com- 
pany, South Gardiner, 20,000; Kennebec Fibre Company, Benton, 
16,000 lbs. The Hollingsworth & Whitney Company are erecting a 
very large plant at Winslow. From a hint given by Dr. H. H. Hill 
to the old paper mill men at Vassalboro that, as wasps made paper from 
wood, so might man, grew experiments in that direction which have 
led to the present large manufacture of wood pulp. 

Shipbuilding was once a great industry of the county. Captain 
vSamuel Grant came from Berwick, Me., to Benton, at the close of the 
revolution, and furnished the first masts for the frigate Constitiition, 
then building at Boston. With his son, Peter, as partner, he estab- 
lished, in 1792, a ship-yard at Bowman's point. Farmingdale, and built 
a number of vessels. Peter, jun., and his brother, Samuel C, succeeded 
to the business at the death of their father, in 1836. Peter, jun., 
retired from the firm some years later, and Samuel C. continued the 
business until his death about 1858, when his son, William S., suc- 
ceeded him. The latter built his last vessel in 1858. Peter Bradstreet 
then became the owner of the Grant ship-yard, and, with his brother 
William, built several vessels there. 

A once very conspicuous name in the annals of shipbuilding, but 
which has now vanished from the county, was that of the Agry family. 
Thomas Agry removed from Dresden to Agry's point, in Pittston, in 
1774, where he built some of the first vessels constructed above Bath. 
His sons, Thomas, John and Divid, also entered the business, and in 
the long list of vessels built at Gardiner, Pittston and Hallowell, 
from 1784 to 1826, their names, as owners and masters, appear with 
surprising frequency. David's name ceases to be seen after 1806, he 
having died at sea shortly after. 

About 1811 Major AVilliam Livermore, of Augusta, built in front 
of the Old South Church, Hallowell, the sloop Primrose, afterward 
altered to a schooner. Near this spot. Page & Getchell built the 
brig Neptune's Barge about 1817. She sailed from New Orleans to 
England with a cargo of cotton. Captain Joseph Atkins, another well- 


known Hallowell shipbuilder, constructed vessels for Isaac Smith; 
Simeon Norris built the schooner William //>«rj/ about 1816; and Rob- 
inson & Page, about 1823, built the ship Marshal Ney, 3.1 Pierce's yard, 
on the Chelsea side of the river. 

About 1811 Judge Dummer built the ship Halloi^'cll on the east 
side of the river. She was captured by the British, and her bones now 
lie at Bermuda. From 1816 to 1825, Captain Isaac Smith built a num- 
ber of coasters at Loudon hill, launching his vessels directly off the 
shore; and during the same period Abner Lowell, at his wharf in the 
lower end of Hallowell (then called Joppa), built a number of vessels 
for the West India trade. Prior to this. Captain Shubael West built 
two sloops, just south of Lowell's yard; and anterior even to that date. 
Captain Larson Butler built, in this neighborhood, a sloop for the 
Boston trade. 

In 1845, Mason Damon built a schooner at a point north of the 
Grant yard, in Farraingdale; and south of Grant's yard, Elbridge G. 
Pierce built several whalers and other vessels for New Bedford parties. 
At the Grant yard, between 1851 and 1858, clipper barks and ships 
were built for the Boston and Galveston line; and also two large ves- 
sels, of 1,090 and 1,190 tons, for the Calcutta trade. This yard, the 
largest in the county, ran two blacksmith shops for ship-fitting, and 
employed from twenty-five to seventy-five men the year round. 

Ice. — A staple export of the county is ice, the purity of the Kennebec 
being such that its ice has long been established as the standard of 
quality. Years before the opening of this now vast industry in Maine 
the consumption of ice was small. The first authoritative account of 
ice being shipped from the county as an article of merchandise was 
previous to 1826, when the brig Orion, of Gardiner, was loaded with 
floating ice during the spring, and sailed for Baltimore at the opening 
of navigation. This cargo was sold for $700. It is said that several 
cargoes were thus put on the market years previous to any attempt 
at housing for summer shipment. The Tudors, of Boston, who had 
had exclusive control of the ice trade with the British West Indies, 
built about that year, on Gardiner's wharf, Gardiner, the first ice 
house on the Kennebec. 

In 1826 Rufus K. Page, in company with a Mr. Getchell, of Hallo- 
well, erected, in Gardiner, a building of 1,500 tons capacity on Trott's 
point, now occupied by Captain Eben D. Haley. This house they 
filled during the winter, and in the following summer loaded it in 
vessels, on account of the Tudors. The speculation proved unprofit- 
able, however, and the business was abandoned. In 1831 the Tudors 
acquired the building and filled it. At the same time they erected a 
house on Long wharf, in Gardiner, which was then just where the 
bridge now stands, and in it some 3,000 tons of ice were stored. No 
other attempt at housing is recorded until 1848-9, when the Tudors 


again began operations on the river; and W. A. Lawrence, Dr. C. \V. 
Wliitmore and Cliarles A. Wiiite, of Gardiner, cut and housed 2,000 
tons at South Gardiner, and 2,000 tons at Pittston. Another house 
was also filled at Pittston, and one each at Bowman's point. Farming- 
dale, and Hallowell. In the aggregate some 10.,000 tons were cut here 
that year. The following summer it was loaded, fifty tons being consid- 
ered a good day's work. The largest cargo was three hundred tons. 
Consignments were made to New Bedford, New York, Washington 
and Baltimore, $2.50 per ton being received, but the cost of labor and 
slow progress in handling made the profits small. 

In 1860 the industry entered upon a new era and grew into a more 
permanent form. James L. Cheesman, a New York retailer, began 
stacking at Farmingdale, and the following year entered upon exten- 
sive operations. Until 1865 he flourished wonderfully. In 1868, how- 
ever, reverses compelled him to sell out the Farmingdale plant, and 
later, in 1872, the Pittston plant, to the Knickerbocker Ice Company 
of Philadelphia, which now exceeds all other companies here in the 
quantity of ice handled yearly. 

In 1867 the Kennebec Land & Lumber Company built the first 
modern ice house at Pittston; and in 1872 such solid corporations as 
the Great Falls and Independent Ice Companies, of Washington, D. 
C, located in Pittston. Under the firm name of Haynes & De Witt, 
J. Manchester Haynes, of Augusta — who has been prominently identi- 
fied with the ice industry since 1871— together with Henry A. De 
Witt and the late Ira D. Sturges, controlled a large business on the 
river; and in 1889, with others, formed a corporation known as the 
Haynes & De Witt Ice Company. Improvements in tools and ma- 
chinery had taken place gradually since the early beginning of ice 
harvesting, and in 1890 Messrs. Shepard and Ballard, of the Knicker- 
bocker Ice Company, added to the list an important invention — an 
automatic vessel-loading machine— which is now in general use. 

The following list, corrected to date, shows the location and storage 
capacity of the ice houses on the Kennebec and within the county. 
Those on the west side of the river are: Coney & White, 8,000 tons, 
Augusta; Kennebec Ice Company (two houses), 25,000 tons, and Knick- 
erbocker Ice Company, 12,000 tons, Hallowell; A. Rich Ice Company, 
70,000 tons, and Knickerbocker Ice Company, 30,000 tons. Farming- 
dale; Morse & Haley, 5,000 tons. Great Falls Ice Company, 30,000, and 
Eben D. Haley, 32,000, Gardiner. The houses on the east side of the 
river are: Old Orchard (Knickerbocker), 20 000 tons, and Chelsea 
houses, 30,000 tons, Chelsea; Randolph (Knickerbocker), 25.000 tons, 
Haynes & Lawrence, 13,000, and Centennial Ice Company, 15,000, Ran- 
dolph; Morse & Haley, 20,000 tons, Smithtown (Knickerbocker), 65,- 
000, Great Falls Ice Company, 30,000, Independent Ice Company, 60,- 
•000, Haynes & De Witt Ice Company, 12,000, Consumers' Ice Company 


of New York, 35,000, and Clark & Chaplin Ice Company of Portland' 
40,000, Pittston. The total capacity of the above houses is 567,000 

In the development of this great industry here, as well as on the 
Hudson river and Booth bay, Captain Eben D. Haley, of Gardiner, has 
borne a prominent part. His grandfather, Moses Haley, was a house 
carpenter of Bath, where he raised a family of four boys and two girls. 
Woodbridge, his oldest child, born in 1806, grew up in the same occu- 
pation as his father, and married in 1833, Jane Button, of Gray, Me., 
■where, in 1833, their first child, Eben D., was born. The next year 
they came to Pittston, where four more children were born to them: 
Joseph M., who died when four years old; George T.; Thomas H., now 
in the dry goods business in Chicago; and William D. 

Shipbuilding was then very active on the Kennebec, at which 
Woodbridge Haley worked for several years, mostly on large vessels 
for Boston parties, some of them at Sheepscott Bridge. He died at 
his home in Pittston in 1863. where his wife still survives him in what 
is now Randolph. Here Eben D. passed his boyhood days to the age 
of fourteen, when he left home for school, first at Bath, and then at 
Gardiner Lyceum. When sixteen years old his school days were ex- 
changed for the beginning of a career of business and adventure that 
is still at its maximum activity. He first entered the dry goods store 
of Field & Reed at Bath, leaving there at the end of one year for a 
clerkship in the store of N. K. Chadwick in Gardiner, from whence he 
went to Rockland and worked in Wilson & Case's store till he was 
twenty-one. Resolved to see something of the great West, he went 
to Keokuk, Iowa, where, in 1857, the firm of Ricker & Haley engaged 
in the produce and commission business, which extended over a wide 
extent of country. 

Mr. Haley happened to be in Memphis when Fort Sumter was fired 
on, from whence he hastened to St. Louis to meet his partner, arriving 
there the night of the riot. They immediately dissolved partnership, 
settled their business, and Mr. Haley came home. The day after the 
battle of Bull Run he went to Augusta and tendered his services to 
his country. In conjunction with John B. Hubbard, son of ex-Gov- 
ernor Hubbard, he was active in raising the 1st Maine Battery of 
light artillery, which was mustered into service in December, with 
Edward W. Thompson captain, John B. Hubbard 1st lieutenant, and 
Eben D. Haley 2d lieutenant, with 151 men, five officers and six pieces 
of artillery. The first active work of the battery was under General 
Butler at New Orleans, where they did patrol service from Alarch till 
September, 1862. The 1st Maine then joined General Weitzel's brig- 
ade, and was in several sharp fights, one of which was an attack on 
the gunboat Cotton, where, by the bursting of a shell. Lieutenant 
Haley was severely injured. The battery was made very efficient, 


and at the siege of Fort Hudson it had occasion to show its metal. It 
was the first to open fire on the right of the line, Maj' 27, 1863. Lieu- 
tenant Haley was in command, and held his advanced position during 
the siege with heavy losses of men and horses. The battery was next 
at Donaldsonville, where the fire became so hot that Lieutenant Haley 
had at one time but one man left out of thirteen, and himself helped to 
load and fire the guns. For this heroic conduct he was complimented 
by General Weitzel, also for difficult services rendered at the fight of 
May 27. 

The battery went on the second Red River expedition, but Lieu- 
tenant Haley was not with it again till after it had been ordered to 
the Shenandoah, where he was promoted to its captaincy. Here he 
was in the famous Cedar Creek fight, October 19, 1864, in which the 
confederates were victors in the morning, and the Union forces, after 
being rallied by General Sheridan, were victors in the afternoon. Cap- 
tain Haley was in command of his battery from shortly after three in 
the morning till about six, when he received a bullet in his left thigh 
that he carries yet. After lying on the field till three o'clock in the 
afternoon, he was taken to a room in a house in the corner of which 
Colonel, afterward President, Hayes was lying on a wood box, suffer-' 
ing from a wound. During the grand review in Shenandoah valley 
General Hancock complimented the 1st Maine on its fine appearance 
and splendid records. When General Sheridan was in Maine he said 
to Governor Cony at Augusta, in the presence of General Chamberlin, 
that he remembered with pride the services of the 1st Maine Battery 
under its gallant commander. Captain Haley. 

In September, 1865, two months after being mustered out of the 
service, Captain Haley formed a partnership with Alonzo P. Parsons 
and bought the dry goods business of N. K. Chadwick in Gardiner — 
the same store he had entered as a clerk in 1852. In 1870 he took the 
business alone, and in 1878 he sold it to his brother, George T. Haley. 
The same year, in company with Peter Grant and Daniel Glidden, he 
put up on Stevens' wharf 2,500 tons of ice — his first move in the busi- 
ness that has since taken his entire attention. In 1873 he put up ice 
with Johnson Brothers and Captain John Landerkin at South Gardiner. 
In 1876 he bought his partners' interest and joined with the Great 
Falls Ice Company, of Washington, he owning a half interest. He 
also located for them their houses at Green's ledges, two miles from 
Gardiner. For some years he had attended to the local business on 
the Kennebec of the Independent Ice Company of Washington. In 
1879 John Van Raiswick, president of the Great Falls Company, J. H. 
Johnson of Washington, C. B. Church, and the Independent Ice Com- 
pany, joined with Captain Haley and formed the Maine Ice Company. 
The growing necessity for a water shipment, where vessels could load 
from the ice houses at any time of the year, demanded immediate at- 


tention. Captain Haley had long foreseen this want, and to meet it 
had matured a design which he carried at once to a triumphant com- 

It was no less a plan than to cut off an arm of the sea with a dam, 
and then compel the salt water to leave the cove and return to the sea. 
By act of the legislature of 1879 permission was given to build a dam 
across Campbell's cove in Booth Bay harbor. To make this separat- 
ing wall impervious to water, he built two complete dams of timber 
cribs filled with stone, one sloping toward the ocean, the other toward 
the cove. The faces of each were made of spruce plank fitted water 
tight, with their ends driven to the i-ock bottom. When this was 
done these dams presented two parallel partition walls of plank eleven 
feet apart, and from ten to thirty feet high, according to the depth of 
water. Into this sort of water tight compartment gravel was dumped 
till the water was all forced out, making a perfect road bed, for the 
use of which the town has paid §200 each year for ten years. We have 
now arrived at the point where Captain Haley's genius beguiled the 
law of gravitation into the pleasing task of compelling the salt water 
in the cove to return to its old home. 

Near the point of low tide he had put a spout twenty-eight inches 
square through both dams and the road way, with an elbow on the 
cove side, can-ying that end to the bottom of the cove pond. By the 
mere device of opening a gate in the spout at low tide the water from 
the pond sought its level on the sea side of the dam, and it could enter 
the pipe only at its opening at the bottom of the deepest water. The 
result surprised the captain himself, for in fifty-four days the pipe was 
discharging only fresh water, with which the streams from the land 
had entirely replaced the ocean brine. For original conception and 
effectual accomplishment of a work of such intrinsic value, hitherto 
unattempted. Captain Haley has exhibited the same kind of masterful 
ability by which Captain Eads, in the construction of the. wonderful 
jetties at the mouth of the Mississippi river, removed a constant inter- 
ruption to navigation. Ice was cut in Campbell's cove in the winter 
of 1881-2 and every winter since, the quality being next to river ice. 
In 1886 Captain Haley and the Independent Ice Company became the 
exclusive owners of the Maine Ice Company. In 1885 he sold his half 
interest in the South Gardiner ice houses to the Great Falls Company 
and erected new ones there, known as the Haley houses, of which he 
is sole owner. He has been for years extending the area of the ice 
trade. In 1883 he established a retail trade in Richmond, Va., still 
very prosperous. In 1892 Morse & Co., of New York, joined him in 
the purchase of large interests in the retail ice trade of New York 
city and of storage capacity on the Hudson river, and in the erection 
of more .storage room in Pittston, so that they are now able to supply 
any shortage of ice in any of the great ice markets. 


Captain Haley has always been an active republican in politics, go. 
ing twice as a delegate to presidential conventions. He is one of the 
directors of the Gardiner National Bank and of the Kennebec Steam 
Towage Company. In 1870 he married Sophie J., daughter of Daniel 
Johnson, of South Gardiner. The names of their four children are: 
Marion W., Ethel A., Eben R. and John H. This family group make 
an unusually happy home, the hospitalities of which are enjoyed by 
a large circle of friends. 

Granite. — Just when or how the utilization of the granite ledges in 
the county was begun cannot be definitely ascertained, for it is a sin- 
gular fact that there is no industry of any importance that has re- 
ceived so little attention from historical and statistical experts as the 
granite industry. It is quite certain, however, that it was not until 
the beginning of the present century that an attempt was made to 
quarry the mineral that was afterward destined to figure so promi- 
ently in the industrial resources of the county. When, in 1797, the 
Kennebec bridge was built, stones split from boulders were used for 
the piers and abutments; and when, in 1801. Captain William Robin- 
son, of Augusta, erected his house, he procured the underpinning in 
Massachusetts at great expense. 

The first recorded attempt to quarry granite in the county was that 
made in 1808 at the Rowell ledge, in Augusta. The venture met with 
indifferent success. Some of the top strata were broken off with 
" rising wedges " driven under the edge of the sheet until it parted; 
but this was a slow and laborious process. The first successful effort 
to open and work a ledge in the township was made by Jonathan 
Matthews, on the Thwing ledge, in 1825, when he laid the cellar walls 
of Arch Row; but he also worked with rising wedges. Powder was 
not used for blasting upon ledges until the erection of the state house 
was begun, in 1829, and then, at first, with but one hole, by which 
large irregular masses were blown out. Afterward two holes, a short 
distance apart, were charged, and fired simultaneously, thus opening 
long, straight seams, sometimes to the depth of six feet. 

Since the introduction of dynamite as a partitive agent in quarry- 
ing, better results have been obtained, with less exposure of the men 
to accident. With this exception, however, but little improvement 
has been made upon the early methods of obtaining granite. Ma- 
chinery has been tried in all forms, but, aside from the steam drill, a 
valuable time and labor saving invention, nothing has been found 
that will adequately perform the work now done by hand. It is true 
that, used as a lathe, machinery works somewhat satisfactorily in turn- 
ing out columns, but even this does not finish the surface, except 
when it is to be polished. In this connection it may be noted that the 
first derrick used at any stone works m Augusta was erected east of 
Church hill at a quarry then operated by William B. Pierce. 


In 1836 three granite companies were incorporated at Augusta. 
One, called the Augusta & New York Granite Company, worked the 
Hamlen ledge, situated about two miles from the river b}' way of 
Western avenue; another, named the Augusta & Philadelphia Granite 
Company, owned the Ballard ledge, a mile and a half from Kennebec 
bridge by way of Northern avenue, and of which the Rowell and 
Thwing ledges are a continuation; and the third, known as the Au- 
gusta Blue Ledge Company, purchased Hall's ledge, two and a half 
miles from the bridge, over the North Belfast road. 

In 1871 the Hallowell Granite Company was organized, with its 
chief stockholder, Governor Joseph Bodwell, as president. The busi- 
ness gradually assumed huge proportions, and in 1885 the Hallowell 
Granite Works, another stock company, was formed, its executive 
being also Governor Bodwell. It is not known how long before these 
periods granite was taken from the ledges owned by the companies 
mentioned, but it is said that the New Orleans custom house was 
built, seventy years ago, of stone quarried from the ledge now oper- 
ated by the Hallowell Granite Works. The extensive quarries of the 
latter company are two and a half miles from the city of Hallowell, 
near the Manchester line. The granite is white, free working and 
soft, and can be almost as delicately chiselled as marble. It is said 
to be the finest grade of white granite in the state. Aside from their 
extensive building operations, the Hallowell Granite Works is the 
largest producer of monumental, statuary and ornamental work in 
Maine. In almost every city of the country can be seen the handi- 
work of its artisans. The New York state capitol at Albany; Equit- 
able Life Insurance Building, New York; the monument at Plymouth, 
Mass.; soldiers' monument, Boston Common; memorial monuments at 
Getty.sburg; and the Augusta soldiers' monument, etc., are from their 
works. The works employ, in its numerous departments, from 300 to 
400 men; the annual shipment of stone averages 100,000 cubic feet, 
and the gross product annually averages over $250,000. 

Intellectually, the granite cutters of Kennebec county are on a 
level with any other class of mechanics. Instead of the saloon, they 
patronize the public library, and they take an active interest in state 
and national affairs. The foreign element among the granite cutters 
consists chiefly of vScotch, Italian and English. Ninety per cent, of 
the other labor is American born. 

In 1884 Joseph Archie opened a granite quarry near the Hallowell 
works, but just over the Manchester line. He took a partner for a 
brief period, the firm being known as the Central Granite Company. 
In 1891 Mr. Archie bought out his partner, and since that time has 
successfully continued the business alone, employing forty men. The 
stone produced is very fine, and is mostly used for statuary and monu- 
mental work. The granite is furnished to dealers on order, and is 


shipped to St. Louis, Omaha and many other distant points. The ex- 
tension of the .state house at Augusta, in 1891-2, was built of stone from 
this quarry. 

Ample supplies of granite for building purposes occur in many of 
the towns. Ledges have been worked in Fayette and Wayne for 
■other purpo-ses. S. B. Norris operated a quarry in Wayne twenty 
years ago, which had been formerly worked for building material, 
and from which J. Frank Gorden is now obtaining monument ma- 

The name of Governor Joseph Robinson Bod well is indissolubly 
linked with the history of Kennebec county as that of the " granite 
man " — the man who had larger individual interests in granite quar- 
ries than any other man in the L'''nited States, and whose foresight, 
energy and shrewd business instinct were the means of building up 
the granite business at Hallowell. He was born at Methuen, Mass., 
in 1818 — the tenth in a family of eleven children. He was a lineal 
descendant of Henry Bodwell, his first known American ancestor, 
who bore a brave and con.spicuous part in the war with the Indian 
chief, King Philip. The governor's father, Joseph Bodwell, was 
among the most worthy and respected citizens in his community, and 
his mother, Mary (How) Bodwell, came of the best New England 
stock, and was a superior and cultured woman. His father having, 
through unavoidable misfortune, lost his property, Joseph R., to re- 
lieve the family of some of its burden, was sent when eight years old 
to live with his brother-in-law, Patrick Fleming. When he had at- 
tained his sixteenth year his brother-in-law died and Joseph R. was to 
a certain degree thrown upon his own resources. 

The school of manual labor (farming) in which he had pas.sed the 
formative years of his life was precisely the one best calculated to 
qualify him for the peculiar successes in business he afterward 
achieved. In 1835 he began to learn the shoemaker's trade, and for 
three years followed this calling, attending school during the day and 
spending the evening and early morning in the making of shoes. In 
1838 he purchased jointly with his father a farm in West Methuen, 
and aided in its cultivation until the death of the elder Bodwell, in 

In October of this year he married his first wife, Eunice Fox, of 
Dracut, Mass. She died December 14, 1857, leaving one daughter, 
Persis Mary, born August 26, 1849. On July 25, 1859, Governor Bod- 
well married Hannah C, sister of Eunice, the fruit of this union being 
Joseph Fox Bodwell, born July 11, 1862. 

While cultivating his farm in West Methuen, Governor Bodwell 
took the first steps in that special career in which he afterward be- 
came so proficient, for while hauling granite from Pelham, N. H., to 
Lawrence, Mass., while the Lawrence mills were in course of con 


struction, he became acquainted with all the processes involved in- 
quarrying and working granite. In 1852, in company with Hon. 
Moses Webster, Governor Bodwell came to Maine and began to work 
the granite quarries on Fox island, at the mouth of Penobscot bay. 
He began operations with one yoke of oxen, which he drove himself 
and shod with his own hands. From this humble beginning sprang: 
results of such magnitude that a company was formed, known as the 
Bodwell Granite Company, with the hardy pioneer as its president. 
In 1866 Governor Bodwell removed his family from Methuen to Hal- 
lowell, and from that period to his death, December 15, 1887, the main 
record of his business career was the history of the Hallowell Granite 

He never altogether lost his early love for agricultural pursuits, 
and soon after he came to Hallowell he purchased in the neighbor- 
hood two farms, which he successfully cultivated, one of them, indeed, 
becoming one of the best stock farms in New England. He also car- 
ried on lumber operations at the head of the Kennebec, was president 
of the Bodwell Water Power Company, at Oldtown, Me., and was a 
stockholder in several important railroad enterprises. 

Governor Bodwell was not a politician in the ordinary meaning of 
the term, but he always took a deep interest in public affairs. He 
never sought official distinction, but office was sometimes thrust upon 
him. Twice he represented his adopted city in the lower branch of 
the legislature; for two terms he served as mayor of Hallowell, and 
after twice refusing the governorship of Maine he was prevailed upon 
in 1886 to take the nomination, and was elected by a very large ma- 
jority. His administration, which he did not live to complete, was 
honest and efficient. 

Governor Bodwell, however, was best known as a business man of 
great force of character, unquestioned integrity and untiring industry^ 
He was possessed of fine social gifts, and endeared himself to all wha 
had dealings with him. He was a philanthropist in the true sense of 
the word. His heart went out toward his fellow-men, and melted at 
the sight of suffering. He was always giving something for the 
needy, his Christianity knew no creed, he was every inch a man. The 
highest tribute to his worth was the grief at his death, of the men 
who knew him best — the men in his employ, who so often profited by 
his kindness, and whose fortunes he was always ready and often eager 
to advance. 


Bv Samuel L. Bo.\rdm.\x. 

Pre-historic Agriculture. — Primitive Farming. — Natural Advantages.— Soil. — 
General Farm Methods.— Historic Agriculture.— Early Leaders.— Associa- 
tions.— Farm Machinery.— Agricultural Schools.— Cattle Breeding.— Short- 
horns. — Heref ords. —Jerseys. —Dairying. —Sheep. —Horses. —Stock Farms. 
—Driving Associations.— Race Tracks.— Trotters. — Orchards.— Retrospect. 

THE agricultural hi,story of the county of Kennebec is one of inci- 
dent, importance and influence. Of incident, because of that 
romance which attaches to the occupation of a new country by 
sturdy pioneers who hew out farms and build homes in the primitive 
wilderness; importance, when viewed in the light of modern achieve- 
ments and the position of its agriculture to day in one of the best ag- 
ricultural states in the Union; and influence, when is taken into ac- 
count the part which the historic agriculture of Kennebec has had in 
the larger history of the agricultural development and progress of the 

There has been a pre-historic agriculture in the county as there has 
been a pre-historic age in htiman achievement of all kinds — a time 
before events of marked importance had been established, and before 
anything of interest or significance had taken place in its agricultural 
development. This was when farms were being made from the for- 
ests, the first rude homes established in the openings upon the hills, 
when wild animals roamed in their native woods, when fish of the 
lakes and rivers contributed to support, when saw mills were being 
established, and the occupations of the people had reference mainly 
to the support of existence. It was a time of self-dependence: when 
the farmers were obliged to look to their farms and the labor of their 
hands for everything that contributed to material welfare. The land 
supplied everything, and the farm was a small empire. Little was 
had by the rural people that the farm did not furnish; oxen for work, 
cows for the dairy, sheep for clothing. The first settlers needed a 
hardy race of cattle to endure the rugged winters: used to work, for 
the labor of clearing land was heavy; and that would also give a fair 
amount of milk. The maple furnished molasses and sugar. Butter 


and cheese for the family were produced at the farm. The wool 
which the sheep furnished for clothing was supplemented by the tow 
and linen from the cultivated flax — and the domestic manufacture of 
cloth was an art understood in every farm Beef, pork, lambs, 
and hens were kept as the standard supplies of the family for the long, 
cold winters. 

As the farms became more improved the orchard formed a part 
of all the hill farms and its fruit contributed to the luxury of living: 
while the cider mill was soon established in every neighborhood. 
The large, framed house, of which there are many fine examples yet 
standing, .superseded the log dwelling, and the domestic life of the 
early farmers, although books were few and there were no news- 
papers, was full of a quiet contentment, a high self-independence, 
little idleness and a large amount of dornestic thrift. 

As the years sped on changes came. Carding mills and power 
looms took the place of hand carding and home weaving. More sup- 
plies were purchased for the farms as the market became better fur- 
nished. Improved tools and implements made finer and more pro- 
ductive culture possible. Farm stock was improved. The conven- 
iences and even luxuries of living reached out to all farm homes of 
any pretension. The mowing machine upon the farm, the sewing 
machine and organ in the house, the diffusion of special intelligence 
for farmers through the agricultural press, wrought a complete revo- 
lution. Roads were improved; the impetus of visiting and receiving 
visits from distant points had its influence upon the farm life. Edu- 
cation was esteemed a thing of chief importance. The culture of the 
farm, the embellishment of the farm home, the higher social position 
of the farmer's family, marked a new era. Old things had passed 
away; all things had become new. This picture of the transitions of 
the agricultural life from the earliest period of settlement to the pres- 
ent, is a mere outline, the shadings and details of which must be filled 
in as the more historic structure is completed. 

Too far from the sea to have its vegetation retarded by the saline 
winds and fogs of an ocean atmosphere, and sufficiently distant from 
the mountain ranges to prevent suffering from their cold summits, 
this county, most favorably situated in an agricultural point of view, 
is one of the best watered sections of Maine. Its beautiful and diver- 
sified water surfaces assist in furnishing moisture to the soil and 
purity to the atmosphere, while they contribute in no small degree to 
the wealth of the county by adding to the charm and beauty of the 
landscape — the latter a consideration of no small weight with those 
who are attached to the country and have a love for the beauties of 

The'soils of the county present a considerable diversity of char- 
acteristics. In the main they may be regarded as of granitic origin, 


Strong rather than deep, productive, retentive of fertilizing elements, 
in many sections ledgy, in some very rocky, in a few light or porous. 
The county as a whole is a rich grazing section, excellent for the pro- 
duction of grass, the hill farms among the best orchard lands in the 
state, the lands in the river valleys and in the lower portions between 
the hills and ridges, splendid for cultivation. 

The towns of Rome, Vienna, Fayette and Mt. Vernon are broken, 
their strong, rocky soils comprising excellent grazing lands. In 
Winslow the lands near the Kennebec and Sebasticook are of fine, 
deep, rich, productive loam. Eastward, part of the town is ledgy. 
Wayne, West Gardiner and Litchfield have tracts of light plains, the 
former having hundreds of acres of wind-shifted surface. There are, 
however, some fine farms, and agricirlture is constantly improving. 
Clinton, Benton, Albion, Windsor and Pittston are excellent grazing 
towns. China and Vassalboro, east of the Kennebec, and vSidney, 
Manchester, Winthrop, Readfield and Monmouth, west of the Kenne- 
bec, are without question the garden towns of the county. The 
county has less waste, unproductive and unimproved land than any 
other section of equal extent in the state. Upon almost every farm 
of the usual extent of 150 to 200 acres there is much diversity of soil. 
Orcharding has reached a high degree of perfection and is conducted 
on a good business system. The pastures are unstirpassed in Maine; 
herbage is choice, abundant and nutritious, and cool springs and pure 
brooks conduce to the healthfulness of farm animals. The county is 
abundantly wooded with large tracts of old forest growth, while in 
localities where the original growth has long since been cut off, young 
trees have taken their place and have become the most valuable land 
in the county. Nearly every farm has its quota of wood land, trees 
crown many of our highest hills, fringe the river banks and clothe 
the rough and waste places of the farm, affording a beautiful object 
in the landscape, furnishing .shelter and protection from cold winds 
to stock, growing crops and homesteads, adding wealth to the county, 
materially lessening the rigors of winter and contributing to the uni- 
formity and healthfulness of the climate. 

While in general the agricultural methods of the county may be 
regarded as a mixed sy.stem of husbandry, they are less so at the 
present time than formerly. In the earlier days each farmer raised 
some of all the farm crops and kept all kinds of stock, as each made it 
a point to be independent of every other. Now the tendency is 
toward the more perfect growing of crops best adapted fur particular 
locations, or the raising of certain special lines of stock. Farmers who 
have large orchards, or make dairying a specialty, or having a good 
grass farm sell hay and purchase commercial fertilizers, or breed a 
particular kind of cattle, or fine colts of a fashionable family— give 
special effort and attention to these branches. The orchard farmer 


lets another make his butter, and the dairyman purchases his apples 
and often his hay of his neighbor. In many locations raising " truck 
crops" for our growing cities is becoming a specialty, changing the 
character of much of the farming. A farmer obtains more ready cash 
now for a few acres of early potatoes put into our manufacturing 
towns on the first of July than he obtained twenty years ago from the 
marketed crops of his entire farm. Thus the manufacturing towns 
and cities have done much to develop the present farm methods of 
the county and bring about those specialties in farming which have 
everywhere and always been the source of the highest profits and 
most successful conditions. 

In no section of Maine, and in but few portions of the Eastern 
states, has agriculture reached a higher general condition than in 
Kennebec county. The farm houses are commodious, often large, 
frequently elegant; while the barns are well and properly built, in 
many cases clapboarded and painted. The best and most approved 
implements and machines are employed; in every town are model 
farms of the highest rank, while neatness about the farm houses, the 
presence of flowers, shade trees and cultural beadty characterize the 
rural districts. There is a larger proportion of thoroughbred and 
Jiigh grade stock on our farms than in any other county in Maine, 
while in the best bred horses Kennebec county leads all New Eng- 

Historic agriculture in Maine had its commencement in the county 
of Kennebec. The records of all first things pertaining to its im- 
proved agriculture, the importation of thoroughbred stock, improve- 
ment of seeds and fruits, organization of agricultural societies, diffu- 
sion of information by means of books and journals, invention and 
manufacture of improved farm tools and implements, plans for the 
industrial and agricultural education of the people — all had their 
origin in this county. The early farmers of Kennebec — themselves 
from the best families of the Old Colony — were men of intelligence, 
anxious for improvement. The soil and natural advantages of the 
county were of the best, and the settlers took up their farms that they 
might make homes for themselves. They came into the new terri- 
tory of the District of Maine for this purpose; they came to stay; 
hence whatever promised development of agriculture was eagerly 
sought. But in agriculture as in everything else it was the few lead- 
ers who, carrying forward plans for improvement, stimulated others 
to higher endeavors and organized forces for the development of the 
county's resources. 

Early Leadek.s. — Foremost among those to whom the agriculture 
of Kennebec county owes so much for its early improvement were 
Benjamin Vaughan, M.D., LL.D.; his brother, Charles Vaughan; Dr. 
. Ezekiel Holmes, Sanford Howard, and the brothers Samuel and Eli- 


jah Wood. Doctor Vaughan was born in England April 30, 1751, 
studied at Cambridge and received his medical degree at Edinburgh. 
During the American revolution he was a member of parliament, but 
on account of his friendship for the American colonies he left his 
■country and resided in France. In 1796 he settled in Hallowell upon 
a family property derived from his maternal grandfather, Benjamin 
Hallowell. His brother, Charles Vaughan, followed him to America 
in a few years and also settled upon the same tract of land, which ex- 
tended along the river one mile and westward to Cobbosseecontee 
■lake — a distance of five miles. This land they improved and kept in 
a high state of cultivation, employing a large number of workmen 
upon it throughout the year. They had extensive gardens, estab- 
lished nurseries, planted orchards, imported stock, seeds, plants, cut- 
tings and implements from England, and carried on model farming 
on a large scale. They built miles of faced and bank wall upon their 
farms, laid out and built roads for the public use, and while they sold 
trees and plants from their nurseries, often to the value of a thousand 
dollars in a single year, they also freely gave to all who were unable 
to buy; sent stock, plants and seeds to leading farmers in the several 
new towns for them to propagate or test, and carried on correspond- 
-ence with prominent farmers. The apple was not then so highly 
esteemed for fruit as it is now, but cider was made in large quanti- 
ties. The Vaughans built the largest and most perfect cider mill and 
press in New England, employing a skilled mechanic from England 
to set up the machinery. In their gardens and orchards were apples, 
pears, peaches, cherries, and many kinds of nut-bearing trees. Doctor 
Vaughan passed much of his time in studies and investigations, while 
his brother Charles had the more immediate care of their large farms, 
which, later, were managed by Colonel William O. Vaughan, the doc- 
tor's eldest son. Doctor Vaughan was one of the most distinguished 
members of the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, es- 
tablished in 1792— the second society of its kind formed in the United 
States. He wrote extensively and learnedly upon all agricultural sub- 
jects, many of his treatises being published in the transactions of this 
society, usually with the signature, " A Kennebec Farmer." 

Charles Vaughan was born in London June 30, 1759. He was one 
of the original corporators and for several years a trustee of the 
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture. He was more 
practical, .so to speak, than his distinguished brother, taking the 
immediate care of their large estates and the carrying out of their 
experiments and farming operations. These were very extensive, 
were performed at great cost of care and money, and had for their 
object the improvement of the agriculture of the state as much as 
they did the business of their owners. No breed of stock or variety 
of fruit, vegetable or seed was disseminated until it had been care- 


fully tested and found to be valuable and well adapted to this country. 
Benjamin Vaughan died in Hallowell December 8, 1885, and Charles, 
on May 15, 1839. 

Succeeding the Vaughans, the name of Dr. Ezekiel Holmes, of 
Winthrop, must ever occupy a high position. He was born in Kings- 
ton,, in 1801, graduated from Brown University in 1821, and 
from the Maine Medical School in 1824. His health being inadequate 
to the hard service of a country physician's life, he became a teacher 
for the next five years in the Gardiner Lyceum. In 1828 he edited for 
a single year the Neiv England Farmers and Mechanics Journal. He 
was professor of natural science in Waterville College from 1838 to 
1837. From its establishment, in 1833, Doctor Holmes ably edited ilie 
Maine Fanner until his death — a period of thirty-two years. Before 
1840 he advocated the establishment of a board of agriculture, which 
was finally done in 1852, he being its first .secretary for three years. 
A State Agricultural Society was also incorporated by the legislature 
in 1855, largely through the efforts of Doctor Holmes, who drafted its 
constitution and was its secretary until his death. In 1838 he made a 
survey of Aroostook county for the state board of internal improve- 
ment; and in 1861-2 was chief and naturalist of the scientific survey 
of Maine, authorized by the legislature. These leading dates in the 
active and useful life of Doctor Holmes give but a very imperfect idea 
of the great work he accomplished for the agriculture of Maine — the 
influence of which is still potent and fruitful. As editor of the Maine 
Farmer for more than thirty years, the work of Doctor Holmes was such 
that had he done nothing more for Maine agriculture his memory would 
forever be held in grateful remembrance. Doctor Holmes was the 
person in Maine to introduce Shorthorns into the state: the first 
Southdown and Cotswold sheep, and the first of the Jersey breed of 
cattle. The last public act of his life was that of securing from the 
legislature in February, 1865 — but a week before his death — an ac 
which established the State College of Agriculture and the Mechanic 
Arts. The Holmes' Cabinet of Natural History in that college but 
inadequately expresses the debt of gratitude which it owes to its illus- 
trious benefactor. 

Samuel and Elijah Wood, sons of Henry Wood, of Middleboro, 
Mass., were among the first settlers of Winthrop— vSamuel settling in 
1784, and Elijah a few years afterward. They were among the founders 
and incorporators of the Winthrop Agricultural Society — Samuel being 
elected its first president. Fie was among the first contributors to the 
Maine Farmer, and his articles — always practical, suggestive and use- 
ful — were continued for many years. When he first came to Win- 
throp Elijah Wood engaged in the manufacture of nails, but afterward 
was largely and profitably engaged in farming. He was "chairman 
and principal agent " of a committee chosen in 1831-2 by the Win- 


throp Agricultural Society to petition the legislature for funds in car- 
rying on its work. He established himself in Augusta during that 
winter and entered upon the work of his mission among the legisla- 
tors with a zeal becoming the importance of the end sought. The re- 
sult was the passage of an act, one provision of which was "the 
payment by the treasurer of state to the treasurer of any agricultural 
or horticultural society, whenever the treasurer shall apply for the 
same, a sum equal to that which said society may have raised and 
actually received by subscription or otherwise within the next preced- 
ing year" — which, with slight modification, is the substance of the 
present statute under which all the agricultural societies in Maine are 
beneficiaries of the state. 

Sanford Howard came to Hallowell as superintendent of the 
Vaughan farms in 1830. He was born in Easton, Mass., in 1805, and, 
having been acquainted in Massachusetts with Colonel Samuel Jaques 
and the Hon. John Welles — two of the most noted breeders of their 
times — he brought with him several individuals of the Shorthorn breed 
of cattle from their herds. Having seen, in Massachusetts, the benefits 
of agricultural societies to a farming community, Mr. Howard became 
anxious that Kennebec county should enjoy like advantages; and he 
at once joined efforts with other progressive farmers in the establish- 
ment of the Kennebec Agricultural Society, and after removing from 
the county in 1837 had an honorable and useful career until his death, 
in 1871. For the good he exerted upon the agriculture of Kennebec 
county by his residence and work here for a period of seven years, he 
will ever be regarded as one of the noble worthies in our earlier agri- 
cultural period. 

Dr. Sylvester Gardiner has not been mentioned before because his 
distinguished efforts in the settlement and development of the Ken- 
nebec valley embraced other interests than that of agriculture, which 
in a new country must always be given attention, like the building of 
mills and bridges, the making of roads and the establishment of 
trading houses. He was one of the proprietors of the Kennebec Pur- 
chase, and was largely instrumental in shaping its policy and promot- 
ing its prosperity. Obtaining thus large tracts of land in Gardiner, 
Pittston, Winslow, Pownalborough and other places, he built houses, 
cleared farms, erected dams and mills, introduced settlers and often ad- 
vanced them means for stocking their farms and becoming established. 
In these ways he greatly aided the early farmers and general agri- 
culture of the county, and deserves to be regarded as one of its most 
eminent benefactors. 

Other prominent names are connected with the early agricultural 
annals of the county. One of the most distinguished is that of Henry 
Dearborn, who was born in North Hampton, N. H., February 23, 1751, 


and died at Roxbury, Mass., June 6, 1829. General Dearborn was a 
representative to the Third and Fourth congresses in 1801-1808, major 
general of Maine in 1795, and secretary of war under President Jef- 
ferson, 1801-1809. He had extensive farms in Monmouth, where he 
lived between 1784 and 1797, and was deeply interested in the im- 
provement of agriculture. After he removed to Roxbury, Mass., in 
1824, he continued to make annual visits to his farm in this county as 
long as health permitted. R. H. Greene, of Winslow; Jesse Robin- 
son, of Waterville; Payne Wingate, of Hallowell; Robert Page, of 
Readfield; Rev. W. A. P. Dillingham, of Sidney; Nathan Foster, of 
Gardiner; Joseph A. Metcalf, of Monmouth, and Steward Foster, Ne- 
hemia Pierce, Peleg Benson, David Foster, Samuel Benjamin, Colum- 
bus Fairbanks, Samuel P. Benson and John May, of Winthrop, are 
names that deserve honorable mention in the agricultural annals of 
Kennebec county for their eminent services in the earlier years of its 

Associations.— One of the first agencies for carrying on the work 
of agricultural improvement which the educated and progressive 
farmers of this county made use of, was that of association and organi- 
zation. The few leading minds who were foremost in this work de- 
sired to extend it, that the benefits resulting from investigation, study 
and experiments might be shared by others. To accomplish this it 
was necessary to organize and cooperate. The Pennsylvania Society 
for Promoting Agriculture was the first agricultural society estab- 
lished in the United States; while the first in New England and the 
second in all North America, was the Kennebec Agricultural Society, 
established through the efforts of the Messrs. Vaughan and other pro- 
gressive farmers in 1787, five years previous to the incorporation of 
the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture. The objects 
of this society were " mutual improvement in agricultural knowledge, 
and mutual aid, by the importation of trees, seeds, tools, books, etc." 
It was incorporated in 1807, and although it held no exhibitions, it had 
frequent meetings for the reading of papers contributed by members, 
and for consultation and discussion. This society subsequently dis- 
banded, as on February 21, 1818, the Maine Agricultural Society was 
incorporated. In 1820 and 1821 the society held cattle shows at Hal- 
lowell— the former the first cattle show ever held in the county or 
state. This society must also have disbanded, as on February 28, 1829, 
the Winthrop Agricultural Society was incorporated, which was reor- 
ganized so as to embrace the whole county, April 23, 1832, from which 
the present Kennebec County Agricultural Society dates its legal 'ex- 

These early societies at once put themselves into correspondence 
with similar organizations in other states, offered prizes for crops, as- 
signed " tasks " to its members, and in a variety of ways worked " to 


improve the art of husbandry and to elevate the calling of the hus- 
bandman." Some idea of what was accomplished may be obtained by 
a few extracts from their records and votes: In 1818 — " that the trus- 
tees inquire into the utility of Hotchkins' threshing; machine and pur- 
chase one for the use of the society if they think expedient; 1819— 
that members make a written statement at the annual meetings re- 
specting- the manner of managing their favorite source of profit and 
the net gain received from it; that a committee ascertain the number 
of barrels of whole and watered cider made m Winthrop the present 
year (the first recorded instance of the collection of agricultural sta- 
tistics); 1821 — that premiums be given to the farmer raising the most 
and best quality of • high red-top ' grass seed; 1822— that $30 be sent 
to Malaga or Gibraltar in Spain, to purchase the best quality of 
bearded summer wheat for .seed, one peck only to be allowed each 
member; that the society subscribe for two copies of the 'publick 
paper," published in Boston, called the Nau England Farmer; that the 
necessary expense be incurred of a committee in procuring informa- 
tion on the relative advantage of Maine compared with other states 
and countries in raising fine wool; 1825 — that the secretary obtain in- 
formation respecting the quality and usefulness of a kind of sheep 
■called ' Smith Island Sheep,' and if deemed expedient that the society 
purchase a pair; that .some person make experiments on raising hemp 
•on a small scale at the expense of the society; 1830 — that the society 
obtain one barrel of winter wheat for seed, from Virginia; that a pre- 
mium be offered for the farmer raising the best and largest crop of 
•corn, wheat or potatoes at the smallest expense; 1832— that a com- 
mittee collect information upon the diseases of sheep in this climate, 
with the preventive and cure, the best breeds of sheep and the mode 
•of improving them, with such other matter as would be useful in a 
treatise on sheep generally; 1834— that a committee report upon the 
merits of the Pitts' horse power, just invented; that a premium be 
offered to the farmer who may bring into the county twenty of the 
best Merino sheep; that ten volumes of the Maine Farmer be offered 
in premiums; that this society decidedly disapprove the sale of ardent 
spirits on the grounds on the days of their cattle show; 1835 — that 
■copies of Davy's Agricultural Chemistry and Farmer's Register be 
procured for the use of the society; 1837— that the secretary obtain 
information relative to the Gordon drill plow." 

When it is remembered that at the early period at which many of 
these votes were passed the Kennebec Agricultural Society was the 
only one of its kind in Maine, and that there were but very few in the 
United States, it shows the far-seeing character and progressive spirit 
•of its members in a most favorable and worthy light. Its modern 
history is as interesting and full of commendable deeds as the earlier 
period. The society has encouraged by liberal premiums the best 
kind of farming and the judicious improvement of the live stock of 
the county. Early devoted to the large beef breeds of cattle, it was 
persistent in its opposition to the Jerseys when first introduced, and 
for some years refused to place the breed in its premium schedule. 
At its fair in 1863 the report of the committee on this breed said: 


" Your committee deem it a source of gratification to find the exhibi- 
tion of Jerseys the present year made up of more individual speci- 
mens of high excellence than of any other kind of farm stock upon 
the ground." Having held cattle shows in different towns in the 
county, frequently to much inconvenience on account of the want of 
proper buildings, the society leased grounds at Readfield Corner in 
1856, where its fairs have ever since been held. It has good buildings, 
including a new grand stand, a half mile track, and maintains the 
best county agricultural fairs of any society in Maine. It .still keeps 
up the old custom of having an annual address delivered at each fair 
and has numbered among its orators some of the most distinguished 
men in the state. 

The North Kennebec Agricultural Society was incorporated July 
31, 1847, and its first exhibition was held in Waterville in October of 
that year, its limits extending into Somerset and Waldo counties. The 
society purchased fair grounds in 1854, located about a mile below 
the city of Waterville, upon which it built a good half mile track. 
Between 1855 and 1875 the fairs of this society were largely attended 
and among the best of their class in the state. Some of the best cat- 
tle and horses in Maine have been owned within its limits, and at 
many of its exhibitions the stock upon its show ground has ranked 
among the best in New England, notably the J'erseys shown by the 
late Dr. N. R. Boutelle, of Waterville, the Holsteins. by Thomas S. 
Lang, the Shorthorns of the late Warren Percival and Levi A. Dow, 
and the Herefords of Burleigh & Shores. Among other noted breed- 
ers and farmers who have contributed largely to the success of the 
fairs of this society have been: John D. Lang, Moses Taber, Hall C. 
Burleigh, H. G. Abbott, W. H. Pearson, Moses A. Getchell and J. S. 
Hawes, of Vassalboro; George E. Shores, H. Percival, R. R. Drum- 
mond, Joseph Percival, Samuel Doolittle, Henry Taylor, N. R. Bou- 
telle, Ephraim Maxham and J. F. Hallett, Waterville; Rev. W. A. P. 
Dillingham, Sidney; A. J. Libby and W. P. Blake, Oakland; B. C. 
Paine, Clark Drummond and Ira E. Getchell, Winslow; G. G. Hans- 
comb, Albion; and Joseph Taylor, Belgrade. Annual exhibitions are 
still held by the society. 

On March 26, 1853, an act of incorporation was granted the South 
Kennebec Agricultural Society, with headquarters at Gardiner, the 
late Nathan Foster being its first president. Fairs were held by this 
society for seven years, when its charter was surrendered, and on 
March 17, 1860, an act of incorporation was given the Kennebec Union 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society, which embraced the same ter- 
ritory as that of the former society. Having held its fairs at Oakland 
Park, Gardiner, and Meadow Park, West Gardiner, with varying suc- 
cess till the year 1877, its active career as a society ceased. ' In its 
earlier years among its most staunch supporters and largest exhibi- 


tors were: Daniel Lancaster, William S. Grant and Alden Rice, Farm- 
ingdale; J. M. Carpenter, Pittston; S. G. Otis and Samuel Currier, 
Hallowell; Joseph Wharff, Litchfield; and Nathan Foster, R. H. Gar- 
diner and Henry Butman, Gardiner. 

The Eastern Kennebec Agricultural Society was incorporated 
March 24 and organized April 4, 1868. The society at once purchased 
a lot of sixteen acres of land in China, upon which a half mile track 
was built, and its first exhibition was held October 20-22 of that year. 
In 1869 the society built an exhibition hall, 40 by 60 feet, upon its 
park: one exhibitor showed twenty head of cattle, there were forty 
horses on the grounds, and an address was delivered by Thomas S. 
Lang. In 1873 the secretary reported a great improvement in the 
stock and general farming in the towns of China, Windsor, Vassal- 
boro and Albion, through the influence of its fairs. The society held 
seven fairs, the last in 1874, when in consequence of insufficient re- 
ceipts, due to unfavorable weather at the date of its fairs, the pre- 
miums could not be paid in full, and unpaid expenses accumulating, 
it was deemed prudent to close up its affairs. The final meeting was 
held December 27, 1877, and the real estate and other property of the 
society were sold. Its largest exhibitors were: W^arren Percival, J. S. 
Hawes and Thomas S. Lang, Vassalboro; C. B. Wellington, Albion; 
Horace Colburn, Windsor, and J. R. Grossman and Alfred H. Jones, 
China. Its successive presidents were Isaac Hamilton, Ambrose H. 
Abbott and H. B. Williams. 

The South Kennebec Agricultural Association, consisting of the 
towns of Chelsea, Windsor, Pittston and Whitefield, was organized 
March 24, 1888. In June of that year, having leased land for exhibi- 
tion grounds and raised money for the purpose by subscription, it 
built a half mile track at South Windsor Corner. Its first fair was 
held October 3-4, 1888. Officers and friends of this society secured 
the incorporation of the South Kennebec Agricultural Society by the 
legislature February 15, 1889, and the society was organized April 
20, 1889, George Brown being the first president. Its limits, as de- 
fined by the act of incorporation, were: " The southern part of Ken- 
nebec county and the towns of Whitefield, Jefferson and Somerville 
in Lincoln county." On the day of the organization of this society 
the local, unincorporated society transferred to the new society all its 
leases and property. An exhibition hall was built upon the grounds 
in the summer of 1889, and its annual fairs have been successful in 
the highest degree. 

Other societies which have been more than local in their influence 
and usefulness are the Kennebec Farmers' and Stockbreeders' Asso- 
ciation, which has held fairs at Meadow Park, West Gardiner, organ- 
ized in 1889; and the Pittston Agricultural and Trotting Park Associa- 
tion, which was also organized in 1889. The former holds its fairs at 


Meadow Park (MerriU's), and the latter owns a park of 17i acres at 
East Pittston, in the beautiful valley of Eastern river. Upon both are 
good half mile tracks. The exhibitions of these societies have been 
well supported. 

The Pittston and Chelsea Farmers' Union was organized Decem- 
ber 2, 1882, and held annual fairs at Chelsea Grange Hall till merged 
into the South Kennebec Agricultural Society, March 2, 1889. It also 
held meetings for the discussion of farm subjects. 

In many towns local agricultural societies holding town fairs have 
existed for many years. One of the oldest of these town societies is 
that at Litchfield, which was organized in 1859, and held its first fair 
in that year. About 1870 Harvey Springer built a half mile track on 
his land at Litchfield Plains, and offered the use of track and adjoin- 
ing grounds for fair purposes to the society, free, on condition that 
they erect an exhibition hall on the grounds for fair purposes. By 
special act of the legislature the town appropriated $500 for this pur- 
pose, and fairs have been held there uninterruptedly from 1859 to 
1890, inclusive. For a few years after occupying the new grounds 
there were races in connection with the fairs, but for several years 
past there has been no trotting at the exhibition. The Litchfield town 
fairs have been among the most celebrated local fairs in the state. 
One of the next oldest local organizations is the Monmouth Farmers' 
and Mechahics' Club, organized in the winter of 1871-2, which has 
held annual fairs that have been among the best in the state. Other 
towns that have maintained annual fairs are: Sidney, Belgrade, Pitts- 
ton, Chelsea, Albion, China and Vassalboro. The following named 
Granges have also held excellent Grange fairs: Capital, Augusta; 
Cushnoc, Riverside; Oak Grove, Vassalboro. All these societies have 
exerted an important influence upon the improvement and develop- 
ment of the agricultural operations and practices of the Kennebec 

The State Agricultural Society, incorporated in 1855, was in reality 
a product of Kennebec county, and held fairs at Gardiner in 1855, and 
in Augusta in 1858, 1859 and 1872. The state board of agriculture, 
organized in 1852, has always held its annual meetings at Augusta; 
and in recent years farmers' institutes have been held at leading points 
in the county two or three times each year. From the meetings of the 
Maine Pomological and Horticultural Society, organized in 1847, the 
farmers and orchardists of Kennebec county derived great benefit; as 
well as from the meetings for discussion and annual exhibitions of the 
State Pomological Society, organized at Winthrop, in 1873. The Maine 
Dairymen's Association, organized in Augusta in 1874, had for its 
earliest and most earnest advocates the leading dairymen in the 
county, and its headquarters were here for many years. Farmers of 


Kennebec county have had a great share in the organization and 
management of these bodies. 

In 1869 the state board of agriculture recommended to the county 
societies that a portion of the state bounty be expended in the work 
of forming farmers' clubs in the several towns within their jurisdic- 
tion. Under this recommendation many such clubs were organized 
in the rural communities throughout the county, which held meetings 
for discussion, local fairs and farmers' festivals. They were produc- 
tive of great good, but have given place to the Granges of Patrons of 
Husbandry. This order was introduced into the county in 1874, Mon- 
mouth Grange, the thirty-ninth Grange formed in the state, having 
been organized October 3, 1874, with eighteen charter members, as 
the first Grange instituted in the county; Mark Getchell, master; M. H. 
Butler, secretary. This Grange now has a membership of fifty. There 
are now twenty Granges in the county, with a total membership in 
1891 of 1,492. Eight of these Granges own their own halls. The 
Pomona Grange of Kennebec County was organized at Winthrop, 
January, 1879, and holds monthly meetings at the halls of the different 
subordinate Granges in the county. This order, admitting women to 
all the privileges of membership, has been productive of a good work 
in elevating the social position of the farmer's family, and carrying 
to a higher standard the practical, educational and business methods 
of the farmers themselves. 

Farm Machinery. — The spirit of inquiry, investigation and desire 
for improvement manifested by the early farmers of the county in 
those lines of farm work relating to stock, grains, fruits and better 
methods of husbandry, led equally to early efforts for obtaining better 
tools and machines with which to perform the work of the farm in a 
more rapid and less laborious manner. 

Threshing grain by the hand flail being one of the hardest parts 
of farm work, the threshing machine was one of the first things to 
be studied out. Mr. Jacob Pope, of Hallowell. was the first person to 
introduce such a machine to the notice of farmers, his efforts in the 
way of invention having been commenced in 1826. The Pope ma- 
chine went by hand, and by turning a crank a series of mallets or 
swingles came over upon a table on which the heads of the grain had 
been placed by the man tending it, and thus the grain was pounded 
out. It threshed the grain well, but it was found to be harder work 
to turn the crank than to swing the flail. Mr. Balon, of Livermore, 
soon after the Pope machine was made, got up an improvement upon 
it, which consisted of a cylinder, operated by horse power, which was 
attached to an old cider mill sweep, the gearing being very simple 
and the horse going round in a circle. This was abandoned, and 
Samuel Lane, of Leeds, probably acting upon Mr. Balon's idea, set 
about making an endless chain one-horse power with a cylinder hav- 


ing high gearing. This was regarded as verv successful when com- 
pleted, in 1833. The Lane machine had no sooner become successful 
than the brothers, Hiram and John A. Pitts, of Winthrop, conceived 
the idea of making a wider endless chain of wood and mounting two 
horses upon it, thus doubling the power and the speed. At the same 
time that the Messrs. Pitts were at work upon their machine, Mr. 
Luther Whitman, of Winthrop, was also experimenting in the same 
direction. Each of these parties got several patents, and much litiga- 
tion followed as to the priority of their inventions. Mr.Whitman com- 
menced working upon his idea of a thresher in 1832, and completed it 
in 1834, essentially similar to the Pitts machine. The brothers Pitts and 
Mr. Whitman also worked upon the idea of combining the horse power 
thresher with the separator and winnower, and both accomplished the 
results sought. While it has been generally conceded that the Pitts 
combined machine was the original machine, it has also been admitted 
that Mr. Whitman was the first to use the uninterrupted rod as in use 
at the present day, with slight changes, and Mr. Whitman also in- 
vented in 1838 the reversible tooth for threshing machines, the same 
tooth that is in use to this day. It is also claimed that the first per- 
fect thresher, with a straw-carrier attachment and winnowing machine 
combined ever made in the world, was made by Luther Whitman, at 
Winthrop, in the year 1834. Mr. Whitman was born in Bridgewater, 
Mass., in 1802, and after his success in inventing the threshing ma- 
chine established a factory for their construction at Winthrop, where 
he was in business till his death, January 26, 1881. The horse power 
thresher and separator of to-day is virtually the Pitts- Whitman ma- 
chine, and from Kennebec county it has gone into almost every state 
in the Union. 

In 1827 Mr. Moses B. Bliss, of Pittston, invented a " movable hay 
press," and in 1828 Mr. Samuel Lane, of Hallowell, invented a corn- 
sheller, which consisted of a cog or spur-wheeled cylinder, from 
which all the standard hand-power corn-shellers now in use have 

Previous to 1840 the hand tools of the farm, of iron or steel, like 
forks, scythes, sickles, axes and hoes, were made by hand by the vil- 
lage blacksmith, but were heavy, bungling affairs. In 1841 Mr. Jacob 
Pope, of Hallowell, commenced the manufacture of the first polished 
spring steel hay and manure forks ever made in Maine, continuing 
the down to about 1870, his goods having a high reputation. 
Elias Plimpton commenced the manufacture of hoes by machinery at 
Litchfield in 1820, coming from Walpole, Mass., being the first person 
to make hoes by machinery in this state. In 1845 Plimpton & 
Sons began the manufacture of manure and hay forks in connection 
with hoes, which his sons still continue. The manufacture of scythes 


by machinery was first commenced in this county at North Wayne, 
in 1840, by the late R. B. Dunn. 

Agricultural Schools. — To Kennebec county belongs the honor 
of having- established the first institution in North America devoted 
to technical agricultural and industrial education, the personal honor 
of which is due to the first Robert Hallowell Gardiner, of Gardiner. 
In a petition to the legislature of Maine in 1821, asking for a grant of 
one thousand dollars for aid in establishing an institution " to give 
mechanics and farmers such a scientific education as would enable 
them to become skilled in their professions," this distinguished and 
far-seeing philanthropist said: " It is an object of very great impor- 
tance to any state * * * that its artisans should possess an edu- 
cation adapted to make them skillful and able to improve the ad- 
vantages which nature has .so lavishly bestowed upon them. ■■ * * 
The recent improvements in chemistry which give the knowledge of 
the nature of fertile and barren soils and the best mode of improving 
them, render the importance of a scientific education' to her farmers 
much greater than at any other period." This, copied from the peti- 
tion written by Mr. Gardiner, shows the idea which he had of the 
class of college or school so much needed in his time for giving a 
" liberal " education to farmers, and foreshadows exactly the colleges 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts now existing in all the states, 
under the endowment of the Morrill Land Grant bill of 1862; and Mr. 
Gardiner in pleading with the state to establish such a school, was 
actually a whole generation in advance of his time, as it was not till 
more than forty years later that these colleges were established under 
the patronage of the general government. 

Mr. Gardiner succeeded in obtaining a yearly grant of $1,000 from 
the state, and the " Gardiner Lyceum " was incorporated in 1821. A 
stone building for its use was erected in 1822, and on January 1, 182B, 
the Lyceum was formally opened to pupils. Rev. Benjamin Hale, 
born in Newbury, Mass., November 23, 1797, and once a tutor in Bow- 
doin College, being president of the Lyceum from 1823 to 1827. After 
leaving Gardiner, Mr. Hale was professor of chemistry in Dartmouth 
College from 1827 to 1835, and from 1836 to 1858 president of Geneva 
College, New York. He died July 15, 1863. The course of study at 
the Lyceum was arranged for two years, and there were twenty stu- 
dents the first year. The courses may be generally described as a 
chemical, and a mechanical one. The former comprised lectures on 
the principles of chemical science, on agricultural chemistry, on dye- 
ing, bleaching, pottery, porcelain, cements and tanning. The latter 
■course embraced lectures on mechanical principles, dynamics, hydro- 
statics, hydraulics and carpentry. Later a course in mineralogy was 
included. In 1824 Dr. Ezekiel Holmes was engaged as " permanent 
professor in agriculture," and in connection with this professorship 
the trustees undertook the management of a practical farm in connec- 


tion with the Lyceum, where experiments in agriculture were tried. 
where the students were allowed to work to diminish the expense of 
board, and "to give the future agriculturist the knowledge of those 
principles of science upon which his future success depends, and an 
opportunity to see them reduced to practice." In order to accommo- 
date those students whose business during the summer months made 
it impossible for them to join the regular cla.sses, winter classes were 
established in surveying, navigation, chemistry, carpentry and civil 
architecture. These "winter classes" corresponded to the "short 
courses " in special branches now given at some of our agricultural 

This outline shows the general scope and character of the institu- 
tion. After Mr. Hale's resignation of the office of president the Ly- 
ceum was severally in charge of Edmund L. Gushing, Dr. Ezekiel 
Holmes, Mr. Whitman and Jason Winnett, as presidents or principals. 
Its classes were well kept up for many years, at one time the scholars 
numbering fifty-three. The Lyceum had a good library and creditable 
collections, and the students were encouraged to make collections of 
specimens illustrating the geology and flora of the section, which were 
deposited in the museum. Finally the .state withdrew its yearly ap- 
propriations, and for two or three years subsequently it was main- 
tained almost entirely at the expense of Mr. Gardiner himself. The 
property of the Lyceum, after having remained unused in the hands 
of the trustees for several years, was sold to the city of Gardiner in 
1857, and the building occupied as a high school. The proceeds were 
divided pro rata among the original stockholders, and the first agri- 
cultural and industrial college in the United States ceased to exist. 

Cattle.— As cattle are the real basis of successful agriculture, the 
farmers of the province of Maine had their cows and oxen as soon as 
they had homes. The so-called " natives " or " old red cattle of New 
England "—about which so much has been written in agricultural lit- 
erature — were a mixture of the Devons, brought over by the Pilgrims 
of Plymouth; some "black cattle" brought by trading ship-masters 
from the West Indies or the Spanish Main; the Danish cattle brought 
to Piscataqua by Captain John Mason in 1631, " for the purpose of 
furnishing milk to the fishermen," and the importation made by Dr. 
Benjamin Vaughan and his brother, Charles, of Hallowell, in 1791-2. 
This importation marks the commencement of improved stock breed- 
ing in this county, and consisted of two bulls and two cows, which ar- 
rived in Hallowell in November, 1791. These cattle were selected 
with great care, the bulls — from the celebrated Smithfield market, were 
of the Longhorn or Bakewell breed; the cows from the London dairies,, 
which were supplied mostly from animals of the Holderness or York- 
shire breed. The instructions given their London agent by the 
Messrs. Vaughan are interesting, and show how particular they were- 


to obtain animals specially adapted to a new country. Points were 
to be observed which would fit the draft stock for a hilly country, and 
they were also to select animals well fitted for the dairy, and were " to- 
look to the quality rather than the quantity of the milk." Great stress 
was laid on their having full hindquarters for the ascent of hills, and 
full forequarters and prominent briskets for the descent. 

How well the breed proved for draft purposes was shown at the 
first cattle show held in Hallowell in 1821, where their descendants 
were on exhibition. A yoke of oxen, girting an inch or two over 
seven feet, drew with ease a cart loaded with stone weighing 7,200 
pounds; and a yoke of bulls, girting six feet and two inches, drew for 
ten rods " with perfect ease " a drag loaded with stone which weighed 
3,800 pounds. A calf of one of these cows was presented to Hon. 
Christopher Gore, of Massachusetts, and became the progenitor of the 
celebrated "Gore breed " of cattle so famous for years in that state.. 
These Longhorn and Holderness cattle of the Vaughan importation 
were very long-lived, and their descendants were hardy and vigorous. 
Many of the cows continued to breed till eighteen years old, and the 
oxen proved great workers. The Vaughans used the males of their 
herds in a way to benefit the early settlers in this county and the ad- 
jacent territory as much as possible. Hence they were not only kept 
on their extensive farms at Hallowell, but were sent to prominent 
farmers in other Kennebec county towns, in the Sandy river valley 
and other parts, and were frequently changed. By this course their 
progeny soon became numerous. The Vaughans continued to breed 
from descendants of their first importation until about 1820. 

In Coggeshall's Americmi Privateers and Letters of Marque (page 
47), it is said that the brig "Peter Waldo, irora. Newcastle, England, 
for Halifax, with a full cargo of manufactures, clearing the 
captors $100,000, was sent into Portland in August, 1812, by the Teaser 
of New York." In this vessel was a Methodist minister and his fam- 
ily bringing their effects to the British Provinces, and they had among 
them a bull and cow of the Holderness breed. As all the goods cap- 
tured were sold, these cattle were among them, and descendants of 
them, known as the " Prize " stock, soon found their way to Sidney 
and Va.ssalboro. The late John D. Lang, of Vassalboro, some years- 
since, gave the writer a very interesting account of this breed, which, 
may be found in the Agriculture of Maine for 1874, p. 247. 

Durhams or Shorthorns. — The earlier importations of cattle into- 
this country, after systematic efforts had been undertaken in their 
breeding by leading farmers of Massachusetts, were of the Durham, 
afterward more popularly called the Shorthorn breed. The first in- 
dividual of this breed ever brought into Kennebec county was a bull 
known as " Young Coelebs "—said to have been a half blood— bred by 
Colonel Samuel Jaques, of Charlestown, Mass., and brought to Hal- 


lowell in 1825 by General Jesse Robinson — a gentleman very active 
in the promotion of Agriculture and the improvement of stock in his 
day. After a few years this bull was sold to John Kezar, of Win- 
throp, and acquired much celebrity in the western part of the county 
as the " Kezar bull." Splendid stock descended from him, both in 
oxen and cows, but as he was pure white many farmers objected, as 
white has never been a popular color for cattle. In 1826 the white bull 
•" Hercules," bred by Samuel Lee, of Massachusetts, was brought by 
General Henry Dearborn to Pittston, where he was kept for several 
years and afterward was taken to Winthrop. This same year a bull 
called " Jupiter," also bred by Colonel Jaques, was brought to Hal- 
lowell by John Davis. He was kept in that town, also in Readfield, 
Winthrop and Wayne, and left choice stock in each, the good influ- 
ence of which was apparent for nearly half a century. 

What is believed to have been the first thoroughbred Durham 
brought into the state was the imported bull " Denton," presented by 
Stephen Williams, Esq., of Northboro, Alass., to the late Dr. Ezekiel 
Holmes, then of Gardiner, where he arrived in November, 1827. The 
animals introduced before " Denton " were half-bloods. He was im- 
ported by Mr. Williams, through the agency of his brother, then 
residing in London, and arrived in Boston November 5, 1817. Mr. 
Williams kept " Denton " until the fall of 1827, when he was pre- 
sented to his friend, Doctor Holmes, of Gardiner. He was kept in 
1828 in Gardiner, and in 1829 was carried to Doctor Holmes' farm in 
Starks, where he died from old age in 1830. The change made in the 
character of the neat cattle of Kennebec county by the introduction of 
this animal was remarkable. Writing of him in 1855, Doctor Holmes 
said he might justly be regarded as one of the patriarchs of the New 
England Shorthorns, and the chief source of this improved blood 
found in so large a proportion in the early herds of Kennebec county, 
and, in fact, of the whole state — for his calves were widely dissemi- 
nated throughout Maine and have done a great deal to give this 
county the high reputation it has had for its choice herds of Short- 

In 1828 Colonel R. H. Greene, of Winslow, introduced into that 
town two bulls known as " Tasso " and " Banquo," imported from 
England by John Hare Powell, of Virginia. These finely bred ani- 
mals were kept in Winslow three years, and subsequently one of 
them in Winthrop one year, and one in Augusta one year, leaving 
fine stock in each town. Colonel Greene, between 1828 and 1834, also 
brought several animals of the Shorthorn breed from New York, some 
of which were imported, among them the bull " Young Fitz Favorite," 
an animal of mttch good reputation; an imported animal having been 
brought to New York by Robert B. Minturn from the herd of Mr. 
Ashcroft, one of the leading cattle breeders of the West of England; 


the bull " Young Comet." by the celebrated bull " Wye Comet," and 
also the bull " Fairfield," purchased of E. P. Prentice, of Albany, N. Y. 
Robert Cornforth and Thomas Pierce, of Readfield — farmers who were 
foremost in Western Kennebec in the improvement of the breeds of 
cattle— each introduced Shorthorns into that town in 1829 and 1830. 
Mr. Cornforth introduced the bull " Turk." and Mr. Pierce kept the 
bulls " Uranus '" and " Gold-finder," both by " Young Denton." Their 
history is recorded in glowing language in our early agricultural an- 
nals, and they deserve mention in any history of the live stock industry 
of Kennebec county. They gave an impress to the high character of 
the early herds of the county, traces of which are very plainly evi- 
dent down to the present day. 

" Denton," " Young Coelebs," " Fitz Favorite," " Banquo," " Comet," 
" Foljambe " and " Wye Comet " were all recorded in the early vol- 
umes of the English Shorthorn Herd Book, establishing beyond all 
question the purity of the thoroughblood of these early animals, the 
progeny of which formed the basis of the neat cattle of Kennebec 
county. Moreover, at this early date the cattle of this county had ac- 
quired so high a reputation that animals had been sent to Massachu- 
setts and even as far west as Ohio; nearly every town in this county pos- 
sessed thoroughbred animals, and they had also been widely dissemi- 
nated in Somerset, Waldo, Penobscot, Franklin and York counties. 

With the breeding of Shorthorns, as well as others, there was a 
period between 1835 and 1850 when interest seemed to lessen. The 
earlier breeders had died or given up active efforts through advanc- 
ing age, and the younger farmers had not then felt that impetus in 
the business which was developed later. The character of the stock 
had been kept up to a high standard, there were good cross-breeds all 
over the county, and it was not till deterioration became evident in 
the leading herds that younger farmers took up the responsibility of 
obtaining high priced registered stock from abroad, or improving the 
best of that which remained. Prominent farmers who gave much 
effort to stock improvement between 1835 and 1853 were: Oakes How- 
ard, Winthrop; R. H. Greene and Isaac W. Britton, Winslow; Sulli- 
van Kilbreth and Samuel Currier, Hallowell; Allen Lambard, Au- 
gusta; Joseph H. Underwood, Sewall N. Watson and Francis Hub- 
bard, Fayette; Josiah N. Fogg, S. H. Richard.son and Colonel D. Craig, 
Readfield; Amos Rollins, Belgrade; John F. Hunnewell, China; Har- 
rison Jaquith, Albion; Josiah Morrill and Isaiah Marston, Waterville, 
and Luther and Bradford Sawtell-, Sidney. 

In 1859 Warren Percival of Cross' Hill, Vassalboro, commenced 
the building up of a herd of thoroughbred Shorthorns by purchasing 
animals of William S. Grant, of Farmingdale. Subsequently Mr. Per- 
cival, at different dates, purchased animals of Paoli Lathrop, Augustus 
Whitman'and other breeders in Massachusetts, George Butts, of Man- 


lius, N. Y., and others. In breeding he aimed at great perfection in 
symmetry, hardy constitution 'and high milking qualities, and for 
many years was the foremost breeder of this class of stock in Maine. 
At one time his herd consisted of 125 animals, although sixty head 
was about the average number kept while he was engaged in his 
largest farming operations. His yearly sales extended throughout 
New England and the Provinces. His first appearance in the Ameri- 
can Shortliorn Herd Book as a registered breeder, was in volume V, for 
1860, and for the next seventeen volumes Mr. Percival's name appears 
among those of the great American breeders of this class of stock, 
with the pedigrees of a large number of finely bred animals — in vol- 
ume IX, for 1870, twenty-seven being recorded, his herd then being 
at the height of its popularity. Mr. Percival was an important figure 
in Maine agriculture for many years. His death occurred July 17, 
1877, upon the homestead where he was born March 27, 1819. 

John D. Lang, of Vassalboro, was one of the earlier breeders of 
Shorthorns, having bred from the old stock. But in 1860, in connec- 
tion with his son, Thomas S. Lang, they imported animals into that 
town from the herds of Paoli Lathrop, of Massachusetts, and Samuel 
Thorne, of New York, and bred with a good deal of spirit. In 1864 
they exhibited a herd of thirty-two head of thoroughbred Shorthorns 
at the fair of the North Kennebec Agricultural Society, but soon after 
disposed of their animals to give attention to another class of stock. 
Henry Taylor, a Boston business man, who established a stock farm 
in Waterville in 1866, bred Shorthorns for five or six years, bringing 
to that town animals from the celebrated herd of R. A. Alexander, of 
Lexington, Ky. His operations were discontinued about 1870. Levi 
A. Dow, of Waterville, commenced breeding Shorthorns in 1868, his 
name appearing in nearly every volume of the American Herd Book 
as a leading breeder of this stock from that year to the year 1882. 
His first purchases were from the herds of Paoli Lathrop and H. G. 
White, of Massachusetts, and later from those of home breeders. 
Samuel G. Otis, of Hallowell, was quite extensively engaged in breed- 
ing Shorthorns between the years 1872 and 1881. His foundation ani- 
mals were obtained of Jonathan Talcott, Rome. N. Y., and others from 
Warren Percival and breeders in Massachusetts. At one time Mr. 
Otis' herd numbered fully twenty individuals. The great herds of 
this breed formerly kept in the county have been greatly reduced or 
entirely broken up— the Jerseys having superseded them as dairy 
animals and the Herefords taken their places for work and beef. 

Herefords. — One of the first animals of this breed introduced into 
Kennebec county was the bull "Young Sir Isaac," brought to Hallo- 
well in 1880 bv Sanford Howard, superintendent of the Vaughan 
farms. He was by imported " Admiral," sent with other stock as a 
pre.sent to the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agriculture, by 


Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, of the British Navy — his dam being by the 
Hereford bull, "Sir Isaac." also presented to the same society by Ad- 
miral Coffin. In 1844, J. Wingate Haines of Hallowell, brought into 
that town the bull " Albany," purchased of Erastus Corning and Wil- 
liam H. Sotham, of Albany, N. Y., from their noted importation of 
English Herefords brought to this country in 1841. This beautiful 
bull laid the foundation for the magnificent working oxen for which 
the towns of Hallowell, Winthrop, Fayette and Wayne were formerly 

Joseph H. Underwood, one of the most prominent farmers and 
breeders this county has ever had, was born in Amherst, N. H., in 
1783, and when he became of age settled in Fayette. He gave early 
attention to the improvement of neat cattle, and obtained descendants 
of the first Herefords brought into the county, but about 1852 pur- 
chased of Captain E. Pendleton, an old shipmaster of Searsport, a bull 
and cow of this breed brought over in one of his ships from England. 
In 1859 he purchased the celebrated bull " Cronkhill 2d," of the 
Messrs. Clarke, of Springfield, Mass., and in 1865 introduced into his 
herd a celebrated bull, " Wellington Hero," from the herd of Freder- 
ick William Stone, of Guelph, Ontario, and subsequently other ani- 
mals were purchased of Mr. Stone. After the death of Mr. Under- 
wood, November 8, 1867, his sons, G. & G. Underwood, continued to 
carry on the farming and breeding operations of their father jointly 
till 1875, when they dis.solved. During these years the herd was kept 
up by purchases from Mr. vStone, Hall C. Burleigh of Vassalboro, H. 
A. Holmes of Oxford, and Mr. Gibb of Compton, P. Q. When they 
dissolved Gilbert Underwood retained the herd of cattle, and now has 
a choice family of thirty fine animals. Another son of J. H. Under- 
wood—Albert G. Underwood of Fayette— has a herd of fourteen thor- 
oughbred and registered animals. The Underwood Herefords are 
now the oldest herds of this breed in the county. 

In 1869 G. E. Shores, of Waterville, and Hall C. Burleigh, then of 
Fairfield, purchased the entire herd of thoroughbred Herefords be- 
longing to Hon. M. H. Cochrane, of Hillhurst, Compton, P. 0., then 
and for a long time previous regarded as the most famous herd of 
Herefords on the continent. It was a bold purchase, and gave the 
county high fame as the home of the best Herefords at that time in 
the United States. The celebrated individuals of this purchase were 
the bull " Compton Lad," and the Verbena family of cows and heifers. 
After three years' breeding the herd bad so much increased that a di- 
vision was made and for years formed two distinguished herds under 
the separate management of each owner. Mr. Shores sold his entire 
herd to William P. Blake of West Waterville, in 1875, who continued 
:to breed for many years, finally disposing of his interest to his son, 


Fred E. Blake, of Fairview Farm, Sidney, who now has a small herd 
of this breed. 

Important as have been the importations of animals of this breed 
into the county in the past, and valuable as they have been as indi- 
viduals and as herds, all efforts of breeders are comparatively limited 
beside the great operations in cattle importing by the firm of Burleigh 
& Bod well, the members of which were Hall C. Burleigh of Vassalboro, 
and Joseph R. Bodwell, of Hallowell. This partnership was formed 
in 1879, and was dissolved by the death of ex-Governor Bodwell, De- 
cember lii, 1887. During the continuance of this firm Mr. Burleigh 
made five visits to England for the purpose of selecting breeding 
animals, bringing home large consignments each time; in addition to 
which he made eight different importations from Great Britain, aside 
from importations made from Canada. In 1879 seventy-seven head 
were imported: in 1880-81. eighty-five head; in 1882 two consignments 
were made, one of eighty and one of fifty head; in 1883 Mr. Burleigh 
chartered the steamship Texas and brought over for his firm the 
largest lot of Hereford .stock ever brought to this country by one firm, 
numbering two hundred head, and in 1884 another importation of sev- 
enty animals was made. The total number brought to Maine by this 
firm was over 800, and while a considerable number were retained in 
their own home herds at Vassalboro and Hallowell, and some in other 
towns in the county and state, by far the larger part were shipped 
West and South. 

In 1881 Mr. Burleigh made the tour of the grand Western circuit 
of the great inter-state fairs, taking with him a herd of magnificent 
animals from his Vassalboro farm, which won everywhere m all 
in which they were shown. Again, in 1883, Mr. Burleigh exhibited 
at the great fairs at Kansas City, Chicago and New Orleans. At these 
fairs Mr. Burleigh won first prizes and sweepstakes on animals of his 
own breeding; and also the champion gold shield for the best animal 
of any sex, breed or age, exhibited by the breeder, on the heifer 
" Burleigh's Pride," a cross-bred Hereford and Polled Angus, two years 
old, weighing 1,820 pounds. 

The exhibition of these cattle at the great fairs of the West in 
1881 and 1883 brought Maine into high prominence as a cattle raising 
state, and gave this county a reputation which has been a great aid to 
our agriculture. Mr. Burleigh's herd is still kept up to a high point, 
both in numbers and excellence, and in 1891 he won fifteen first prizes, 
eleven second prizes and one third prize at the Maine State Fair. His 
son, Thomas G. Burleigh, is also interested in breeding on his own 
account. About 1876 Mr. J. S. Hawes, of South Vassalboro, started in 
the breeding of thoroughbred and grade Herefords and built up a large 
herd, sending a considerable number of breeding animals West. His 
operations were continued till 1879, when he removed to Kansas, tak- 


ing many of his best animals with him, where he engaged in ranche 
cattle breeding on a very large scale. Other leading breeders of this 
class of stock in the county are: M. M. Bailey, Winthrop; Edgar E. 
Robinson, Mt. Vernon; and G. W. Billings, E. H. Kent and the Me.ssrs. 
Gile, Fayette. These gentlemen all have thoroughbred and registered 
animals, while high grades and cross-breds are widely disseminated, 
especially in towns in the western part of the county. 

/erscjfs.— The date of the introduction and systematic breeding of 
this breed of cattle in Kennebec county, marks the first step toward 
special lines of farming and breeding, upon which all subsequent im- 
provement has been based. Previous to this the agriculture of the 
county was general. Farmers endeavored to make their farms self- 
maintaining, grew those crops that were largely needed and consumed 
upon the farm, and bred cattle adapted to general purposes. Work 
was the one chief object m keeping cattle — hence to raise good work- 
ing oxen was the first requisite. A cow that brought a good calf and 
gave sufficient milk for family use was the one that was kept. There 
had been little thought up to this date of breeding a special cow 
adapted to dairy production, and making prime butter to sell. But 
with the introduction of the Jersey breed of cattle a complete trans- 
formation in Kennebec agriculture took place. It was the beginning 
of specialties in farming, and specialties in farming mark the modern 
from the old style methods, introduce new ideas, create diversity and 
insure larger returns. 

This date was the year 1855. In that year Dr. Ezekiel Holmes 
brought the bull " Butter Boy," and in 1856 the cow " Pansy 3d," into 
Winthrop. Both animals were purchased of Samuel Henshaw, of Bos- 
ton — the latter imported by ^Ir. Henshaw, the former from imported 
stock. It is probable that two or three years earlier than this William 
S. Grant, of Farmingdale, had brought to that town the bull "Old 
Duke," also obtained from Mr. Henshaw, but this animal acquired 
nothing like the reputation accorded to those brought to the county 
by Doctor Holmes. The amount of ridicule which this patient phi- 
lanthropist endured for having brought these animals into this county 
and for championing their merits through the columns of the Maine 
Farmer, was something enormous. Believing in their adaptability to 
the new agriculture of the county, he had the courage to bring these 
small, delicate Jerseys into the very heart of that county which for 
fifty years had prided itself upon its magnificent Durhams and Here- 
fords, and farmers generally looked upon him as the visionary advo- 
cate of a breed of cattle unsuited to the county and destined to ruin 
its stock interests. But despite this opposition Doctor Holmes con- 
stantly urged their merits and value to our farmers. Their recogni- 
tion, however, was very slow, and it was several years after their first 


introduction before the trustees of the State Agricultural Societj' could 
be induced to otfer premiums for them, as it did for other breeds of 
cattle. When this action had been taken their success appeared as- 
sured, and they became rapidly disseminated. 

The fame of many cows among the " foundation " animals of this 
breed in the county was very great, among them being the celebrated 
cows "Pansy 3d," "Jessie Pansy," "Buttercup," owned by W. H. 
Chisam of Augusta, " Lilly," " Fancy 2d," " Victoria Pansy," owned 
by the late C. S. Robbins of Winthrop, " Lucy," owned by P. H. Snell 
of Winthrop, and many others. The famous cows made from 11 to 
17^ pounds of butter per week, established the reputation of the Jer- 
seys as the great butter yielding breed, opened a new' era for the agri- 
culture of the county and state, and made their owners independent. 
The celebrity of " AA'inthrop Jerseys " rapidly increased, and the 
animals became widely disseminated. The Jersey breeders of Win- 
throp organized the Winthrop Jersey Cattle Association, March 7, 
1870, and the breed had attained such large numbers in Waterville 
that a Jensey Stock Club was formed in that town in 1868, and at a 
town show of this class exclusively, held that year, over forty splendid 
cows were shown. In fifteen years after the first Jerseys were intro- 
duced they had spread all over Maine, large numbers had been sent to 
Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire, and in 1872 a car load 
of fifteen Winthrop Jerseys was sent to Denver, Colorado. The town 
association of Winthrop breeders became the Maine vState Jersey Cat- 
tle Association, and was incorporated by the legislature in 1875. Its 
present membership is believed to be larger than that of any other 
Jersey cattle association in the country. It has published five volumes 
of its Herd i-W/-— 1876, 1880, 1883, 1886 and 1889. These volumes re- 
cord a total of 724 bulls and 2,008 cows and heifers. Among the early 
herds of the Winthrop or Maine State Jerseys were those of Lloyd H. 
Snell, E. Holmes & Son, N. R. Pike & Son, and P. H. Snell, Winthrop; 
Samuel Guild and W. H. Chisam, Augusta; and William Dyer and Jo- 
seph Percival, Waterville. 

Mr. Percival introduced the first Jerseys into Waterville in 1863, 
and for many years his herd was the best in town and bred with great 
purity. L. H. vSnell, of AVinthrop, owned at one time a famous but not 
large herd of this breed, one of the foundation animals being the cel- 
ebrated cow " Victoria Pansy" (No. 12, Maine Herd Book), which was 
afterward sold to Mr. Cyrus S. Robbins, of Winthrop, who founded 
the Robbinsdale herd in 1858, which, since Mr. Robbins' death. May 14, 
1880, has been maintained by his widow, and is now one of the most 
celebrated herds of this strain of Jerseys in Maine. It numbers four- 
teen animals and has been a high prize winning herd at our state 
fairs for many years. Silas T. Floyd, of Winthrop, has a choice herd 
of ten Maine Jerseys, having a private butter dairy which has a high 


reputation. He started with the Holmes stock, and his herd has at 
different times embraced some of the best animals of that celebrated 
importation. A. C. & E. P. True, Litchfield, have an old and fine herd, 
which embraces both Maine State and American Cattle Club Jerseys. 
The Trues have bred with care, and their animals have won high 
prizes at our state fairs. Other breeders of Maine Jerseys are: Willis 
Cobb, Samuel Greeley, F. M. Woodward and M. B. Hewett, Winthrop; 
C. B. Preble, Litchfield; J. Henry Moore, West Winthrop, and E. H. 
Leavitt, East Winthrop. Dr. J. W. North, Nordheim farm, Augusta, 
formerly was largely engaged in breeding American Cattle Club 

While the Maine registered Jerseys have been more widely dis- 
seminated throughout the county than those of the American Cattle 
Club Registry, valuable and extensive herds of the last named have 
been kept in the county. In 1SG5 the late Dr. N. R. Boutelle, of 
Waterville, commenced to breed Jerseys of the Holmes-Henshaw im- 
portation, but in 1867 changed to American registered animals. His 
first purchases of this family were made of C. Wellington, Lexington, 
Mass., in 1867. In 1869 he purchased breeding animals of Colonel G. E. 
Waring, jun., of Newport, R. I., and F. E. Bowditch, of Framingham, 
and in 1870 made a choice purchase from the noted herd of Thomas 
Motley, of Jamacia Plains, Mass. In 1871 Doctor Boutelle purchased 
a fine band of six breeding animals from the great herd of S. Sheldon 
Stevens, of Montreal. From the foundation thus laid Doctor Boutelle 
bred animals of great value and beauty, and by maintaining the in- 
troduction of new blood in later years, from the best sources, built up 
the finest herd of American registered Jerseys ever owned in the state 
for their time. In 1872, the late General W. S. Tilton, then governor 
of the National Soldiers' Home, started a herd of Jerseys of the Ameri- 
can registry by the purchase of foundation animals from Benjamin E. 
Bates and Thomas Motley, of Massachusetts, subsequently purchasing 
a reinforcement of new blood from such noted herds as those of R. L. 
Maitland and John S. Barstow, of New York. In 1874 and 1875 Gen- 
eral Tilton imported animals direct from the Isle of Jersey, and the 
Togus herd at that date consisted of twenty animals, and was one of 
the finest in New England. 

At present the largest breeder of American Jerseys in the county, 
as well as the state, is Chandler F. Cobb, of Mt. Pleasant Farm, South 
Vassalboro, whose herd consists of sixty choice, fashionably bred ani- 
mals. The leading animals in the herd are " Sir Florian," 11,578, im- 
ported by T. S. Cooper, Chambersburg, Penn.. and " Fancy's Harry 
7th," 24,386. His herd embraces noted individuals of the celebrated 
Regina, Nobie and Pogis families, and aside from his own breeding 
Mr. Cobb is making constant additions of new blood. His animals 
.are among the great prize winners of Maine, and the product of his 


celebrated dairy has a high reputation. His stock farm is the old 
Hawes property, on a commanding- elevation in one of the most 
sightly and picturesque spots in Kennebec county. 

Other breeds of cattle have at different dates been imported into 
the county. The Devons were first brought in 1859 by Allen Lam- 
bard, of Augusta, by the purchase of four individuals from the herd 
of Joseph Burnett, of Southboro, Mass. In 1860 he also purchased 
from the herd of S. C. Wainwright, of Rhinebeck, N. Y., then the 
most famous herd of this breed in America, a pair of animals, and with 
this foundation built up a large and fine herd. Sewell B. Page, of 
Winthrop, bred the Devons extensively between 1865 and 1880. In 
1855 and 1866 John D. Lang, of Vassalboro, Timothy Boutelle and 
Joseph Percival, of Waterville, and Hiram Pope, of West Gardiner, 
each brought in individuals of the Ayrshire breed from the herd of 
John P. Gushing, Watertown, Mass. There are many full blood and 
grade Ayrshires now scattered through the larger dairy herds of the 
county. The first specimens of Dutch cattle, afterward called the 
Holstein, and now known as the Holstein-Friesian, were brought into 
the county by Thomas S. Lang, of Vassalboro, in 1864, being imported 
animals from the very celebrated herd of Winthrop W. Ghenery, of 
Belmont, Mass. General W. S. Tilton, while governor of the National 
Soldiers' Home, Togus, obtained a bull of this breed of Mr. Ghenery, 
and in 1871 made an extensive importation himself from East Fries- 
land. During General Tilton's governorship of the Home it had a 
very extensive herd of imported and thoroughbred HoLsteins, which 
herd has been kept up to the present time, and is now the largest and 
finest of this breed in the county. Grades are to be found in many 
towns, and some thoroughbred animals are also kept by a few of the 
leading farmers, Reuben Russell, of Readfield, being one of the best 
known breeders of this class of stock at present. 

In 1880-81 ten Polled Aberdeen-Angus cattle were imported by 
Burleigh & Bodwell, the second importation of this breed ever made 
into the United States. In 1882, and again in 1883-4, other importations 
were made. The animals were mostly sold to go west for bi^eeding 
purposes. In 1883 this firm imported a herd of thoroughbred Sussex 
cattle, the second largest importation of this breed ever made into the 
United States, and another lot was iinported in 1886. Mr. Burleigh 
has continued to breed this class of cattle to the present time; and 
both he and his son, Thomas G. Burleigh, have herds of Sussex cattle. 
They have also been disseminated into other towns in the county to a 
limited extent. 

Dairying. — Naturally following the change in the cattle husbandry 
of the county, which took place when the general dissemination of the 
Jerseys had displaced the breeds of cattle formerly raised for working 
oxen and beef animals, and the increased attention paid to dairying, 


came the introduction of associated effort or cooperation in dairy- 
practice. It did not come, however, until a period of twenty years 
had passed since the introduction of the Jerseys, during which time 
those keeping large herds of this choice breed had established a high 
reputation for private dairy butter, which commanded the best 
markets and the fancy prices. But handling the milk of large herds 
of cows in the old way made very heavy work in the household, and 
the day of the cheese factory was hailed with joy, as emancipating the 
women of the farm home from the drudgery of the milk pan and churn. 
Farmers were slow to change, however, from the private methods to 
the factory system of handling milk. The Winthrop Dairy Associa- 
tion was not organized till April, 1874, and the China Cheese Factory 
Company in March, 1874, these being the first associations of the kind 
in the county. In 1875 the "Winthrop factory made 47,000 pounds of 
cheese, and in 1878. 60,000 pounds. In 1881 the Winthrop company 
put in butter making apparatusintotlieir factory, and have since made 
both butter and cheese, although there have been some years when it 
did not operate. For one or two winters the cream obtained was sent 
to the Forest City Creamery, Portland. W^hen the average at the 
cheese factories of the county required a fraction above ten pounds 
of milk for a pound of cheese, the Winthrop factory averaged for a 
season of one hundred days a pound of cheese from eight pounds and 
seven ounces of milk. In the seasons of 1890 and 1891 many farmers 
in Winthrop, Fayette and Mt. A'ernon sent their cream to the cream- 
ery at Livermore Falls. In the summer of 1892 the Aroostook Con- 
densed Milk Company erected a very elaborate "plant at Winthrop. 

The first cheese factory in Monmouth was established in 1881 by 
the Monmouth Dairying Association. This factory was burned with 
all the machinery in February, 1889; but a new building was imme- 
diately erected and operated in June following by the Monmouth 
Dairying Company, which manufactures both butter and cheese. The 
average make for the season of 1891 was 2,800 pounds of cheese, and 
1,400 pounds of butter per week. 

The Fayette Cooperative Creamery was organized in 1889 and 
built a factory at North Fayette. During the season of 1891 it made 
an average of 1,000 pounds of butter a week. Although owned by a 
stock company, this factory is leased by Mr. J. H. True, who buys the 
cream of farmers and m,anufactures butter on his own account. The 
product has a high reputation, and the factory has given its patrons 
great satisfaction. 

The East Pittston Creamery Association was formed in 1890, and 
a factory built costing $2,000, now leased by E. E. Hanley, who used 
the cream of 120 cows in 1891, making 600 pounds of butter per week. 
The price paid farmers for the year was 7i cents per inch of cream 
between April and September, and Si cents per inch between Septem- 


ber and April. This factory is well fitted for handling the cream of 
five hundred cows. 

A creamery association was organized at Waterville in November, 
1891, for the purpose of making creamery butter, the enterprise hav- 
ing been started largely through the efforts of E. L. Bradford, of 
Turner, and R. W. Dunn, of Waterville. A creamery was erected at 
Vassalboro in 1892 and began operations in June. 

Instead of five there should be in the county a score of successful 
creameries. The cows, the pasture, the skill, the capital and the 
markets are all awaiting the complete development of this great in- 

Sheep. — Kennebec county has never been so distinctively devoted 
to sheep husbandry as the counties of Somerset and Franklin. Farm- 
ers have always made cattle and horses the specialties in stock lines 
rather than sheep, while the number of cities and large towns in the 
county, with their vast number of predatory dogs, has rendered it a 
matter of great risk to keep large flocks of sheep unless in pastures 
very near the homestead. In hillside pastures remote from the dwell- 
ing, the losses to flocks from roving dogs have always been great and 
have actually driven many farmers out of the business of sheep hus- 
bandry. Yet English sheep were imported into the county as early 
as 1828, and the old Kennebec Agricultural Society early gave atten- 
tion to the importance of the subject and urged it systematically upon 
the notice of farmers. In June, 1832, the society voted to " choose a 
committee to collect information upon the diseases to which sheep 
are subject in this climate, with the prevention and cure; the best 
breeds of sheep and the mode of improving them, with such matter as 
would be useful in a treatise upon sheep generally, should the society 
deem it expedient to publish a work upon this subject." The result 
of this action was the publication, in 1835, of The Northern Shepherd, 
written by Dr. E. Holmes. It is a small 12mo. volume of 131 pages, 
printed at Winthrop, by William Noyes, and is the first distinctively 
agricultural treatise ever published in Maine. 

Doctor Holmes had introduced individuals of the Dishleys or Bake- 
well breed into Winthrop in 1828, from the celebrated flock of Ste- 
phen Williams, of Northboro, Mass., who had himself imported them 
from England. In 1830 others of the same breed were brought into 
Hallowell by Charles Vaughan and Sanford Howard, and also in 1835 
by Reuben H. Green, of Winslow. Charles Vaughan brought some 
pure bred Southdowns into Hallowejl in 1834, being the first of this 
breed ever introduced into the state. In 1844 Doctor Holmes brought 
into Winthrop a Cotswold buck — the first specimen of this breed ever 
brought into Maine. About 1842 several farmers m towns in the 
western part of the county united in purchasing in Vermont a num- 
ber of the Vermont Merinos from the flock of the eminent breeder. 


S. W. Jewett, crossing them upon their own flocks to much advantage. 
The Langs, of Yassalboro. were early and continuous importers and 
improvers of sheep, having always the best flocks of Southdowns and 
Cotswolds. In 1853 Moses Taber, of Vassalboro, obtained individuals 
of the Spanish Merino breed from G. S. Marsh and Eben Bridge, of 
Pomfret, Vt., eminent breeders in that state; from whom Ephraim 
Maxham, of Waterville, obtained the celebrated buck " Green 
Mountain Boy " the same year. In ISoS Rev. W. A. P. Dillingham 
introduced the Oxford Downs and Southdowns upon his farm in Sid- 
ney; H. C. Burleigh introduced into Waterville fine specimens of 
Southdowns the same year, and a few years later specimens of the 
same breed were introduced into Wayne by W. B. Frost; into Au- 
gusta by Allen Lambard; into Readfield by Samuel G. Fogg, and into 
Vienna by Obadiah Whittier. At about the same date the Cotswolds 
were introduced in Vassalboro by Hon. Warren Percival, and into 
Waterville by his brother, Joseph Percival. 

One of the finest, if, indeed, it may not rightfully be called the 
very finest, flocks of Southdowns ever kept in the county was that of 
the late Dr. N. R. Boutelle, of Waterville, who for many years de- 
voted a great deal of attention to the breeding of this class of sheep. 
He was a leading exhibitor and high prize winner at state and New 
England fairs from 1865 to the time of his death, his interest in the 
breeding of stock never having left him, and it was carried on with 
a great deal of intelligence and enthusiasm throughout all these years. 
Other leading farmers who have made a specialty of sheep husbandry 
have been: N. R. Gates and H. G. Abbott, of Vassalboro; the late Ira 
D. Sturgis, of Augusta; C. B. Wellington and O. O. Crosby, of Albion, 
and C. K. Sawtelle, of Sidney. 

Horses. — The first historic mention of efforts at improving the 
breeds of horses of Maine was m March, 1819, when the Kennebec 
Agricultural Society voted to raise a committee to confer with the 
trustees of the Maine Agricultural Society to offer a liberal premium 
for bringing " a good stock " horse into the county; "for," says the 
resolution, " it is with deep concern we can but notice the almost 
total silence and neglect in relation to a noble race of animals— the 
horse." From that day Kennebec county has been the home of some 
of the most distinguished performers upon the American turf, and 
held for one year the crown of the world's record for the fastest stallion 

The foundation of the magnificent horses of Kennebec county rests 
in the blood of " Imported Messenger," of whom so great an authority 
as John H. Wallace says: " He founded a race of trotters that have no 
superiors in'the Union; a race that all the world recognizes as among 
the fastest and best that this country has ever produced." " AVin- 
throp " or " Maine ^Messenger " was purchased in Paris, Oneida county 


N. Y., and brought to Winthrop by Alvin Ilayward— probably after 
the premium provided for in 1819. The testimony is clear that " Win- 
throp Messenger " was a son of '• Imported Messenger," brought from 
England to New York in 1791. Those who saw " Winthrop Messen- 
ger " say he was " a large, white, muscular horse, with a clumsy head, 
but well proportioned body and legs." His colts were superior road- 
sters, very many of them exceedingly fast trotters, posse.ssing great 
endurance. " Winthrop Messenger " was kept in Kennebec and Som- 
erset counties, and died at Anson in 1834. Between 1820 and 1850 his 
descendants became famous and were sought after from all parts of 
the country. Farmers sold their best colts, which were carried to 
other states, where they were trained to the early trotting courses. 

Sanford Howard, who was better informed on the horses of 
America than most writers of his time, said in 1852: " Maine has, un- 
til within a few years, furnished nearly all the trotting stock of any 
note in the country." And Maine, for thirty years preceding that date, 
meant Kennebec county, so far as its horse breeding and agricultural 
interests were in question. Among the famous descendants of old 
" Messenger " which gave renown to Maine and to the breed, are 
many whose names are famous in the annals of the American turf. 
The famous mare, " Fanny Pullen," was bred by Sullivan Pullen, Au- 
gusta, about 1825, and at Harlem, in 1835, made the unparalleled time 
of 2.33. She was the dam of the incomparable " Trustee," the first 
horse in America to trot twenty miles inside of one hour (Long Island, 
October 20, 1848). 

A celebrated horse, " Quicksilver," was brought to Winthrop in 
lS18^by James Pullen, and there was for a time much rivalry between 
the Messenger and Quicksilver stock. The Quicksilvers were hand- 
some, good moving, spirited horses, but lacked endurance. " To 
Winthrop Messenger," says Thompson in his History of Maine Horses, 
" Maine is more largely indebted for whatever speed she may possess 
than to any other source." 

The Drew family was founded in 1842, but the Drews have never 
been so prominent in Kennebec county as have other families. 
" General McClellan," one of the most famous stallions of this family, 
was owned by George M. Robinson, of Augusta, between 1 861 and 1865. 
He got a record of 2.26, was sold to Boston parties and finally went to 
California. The original Eaton horse, founder of the Eaton stock, 
was owned by William Beale, of Winthrop, from 1854 to 1859, and the 
breed has always been in good repute throughout Maine. One of the 
most celebrated of his descendants was " vShepherd F. Knapp," who 
was taken to France, where he trotted famous races at the Bois de 
Boulogne. Another celebrated Eaton horse was "Shepherd Knapp, 
Jr.," purchased m 1866 by George M. Delaney, of Augusta, for $3,250, 


deemed at the time a ver}^ high price. He was sold afterward to go 
to Boston, where he made his best record, 2.27|, June 17, 1880. 

" Winthrop Morrill " (formerly called "Slasher" and " Winthrop 
Boy"), the founder of the celebrated Morrill family of horses, was 
brought to Waterville by Asher Savage in 1862, and in 1863 bought 
by Jackson & Rounds, of Winthrop. In 1871 he was sold and taken 
to Boston. In 1866 Obadiah Whittier, of Vienna, brought to that town 
the stallion " Cadmus," bred by Daniel McMillan, of Xenia, Ohio. He 
was afterward owned by Means & Butler, of Augusta. The thorough- 
bred stallion " Annfield " was brought to Vassalboro, in 1868, by 
Thomas S. Lang, who purchased him of the Nova Scotia government. 
Three years later he was sold and taken to Oxford county. The Fear- 
naughts were introduced into this county by E. L. Norcross, of Man- 
chester, who formed a partnership with B. S. Wright, of Boston, and 
established a horse breeding farm in Manchester in 1866. Among the 
noted members of this family were " Carenaught," "Manchester," 
"Emery Fearnaught," "Young Fearnaught," and " Fearnaught, Jr." 

In 1859 Thomas S. Lang, of Vassalboro, began a breeding stud 
which soon took high rank among the most noted in the country. 
This was maintained for many years and brought Kennebec county 
into great prominence. The first purchase by Mr. Lang consisted of 
the stallions "General Knox," "Bucephalus," "Black Hawk Tele- 
graph," " Grey Fox " and the finely bred brood mare " Priscilla." 
Within a year or two after this first purchase Mr. Lang bought the 
stallions "Sharon," "Ned Davis" and "Trenton." Subsequently he 
purchased the stallions known as the " Palmer Horse " and " Gideon," 
145, by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, 10. Mr. Lang sold " General Knox" 
in 1871 for $10,000. He was one of the most remarkable horses ever 
owned in Maine, and has done more toward improving our stock of 
horses, bringing the state into prominence as a horse breeding state 
and causing more money to come to Maine from other states for the 
purchase of fine horses than any other single horse ever owned here. 
Mr. Lang deserves remembrance as one who builded better than he 
knew when his breeding operations were being carried on. 

Sunnyside Farm, Waterville, home of the stallion " Nelson," was 
established by Charles Horace Nelson, in 1882. Mr. Nelson's stud 
consists of eight leading horses, including " Nelson," 2.10; " Dictator 
Chief," 2.2U: " Red Hawk," 8,508; "Wilkes," 8,571; " Jedwood," 5,166; 
and finely bred trotting stock to the number of seventy-five individ- 
uals. The stallion " NeLson " is now ten years old. His records are; 
Two 3'ear old, 2.50; three year old, 2.26f ; five year old, 2.21^; Bangor, 
Maine, September 10, 1890, 2.15^; Kankakee, 111., September 27, 1890, 
2.12; Kankakee, 111., September 29, 1890, 2.11i; Terre Haut, Ind., Oc- 
tober 9, 1890, 2.11i; Cambridge City, Ind., October 21, 1890, 2.10|. 
This last, the champion trotting stallion record of the world, he held 


until his performance at Grand Rapids, Mich., September, 1891, when 
he lowered his record to 2.10. 

In 1890 Mountain Farm, devoted to the breeding of trotting stock, 
was established at Waterville by Appleton Webb, and for the brief 
time it has been under Mr. Webb's management has won high repu- 
tation. Mr. Webb has now about thirty fancy bred trotters, the lead- 
ing individuals being " Pickering," by Rysdyk's Hambletonian; 
"Resolute" (record at five years, 2.26i); "Mountaineer," "Judge 
Rolfe," and "Appleton," by "Nelson;" and mares by "Nelson," 
" Young Rolfe," "Rockefeller" and "Gideon." 

Many single individuals of great speed or high value to the im- 
provement of the horse stock of the county have been bred or owned 
at different periods in the various towns in the county, among the 
most prominent of which have been the following: Emperor, bred by 
Lemuel Pullen,AVaterville, about 1827; Young Warrior, bred by James 
Pullen, Hallowell, in 1828; James G. Blaine, bred by James Blanch- 
ard, Pittston, in 1866; Col. Lakeman, bred by George M. Robinson, 
Augusta, in 1861; Independence, bred by Captain Joshua Wing, Win- 
throp, in 1832; Pelham, owned by B. Esmond, Gardiner, in 1837; Phil 
Sheridan, bred by Daniel Fawsett, Windsor, in 1860; Whirlpool, bred 
by Moses Stacy, Benton, in 1867; Troublesome, bred by William Pen- 
niman, Readfield, in 18i")9; Young Ethan Allen, bred by Eliab L. Eaton, 
Manchester, in 1860; Carlotta, bred by W. A. P. Dillingham, Sidney, 
in 1857: Sultan, a thoroughbred stallion, brought to Augusta by Gen- 
eral William S. Tilton,in 1875; Lancaster, brought to Augusta in 1873, 
by Allen Lambard; Black Pilot, owned by Major John T. Richards, of 
Gardiner, in 1875; Beacon, owned by Wright & Norcross, Manchester, 
in 1873; Victor, bred by Dr. F. A. Roberts, Vassalboro; Zac Tajdor, 
bred by Doctor Saflford, West Gardiner, in 1841; Susie Owen, bred by 
C. H. Nelson, Waterville, in 1877; Pilot Knox, owned by John H. May, 
Augusta, in 1883; Independence, bred by Frank Taylor, South Vassal- 
boro, and owned by W. E. Potter, Augusta, in 1871; Constellation, 
brought from Lexington, Ky,, in 1878, by General W. S. Tilton, 
Augusta; Glenarm, bred by General W. S. Tilton, Augusta; Gilbreth 
Knox, bred by Samuel Guild, Augusta, in 1862; Echo, bred by Andrew 
H. Rice, Oakland, about 1872: Captain Pulley, 2,985, an imported Per- 
cheron, brought to Waterville in 1883, by Blaisdell & Folsom; and 
Arrival, 2.24-J-, brought to Gardiner in 1889, by A. J. Libby. 

The leading horse breeding farms now in the county besides those 
already mentioned in detail are: Highmoor Farm, Monmouth; Enter- 
prise Farm, Augusta; Elmwood Farm, Augusta; Randolph Stock Farm, 
Randolph; Pine Grove Farm, Hallowell; and Pine Tree Stock Farm, 

Kennebec Tzvo-T/nrty List. — The list below embraces the name, 
breeder's name, and time of each horse bred in Kennebec county that 


had a record of 2.30 or better to the close of the season of 1891. 
Horses not bred here, and about whose pedigree there is any question, 
are not included: 


Arthur John Judkins, Waterville 2.28^ 

Arthur T Mr. Palmer, South China 2.30 

Artist C. H. Nelson, Waterville 2.29 

Aubine C. H. Nelson, Waterville 2.19^ 

Baby Boy Emmons Williams, Readfield 2.30 

Bay Chas. B. Oilman, Waterville 2.27^ 

Ben Morrill Harrison Ames, Winthrop 2.27 

Centurion F. G. Richards. Gardiner 2.27^ 

Ed. Getchell A. J. Crowell, AVinthrop .2.27" 

Gilbreth ;Knox Samuel Guild, Augusta 2.26f 

Glenarm W. S. Tilton , Togus, Augusta 2.23* 

Glengarry Isaac Downing, East Monmouth 2.27 

Honest Harry Mr. Wood, Winthrop 2.22^ 

Hudson Elijah Brimmer, Clinton 2.29 

Independence Joshua Wing, Winthrop 2.28 

Independence [Potter's]. Frank Taylor, South Vassalboro 2.21^ 

lolanthe John C. Mullen, North A^assalboro 2.30 

James G. Blaine James Blanchard, Pittston 2.28f 

John S. Heald John Libby, Gardiner 2.27i 

J. G. Morrill John F. Young, Winthrop 2.29 

Knox Boy I. J. Carr, Gardiner 2.23* 

Lady Maud Thomas S. Lang, Vassalboro 2.18^ 

Medora C. H. Nelson, Waterville 2.20i 

Molly Mitchell J. S. Cooper, Pittston 2.26^ 

Nellie M Foster Brown, Waterville 2.28i 

Nelson C. H. Nelson, Waterville 2.10 

Pelham ■ B. Esmond, Gardiner 2.28 

Pemberton E. L. Norcross, Manchester 2.29^ 

Sam Curtis Newton Packard, Winthrop 2.28 

Startle A. C. Marston, Waterville 2.26^ 

Susie Owen... C. H. NeLson, Waterville 2.26 

Tinnie B John Libby, Gardiner 2.27i 

Tom Rolfe Wright & Norcross, Manchester 2.22i 

Victor F. A. Roberts, Vassalboro 2.23 

The great interest in horse breeding in this county has led to the 
formation of several local trotting associations and the building of 
many private and society tracks. Agricultural societies in Readfield, 
Waterville, Windsor, Pittston and West Gardiner, maintain public 
tracks. Tracks were built at Monmouth in 1871; at Litchfield in 1870; 
at China in 1868; and at Gardiner, Oakland Park, in 1855. These 
tracks have since been abandoned. The track at Augusta, now under 


control of the Capital Driving Park Association, dates back to 1858, 
and has been maintained to the present time with but few intermis- 
sions, although under management of different individuals and asso- 
ciations. Six private tracks have been built in the county at different 
times, four of which are now maintained, viz.: H. C. Nelson, Water- 
ville; Appleton Webb, Waterville; A. J. Libby, Farmingdale: W. H. 
Merrill, Meadow Park, West Gardiner. The abandoned private tracks 
are those built by the late George M. Robinson, Augusta, in 1872; and 
by the late Allen Lambard, Augusta, about 1873. 

An act, framed by General William S. Tilton, and approved Feb- 
ruary 26, 1873, " for the better preservation of horse records," required 
the registry of stallions and their pedigrees to be recorded at the 
registry of deeds, and a certificate of such registry issued to the owner 
of the horse recorded. 

Orchards. — Kennebec county— the natural home of the apple tree 
— is pre-eminently the fruit-growing section of Maine. While other 
counties located contiguously have similar natural advantages, Kenne- 
bec exceeds all other counties in the state in the number and size of 
its apple orchards, the good methods given to the business of growing 
and handling the fruit by farmers and the high results obtained. The 
natural drainage is excellent on most farms, or at least on those por- 
tions set with orchards. The climate produces a highly colored, good 
sized, firm fleshed apple that will bear trans-Atlantic shipment.* 

For the first systematic improvement of the fruits of Kennebec 
county we must go back to 1797, when Mr. John Hesketh came over 
to this country as the head gardener of the Vaughan farms and to 
have charge of their extensive gardens, nurseries and hot-houses. To 
his skill more, perhaps, than to the knowledge of Doctor Vaughan 
himself, are the farmers of Kennebec county indebted for the choice 
varieties of fruits that were disseminated from the Vaughan gardens, 
some of which are esteemed varieties in cultivation at the present 

The fruit propagated at the Vaughan farms was largely dissemi- 
nated in the leading agricultural towns in the county at that time — 
Hallowell, Winthrop, Monmouth, Readfield, Pittston and Vassalboro. 
The early settlers of these towns brought apple seeds with them from 
the Old Colony, whence they came, or had them sent after they had 
provided a place to plant them. Writing in 1847, Major Elijah Wood 
says that when he came to Winthrop in 1788, there were a number of 
farmers who had "beginnings of orchards," and upon the farm of 
Squire Bishop was an orchard in a " bearing state," the trees of which 
came from apple seed obtained from " Rehoboth, Mass.," and planted 
in a nursery in that town. Ichabod How brought choice seeds from 

♦Notwithstanding the recent ravages of the new orchard pest, trxpcta potnon- 
alis, new orchards are continually being set. 


Ipswich, Mass., planted out the first orchard and made the first cider 
ever made in Winthrop, by pounding the apples and pressing them in 
a cheese press. The grafting in Winthrop was done by Elijah 
Wood, who brought the Rhode Island Greening and High-top Sweet- 
ing from the Old Colony and grafted them into trees in David Foster's 
orchard about 1792. " Winthrop became celebrated for its cider of 
good quality," says Major Wood, " and the first owners of orchards 
had a ready sale for all their apples at about 67 cents per bushel." 
Isaac Smith, who settled in Monmouth in 1795, coming from Middle- 
borough, Mass., brought with him seed selected from the hardiest and 
best fruit, and planted a nursery in that town. Among the varieties 
of apples known to have been introduced from England by the 
Vaughans were the Ribston Pippin and King Sweeting; while Hallo- 
well is to-day famous for its magnificent cherries, the direct product 
of those imported by the A^aughans, and so famous in their own time. 
The Pearmain was the principal winter apple, all the others being 
manufactured into cider. 

The late Alfred Smith, of Monmouth, writing in 1877. said: " The 
pioneer farmers of Winthrop were very little versed in the art of 
grafting or budding trees, and it was thought to require as much skill 
to set a scion and have it grow as to amputate an arm or leg." The 
farmers who raised large quantities of apples made them into cider, 
which was a universal beverage, " put in " with a winter's supply of 
necessaries by the well-to-do people, as much as was pork or home 
made butter and cheese. Mr. Smith said that cider sold at from " six 
to eight dollars per barrel," a market for it being found in the newer 
towns in Franklin and Somerset counties. When cider was the most 
profitable product of the orchard there was no inducement to " en- 
graft " orchards or seek the best table fruits — hence it is not strange 
that the first farmers reared up trees without a thought for quality or 
merit of fruit. 

The state owes more to the late Dr. Ezekiel Holmes for his efforts 
in the improvement of our own varieties of apples than to any other 
man who ever lived in Maine. In 1847 he organized the Maine Pomo- 
logical Society, which did the first work in classifying our Maine 
fruits, properly describing them, and bringing them to the attention of 
pomologists in other states. When S. W. Cole published his American 
Fruit Book, in 1849, he made special acknowledgments to Doctor 
Holmes for great assistance, and catalogued ten varieties of apples 
that originated in Maine, five of which were Winthrop seedlings. 
Later lists in the transactions of the Maine State Pomological Society 
embrace eleven apples and one pear which originated in this county. 
Winthrop contributes six varieties, viz.: Fairbanks, originated on the 
farm of Elijah Fairbanks; Winthrop Greening, originated on the farm 
of Ichabod How, introduced by Jacob Nelson; Winthrop Pearmain 


and Everlasting, originated by Colonel John Fairbanks: vStanle}''s 
Winter Sweet, originated on the farm of J. L. Stanley, and Moses 
Wood, originated by Moses Wood. Other native apples of this county 
are: Bailey's Golden Sweet, originated by Paul Bailey, Sidney; Litch- 
field Pippin, originated upon the farm of William Hutchins, Litch- 
field; Smith's Favorite, originated by Isaac Smith, Monmouth; and 
Starkey, originated by J. W. Starkey, Vassalboro. The Nickerson 
pear was originated by Hiram S. Nickerson, Readfield. 

Many other good varieties of lesser note have been raised by Ken- 
nebec county orchardists, and several small fruits have also been 
originated here, among them the 0.sborn strawberry, a seedling much 
esteemed in the Waterville and Augusta markets, brought out by the 
late Charles Osborn, of Vassalboro. The growing of small fruits is re- 
ceiving increased attention, especially in towns which command the 
markets of the cities and large villages. 

There are several localities in the count}- especiall}' favorable to 
the cranberry and where the Cultivation of this fruit might be ex- 
tended to a profitable degree. Many persons grow them to a limited 
extent, while among the larger growers were formerly D. E. Manter, 
Sidney; and at present the Ware Brothers, Pittston, the late B. F. 
Butler, Mt. Vernon, and Eben Wellman, Augusta. The small cran- 
berry beds of the late Mr. Fuller are kept in excellent condition b}^ 
members of his family and yield very fine fruit. The Ware Brothers 
raised about 250 bushels in 1891. Mr. Wellman has the most exten- 
sive cranberry beds in the county and gives almost his entire time to 
the crop, having commenced their culture in a small way in 1878, but 
devoting increased attention to their systematic culture during the 
past seven years. His cranberry farm is located in the eastern part 
of Augusta and the beds embrace an area of seven acres, all cut into a 
uniform size of two rods in width by forty rods in length — the soil 
being a deep, rich, vegetable mold or muck. Between and around 
each and all the beds a canal is cut, into which water is conducted 
from a reservoir of six acres in extent, the canals being arranged with 
a series of gates so that the water can be let in over one or all of the 
beds as is desired. By leaving the gates open at night the beds are 
all covered with water before morning of sufficient depth to protect 
the berries from frost in the fall of the year, while in the spring the 
same method is employed to prevent the attacks of injurious insects. 
Mr. Wellman 's crop in 1891 was 170 barrels, the variety grown being 
the Cherry, and they have a high reputation in the leading markets. 

Among the largest orchards and most intelligent, progressive fruit 
growers in the county are: W. P. Atherton, Hallowell, 2,000 trees; J. 
Pope & Son, Manchester, 1,500 trees; D. M. Marston, Monmouth, 1,200 
trees; Rev. J. R. Day, Monmouth, 2,600 trees; George W. Waugh, 
Monmouth, 1,200 trees; Miss L. L. Taylor, Belgrade; C. M. Weston, 


Belgrade, 2,000 apple trees, 400 pear trees: George A. Longfellow. 
Winthrop; Oakes Howard, Winthrop: J. M. Pike, Wayne, 3,000 trees 
J. C. Sanford, Readfield; J. H. Smiley, Vassalboro; the Cook Brothers 
Vassalboro, 3,000 trees; J. Wesley Taylor, Winslow; George W. Fogg 
Monmouth, 1,000 trees; J. Colby Dudley, Readfield; J. O. Butman 
Readfield; George H. Pope, East Vassalboro: The Oaklands Orchard 
heirs of Robert Hallowell Gardiner estate, Gardiner; and Albert R 
Ward, China, 700 trees. 

The estimate of apple buyers and shippers is that upon an average 
90,000 barrels of choice commercial apples are annually shipped from 
the towns in Kennebec county to the great markets, one-fourth of 
which are sent abroad. 

An effort was made by the State Pomological Society in 1876 to 
collect information regarding the nurseries of the county and the 
number of trees in stock, with a view to keeping at home much of the 
money paid out to foreign nurserymen and at the same time obtain- 
ing a tree better adapted to this soil and climate. There were found 
six nursery firms then in the county, with the following number of 
trees in stock: A. Smith & Son, Monmouth, 3,000; H. B. Williams, 
South China, 3,000; N. R. Pike, Winthrop, 10,000; Charles I. Perley, 
Vassalboro, 20,000; J. A. Varney & Son, North Vassalboro, 40,000: 
Bowman Brothers, Sidney, 75,000; a total of 151,000 trees. 

Other intelligent, active and progressive pomologists of the county, 
held in grateful veneration for their services to this branch of our 
rural economy, are: Joseph Taylor, of Belgrade, a leading orchardist 
and large exhibitor of fruits at state fairs, who died in July, 1882, 
aged 78 years; Alfred Smith, of Monmouth, who died February 19, 
1885, aged 77 years, a large orchardist and well known writer on 
pomological subjects for the agricultural press; and Hon. Robert Hal- 
lowell Gardiner, owner of the celebrated estate " The Oaklands," and 
of its famous orchard of Bellflowers, in Gardiner, a life member and 
for four years president of the State Pomological Society, who died 
September 12, 1886, aged 77 years. 

Conclusion.— This glimpse of what the farmers of Kennebec 
county have accomplished during the past century in the special 
lines for " the improvement of agriculture and bettering the condi- 
tion of the husbandman," presupposes that in other directions equal 
intelligence and progressive views have been employed and as high 
results obtained. 

All the cereals, fruits and vegetables known to the agriculture of 
this latitude are here rai.sed to perfection. Hay, the great staple crop, 
yields upon our farms more than the average ton to the acre which 
the agricultural department credits the state with producing. In 
early times the county raised its own wheat, and even exported it; 
and now wherever wheat is sown it produces an average yield higher 


than that of the wheat growing states of the West. Indian corn is 
the glory of the farm as a cereal. One hundred bushels of shelled 
corn to the acre have been many times raised as a premium crop, 
while the average is but little above one hundred bushels of ears to 
the acre. 

Sweet corn has for many years been a specialty. Packing factories 
have been established at Winthrop, Wayne, Fayette, Monmouth, Vas- 
salboro, Belgrade, Oakland, West Gardiner and Hallowell. The crop 
yields about $50 per acre, leaving the stalks for winter fodder. The 
use of ensilaged corn fodder is successfully employed, especially by 
milk producing farmers, who, living in the vicinity of our cities, are 
known to be among the best and most prosperous farmers in the 
county, paying great attention to their herds and keeping their farms 
in the most fertile condition. In fact, in all lines of rural economy 
the farmers of Kennebec county have made husbandry a business and 
a study, the successful results of which are apparent all over our beau- 
tiful hills and through our lovely valleys, in every town and district, 
where comfortable homes and well tilled farms speak of industry, 
economy and independence. 



Early Methods of Travel.— Stage Routes.— Water Routes and Steamboats.— 
Captain Jason Collins. — Railroads. 

IN THE present day of rapid steam and electric transportation by 
land and water, when the people and products of towns and cities 
removed from one another by the length and breadth of the state 
are transferred in the course of a single day, it is hard to adequately 
appreciate the almost insuperable obstacles that lay in the way of 
intercourse between the early settlements. The river was of course 
the main thoroughfare, whenever practicable, and in the warmer 
months was traversed by bateaux, shallops and other primitive craft, 
while in the winter rude sledges were employed in conveying stores 
and family goods upon its frozen surface. The means of communica- 
tion with the county from the earlier settlements to the westward 
were many-fold more difficult, and days and weeks were consumed in 
toilsomely driving ox-teams, loaded with the lares and penates of the 
household, through a wilderness to which the early guides were the 
blazed and spotted trees, commemorative of a still earlier migration of 
hardy pioneers. 

In 1754 the first military road in the state was made between Forts 
Western and Halifax. This was done by order of Governor Shirley, 
who at the same time made arrangements for the transmission of ex- 
presses by whale boats from Fort Halifax to Portland in twenty hours, 
returning in twenty-four. The military road being impassable in 
winter, owing to the depth of snow, barrels of provisions and other 
stores were carried from the lower to the upper fort on hand sleds. 
This occasioned Captain Hunter to say to the governor that he had 
been obliged to give the men who had hauled the sleds large quanti- 
ties of rum, without which it would have been impossible to have 
done anything. Thus it seems that in those days, long before the use 
of steam power, rictn power was used — the active spirit of progress. 

The rude vehicles used at that time made transportation doubly 
slow and tedious. Augusta was the center of cart lines to the towns 
up the river, and the roads, even in the early part of the nineteenth 


century, were little better than rough clearings through the forests. 
Over these primitive " thoroughfares " Major Thomas Beck ran a 
truck team for goods to Bath, during the winter; and as late as about 
the winter of 1836, Samuel C. Grant, who owned the cotton (now a 
woolen) mill at Gardiner, sent his son, William S., to Wiscasset with 
a rude sled, on which was a bale of cloth to be shipped to Boston. 

Prior to 1790 the only mode of individual travel was by foot or on 
horseback. The first wheel carriage was a venerable chaise, already 
outlawed by fashion in Boston. It was brought to Gardiner about 
1790, by Mr. Hallowell, and was called by its owner " the parish 
chaise," for the appropriate reason that the entire parish borrowed it. 
When General Dearborn returned from congress the first time, he 
brought a Philadelphia wagon, which was the wonder of the inhabit- 
ants, though there was not more than a mile of road on which it 
could be run. 

As may be readily imagined, the transmission of the mails in the 
early days was conducted in the most primitive manner. About 1790 
the first mail was carried on horseback to Gardiner, from Portland, 
through Monmouth and Winthrop, and it is chronicled that " the road 
was very much improved about this time." The next mail was car- 
ried in 1794, from Portland, via Wiscasset to Augusta. In 1795 Ben- 
jamin Allen, the first postmaster of Winthrop, and Matthew Blossom, 
of Monmouth, took the contract to carry the mail once a week on 
horseback between those places. In 1803 Jacob Loud, the second post- 
master at Pittston, carried the mail from Wiscasset to Gardiner on 
horseback and from Gardiner to Augusta in a canoe. Early in the 
present century, however, the stage, usually carrying the mail, began 
to make its appearance in the county. The first stages were rude and 
torturing conveyances, and in speed and comfort bore about the same 
relation to the Concord coach of later days that that vehicle now bears 
to the railway passenger coach. 

Stage Routes.— The first stage came to Augusta in 1806, and the 
first to Gardiner in 1811. Both started from Brunswick. Colonel T. 
S. Estabrook, of the latter town, ran the x\ugusta stage, making bi- 
weekly trips. From thirteen to twenty-three hours were required for 
the transit, the route being the same over which Colonel Estabrook 
had carried the mail on horseback, in 1802, for the first time. Peter 
Gilman, who still carried the mail from Augusta to Norridgewock, in- 
formed the public, in June, 1806, that " he leaves Norridgewock with 
a stage on Monday and Thursday at six o'clock in the morning and 
arrives at Hallowell the evening of the same day at seven." Truly a 
wonderful performance ! 

In 1807 John and Meshach Blake and Levi Moody began running 
the first line of stages from Hallowell to Portland, via Augusta, Mon- 
mouth and New Gloucester. They left Hallowell at 4 a. m., and ar- 


rived in Portland at 7 P. M. In 1810 the western stage left Augusta 
early in the morning, in season for passengers to breakfast at Bruns- 
wick, dine at Freeport and reach Portland in the evening. Leaving 
Portland early the next day, breakfast was taken at Kennebunk, din- 
ner at Portsmouth and the night was spent at Newburyport. The 
following morning it left Newburyport at two o'clock, arrived at 
Salem about daylight and reached Boston early in the forenoon. In 
1812 Peter Gilman contracted to carry a weekly mail from Augusta to 
Bangor, via Vassalboro and China, at which places fresh relays of 
from four to six horses were in waiting. Previous to this, Colonel 
Moses Burleigh, grandfather of the governor, conveyed the first car- 
riage mail between Augusta and Bangor. In 1810 John Homan, Vas- 
salboro, carried a weekly mail on horseback from Augusta eastward, 
and afterward, in 1815, drove a bi-weekly stage over the .same route. 

In 1827 an hourly stage between Augusta and Gardiner was at- 
tempted by Smith L. Gale, of the former town; and William E. Robin- 
son, of Hallowell, began running a coach once in two hours between 
that town and Gardiner. The first venture was not a success, and it 
was not until 1834 that the enterprise became permanent. At that 
time David Landers, father of William J. Landers, began hourly trips 
between the two places, and continued the business until the opening 
of the Maine Central railroad. 

About 1830 Solomon Brown was an old mail contractor between 
Augusta and Freeport, connecting at the latter place with Kennebec 
and Portland stages. This was called the Union Line. It was sold in 
1848, to Crowell & Baker. From 1850 to 1854 Joshua Strout was the 
stage proprietor, and Thomas Holmes was one of his drivers. The 
route was afterward sold to Addison Townsend, and lastly to Vas.sal 
D. Pinkham, the latter only running from Augusta to Little River. 

It was not until shortly before 1840 that mail coaching entered 
upon its palmiest days, and four and six horse teams, crowded with 
passengers, ran daily between Portland and Augusta, passing through 
Litchfield and West Gardiner. 

Of more importance than the railroad to the community now was 
the old stage line for the transmission^of mail and passengers between 
Augusta and Bangor. It was the direct through line. Leaving either 
town at 7 a. m. each day, the place of destination was reached in early 
evening. The old thoroughbrace coaches were first in use, but about 
1849 the Concord coaches were adopted. A change of horses was made 
at Vassalboro after a short, sharp drive from Augusta, then again at 
China, then Unity, and every few miles until Bangor was reached. 
The same horses were changed and driven back by the .same driver 
the next day on his return trip. Seventeen horses were kept at Vas- 
salboro, and this was an average number for each station. The pres- 
ent large barn of^the Vassalboro Hotelfwas then the stage barn. Shaw 


& Billings, of Bangor, were the proprietors. They perfected the busi- 
ness, and the older residents well remember the richly caparisoned 
coaches and the two or three spans of well matched horses to each 

The drivers were men of note in those days, and he who could 
dexterously handle six horses and safely make the schedule time, 
was a greater personage than the proprietor and, in his own opinion 
at least, held a superior position to that of the chief magistrate. Many 
will remember John Deering and his two brothers, Jabe Sawings, 
Libby, Bennett, Hale Freeman, Crowell, Isaac Holmes of Augusta, 
David Crockett, and Benjamin Mitchell, the crack of whose whips was 
familiar all along the line, as the rocking, heavily-laden coaches wound 
their way through shady vale and over lofty hill. 

Water Routes and Steamboats. — During the development of 
the facilities for transportation by land, a like progress was being made 
on the river. Waterways, the world over, were the first thorough- 
fares, and rivers are the oldest highways. The Kennebec afforded the 
Indians an open passage from the Sebasticock to the sea, before 
Columbus was born or Caesar had crossed the Rubicon. Equally ser- 
viceable was the river to the pioneer — its shining way with undeviat- 
ing flow, his one sure path, by sunless day or starless night. Its 
buoyant bosom was his highway of exploration, and from its friendly 
banks diverged the tree-blazed roads that led to his clearing and his 
home. At once a producer and a consumer, the river was his natural 
avenue of commerce, and the vehicles and methods that were first in 
use are matters of curious interest. The settlers had little time or 
skill to construct bark canoes such as the Indians made, and when 
made they were too frail for lasting service, so the " dug out " was the 
primitive boat, and after saw mills were running flat bottomed boats 
of various kinds came into universal use. Of these, the bateau, a long, 
narrow boat, is the principal survivor, being still the log driver's 

But there was one kind of river craft — indispensable in its day, 
that has become extinct, known as the " long boat " — built from 60 to 
95 feet in length, IS to 20 feet wide, especially designed for transport- 
ing heavy freight, but fitted also with comfortable cabins for passen- 
gers, including lodging and meals. Each boat had two masts that 
could be lowered going under bridges, with square sails, main and 
wing, above which was the top-gallant-royal sail. The peculiarity of 
these boats was, that they went down the river with the current, but 
could return only with a good southerly wind, for which they must 
wait — sometimes indefinitely. 

Some of these carried over one hundred tons. Mathews & Oilman 
built the Eagle at Waterville, in 1826, and loaded her with wheat in 
charge of Walter Getchell as supercargo, who sold it at the various 


landings " down river " for from sixty to eighty cents per bushel, dis- 
posing of the last at Bath, where he took on a return cargo of one hun- 
dred hogsheads of salt. 

These boats could and did go through the rapids at Augusta before 
the dam was built there, and with a good wind they had no trouble in 
returning to Waterville with full loads. Occasionally, however, they 
met with mishaps, and sometimes they were wrecked. This was the 
fate of the Eagle. On a return trip, with a full load of merchan- 
dise and a light wind, oxen were employed, as was often the case, to 
pull her up the Old Coon rapids. By some cessation of the towage, 
the current swung the boat athwart a rock with such force that it 
broke completely in two, dumping its cargo of molasses, sugar, rum, 
hardware and dry goods into the river, whence the damaged packages 
were recovered when quiet water was reached; but the poor Eagle was 
a dead bird. A like misfortune befel the Kite, built by William and 
Walter Getchell. With a load of 700 bushels of potatoes she was 
twisted and dashed broad.side against a pier of the Augusta bridge- 
boat and potatoes a total loss. 

As early as 1796 George Crosby, of Hallowell, ran the Keiinebec 
Packet, Captain Samuel Patterson, master, between that place and Bos- 
ton; and before that time, but in the same year. Captain Patterson re- 
ported the fourth trip of the. sloop Courier, the settlement of accounts 
naming as owners George Crosby, John Sheppard, David Cutler, John 
Molloy , Edmund Freeman and Chandler Robbins. Other packets that 
were irregularly run, later on, from Augusta and Hallowell, were the 
Catharine, owned by Thomas Norris, which was dismasted in 1814 on 
a trip to Boston, and the Kennebec Trader, commanded by Captain Carr, 
who lost his mate, Elisha Nye, overboard in the same storm. The 
channel not being deep enough for these vessels to reach Waterville, 
the " long boats "' previously mentioned were employed at Augusta to 
convey consignments from them to points above. 

In 1824 the Traders' Line, plying between Augusta and Boston, 
was established. It comprised the schooners Actress, Captain G. O. 
West; Sidney, Captain G. A. Dickman; and Emerald, Captain P. B. 
Lewis. It is said that their accommodations secured " comfort and 
convenience to passengers." The first regular line of passenger 
packets, with the time advertised, between Hallowell and Boston, was 
started about 1831. One of the captains was Andrew Brown. In 1845 
two lines of packets were started froin Hallowell to Boston, and were 
to leave from Augusta when the river channel had been deepened. 
Flagg's Line was composed of the schooners Gazelle, Captain Elisha 
Springer; the Van Buren, Captain T. R. Pool; Advent, Captain Soule; 
and Jane, Captain T. S. Ingraham. The Union Line contained the 
schooners Somerset, Captain Hinckley; the M'aterville, Captain W. H. 
Heath; Harriet Ann, Captain William Reed, jun., and Consul, Captain 


A. L. Gove. Other old captains on the Kennebec in those days were: 
Major Thomas Beck, Charles H. Beck, Jo. Beck, George W. Perry, 
Tillinghast Springer (son of Job and brother of Elisha), Jacob Britt, 
Joshua Bowler, Samuel Gill, jun., Gustavus Dickman and Samuel and 
Alfred Beale. 

During the era of the packet boats steam was of course being grad- 
ually used for locomotion, both on land and water; and long before 
passenger sailing craft ceased running on the river, the steamboat, in 
a crude and ungainly form, began to ruffle the surface of the beautiful 
stream. The first of these vessels was fitted up from an open scow at 
Alna, by its owner, Jonathan Alorgan, a lawyer. In it he paid Gardi- 
ner a visit in 1819, tying up at Gay's wharf. Captain Morgan came by 
way of Wiscasset, and his queer craft drew crowds wherever it made 
a landing. Another steamer, called the Experivicjit, made her ap- 
pearance on the river soon after Attorney Morgan had produced his 
pioneer boat. 

The year 1823 is memorable as the date of the building of the 
steamer Waterville at Bath, by Captain Samuel Porter, and the open- 
ing of the first steam route from Bath to Augusta the same season, by 
this boat, under command of Captain E. K. Bryant. Captain Porter 
bought in New York, the same season, the steamer Patent, which he 
put on the route from Portland to Boston, advertising to make the run 
in \1\ hours. The next year (1824-) the Patent ran from Boston to 
Bath, where she connected with the Waterville for Augusta. In 1826 
the Patent, Captain Harry Kimball, opened the first through route 
from Gardiner to Portland. The Waterville was laid off that season, 
and the small steamer, Experiment, ran from Bath to Augusta. For 
the next three years the Patent held and made popular the Gardiner 
and Portland route. In 1830 the Patent did not run above Bath, at 
which place she connected with the Waterville for Augusta; and in 
1831 no steamer ran regularly on the river above Bath. 

The village of Gardiner was a center of great activity in 1832. A 
boat that became noted, the stern-wheel steamer Tieonic, was built 
where the public library building now stands, and completed in May, 
for a Mr. Blanchard, of Springfield, Mass., at a cost of $8,000. On the 
first day of June she made the historic trip to Waterville, whose citi-" 
zens received her with manifestations of the wildest joy. This stanch 
little steamer, under the command, successively, of Captains J. Flitner, 
S. Smith and Nathan Faunce, ran regularly from Gardiner to Water- 
ville until interrupted by the river dam at Augusta in 1835. The dam 
company made the lock so short that the Tieonic could not pass. After 
this the Tieonic was the only regular boat, for a time, between Gardi- 
ner and Bath. There was, however, a petite little steamer called the 
Tom Thumb, that made irregular trips on the river. In 1835 the 


steamer McDonougJi, Captain Nathaniel Kimball, was put on the route 
from Hallowell to Portland, but was taken off in 1836. 

In the spring of 1836 a stock company was formed in Gardiner, and 
bought a steamer to rim between Gardiner and Boston. Nathaniel 
Kimball, Parker Sheldon and Henry Bowman were chosen directors 
and at once purchased the steamer Nczv England, a fast boat built for 
Long Island sound travel, and opened the new route from Gardiner to 
Boston about the first of June, making two round trips per week, Cap- 
tain Nathaniel Kimball commander, and Captain Solomon Blanchard 
pilot — " fare $4 and found." The Nciv England was an elegant boat 
in those times, 170 feet long and of over three hundred tons burden. 
The Teutonic connected with her at Gardiner for upper towns. 

In 1837 the McDonongli, Captain Andrew Brown, was again run on 
the Kennebec, from Hallowell to Portland, but the next year her 
place was taken by the little steamer Clifton, Captain William Bryan. 

The Neiv England made the Gardiner and Boston route so popular 
and profitable that an opposition movement had culminated in the 
construction of the Augusta. It was built by Cornelius Vanderbilt, 
and was advertised as about ready to run from Hallowell to Boston 
when, on the morning of June 1, 1838, while on a regular trip, the 
N CIV England QoWiA&d. with the schooner Curlciv,o'S. Boon island, re- 
ceiving injuries from which she sunk, having barely time to transfer 
her passengers to the schooner. Parker Sheldon and Captain Kim- 
ball went at once to Norwich, Conn., and chartered the new steamer 
Huntress, and put her in the place of the wrecked boat. Competition 
on the Kennebec route now became active. Cornelius Vanderbilt, of 
New York, put on the W. C. Peck, Captain A. Brown, as an opposition 
boat, running from Hallowell to Boston. This boat not proving fast 
enough, Captain Brown was transferred to the new steamer Augusta, 
which was substituted in her place. 

But the Augusta was not fast enough to compete with the Huntress, 
and Commodore Vanderbilt sent on a steamer bearing his own name, 
which arrived here September 3d, under Captain Brown. Competition 
became intense and a trial of speed was inevitable. The Vanderbilt 
sent a challenge one day at Boston, which the Huntress accepted and 
won the race, arriving at Gardiner the next morning about a mile 
ahead, after a most exciting night. The warmth of public feeling 
over such contests in those days can hardly be understood in our rail- 
road era. At the close of the season the Huntress was re-chartered for 
the next season. Commodore Vanderbilt, beaten at racing, changed 
the game and won. He bought the Huntress, subject to the lease, and 
notified the Kennebec company that he should run her, paying them, 
of course, what damages the courts should award; or he would sell 
them the boat for $10,000 more than he had given for her and forever 


leave the route. The offer was accepted, the money paid, and there 
was no more opposition for several years. 

In 1841 a new era began in the transportation of passengers to and 
from Boston. The steamer Jolin W. Richmond, Captain Kimball, was 
placed on the route by night twice a week, and the Huntress, Captain 
Thomas G. Jewett, was on the route by day twice a week. The steamer 
J\L Y. Beach went three times a week to Portsmouth, where she con- 
nected with the Eastern railroad, This .schedule was continued 
through the season. In 1842 the Ricluitond cut down the fare to two 
dollars. The Huntress then combined with the railroad line, via Port- 
land, with fare one dollar to Boston — the lowest yet seen. In June, 
1842, the steamer Telegrapli was put on as an opposition boat, with fare 
one dollar; and July 10th the steamer Splendid was commissioned, 
with the cry " No opposition, fare one dollar, or as low as any other 
boat on the route." She was followed, July 28th, by the Riclnnond, 
advertising " fares to Boston, until further notice, twenty-five cents." 
The Richmond was burned at her dock in Hallowell Sunday night, 
September 3d. She was valued at $37,000 and was owned by Rufus 
K. Page and Captain Kimball, who, within a week, replaced her with 
the Penobscot, a larger boat than any that had preceded her. During 
the season of 1844 the Penobscot ran on the all water route from 
Hallowell to Boston; the Telegraph first and then the Huntress run- 
ning four trips per week from Hallowell, connecting with the railroad 
at Bath. 

In the spring of 184,'5 the People's Line, a stock company, was or- 
ganized, with William Bradstreet, Samuel Watts, John Jewett, Green- 
lief White, E. W. Farley, B. C. Bailey and Henry Weeks, directors. 
The citizens of the Kennebec valley bought the stock readily, and the 
People's Line placed the new steamer/^/;;/ Marshall, Captain Andrew 
Brown, in opposition to the Penobscot. After June the elegant Kenne- 
bec took the Marsiiall's place, and a small steamer was run in connec- 
tion with her between Hallowell and Waterville, to compete with the 
Water Witch and Balloon, which ran to the Marshall. 

The season of 1846 opened briskly, the fare to Boston being only 
twenty-five cents. The Kennebec was the regular line steamer, while 
the People's Line put on the John Marshall, Captain Brown, and the 
Charter Oak, Captain Davis Blanchard. The steamers Flushing and 
Bellinghani formed a line between Augusta and Bath, a boat leaving 
each of these places every morning. Before summer came the two 
lines were consolidated, the John Marshall was sold, and the Kennebec 
and Charter Oak ran on alternate days the balance of the season. 

In the spring of 1848 the Huntress resumed her trips from Hallo- 
well to Portland, the Charter Oak and Kennebec running alternately 
to Boston. Several small steamers ran on the river to Waterville, 
often racing in their fierce competition. These hazardous practices 


•culminated in May this year, by the Halifax bursting her boiler while 
passing through the Augusta lock, and killing six people. 

The season of 1849 was marked by the advent of the new steamer 
Ocean, Captain Sanford. She took the outside route to Boston and 
held it several years. July 4th the railroad was finished to Bath, to 
which city the Huntress made daily trips in connection with the cars. 
In 1851 the steamer T. F. Sccor connected with the railroad at Bath, 
and, later, at Richmond. During the spring of 1854 Richard Dono- 
van was made captain of the Ocean, and commanded her till November 
24th, when she was run into by the Cunard steamer Canada, off Deer 
island, Boston harbor, and burned to the water's edge. 

In 1855 and 1856 the steamer Governor, Captain James Collins, ran 
from Hallowell to Boston, and the T. F. Secor, Captain Donovan, from 
Augusta to Portland, tri-weekly. The new steamer Eastern Queen, 
Captain James Collins, was put on in the spring of 1857, and ran that 
year and the next. She was partially burned at Wiscasset, in March, 
1859, and the State of Maine filled her place during repairs. In 1861 
the steamer Union ran daily between Augusta and Bath, connecting 
with the T. F. Secor for Portland. The Union was afterward sold to 
the government and was taken to Fortress Monroe, where she was 
noted for her speed. 

In 1865 parties in Bath bought the steamer Daniel Webster, Captain 
William Roix, and placed her on the route from Gardiner to Boston, 
in opposition to the Eastern Queen, which, since the death of Captain 
James Collins in 1861, had been commanded by his cousin. Captain 
Jasofi Collins. This last named steamer ran from Hallowell to Boston 
from 1866 to 1870, when she was sold. Previous to this, in 1866, the 
new steamer Star of the East, was placed on the Boston route, under 
the command of Captain Collins, who ran her until the spring of 1889, 
when he was transferred to the palatial new steamer Kennebec, of the 
same line. 

Captain Jason Collins, the genial and popular commander of this 
fine vessel, is a resident of Gardiner, and from his long connection 
with lines of travel and transportation, must have a place in this chap- 
ter. He was born at Bowman's Point, and is the only surviving son 
in a family of nine children. His father, James Collins, came to what 
is now Farmingdale when he was a young man, married Elizabeth 
Tyler, and passed his life in rural pursuits. Jason grew up on the 
home farm to the age of fourteen, when he shipped as cook with his 
father's brother, Captain John Collins, in the coasting schooner, Hope. 
The next year he again went to sea with his Uncle John, this time as 
a sailor before the mast, in the Adventure, bound for Mexico and sev- 
eral South American ports. After this trip he was on the brig Corin- 
thian, with Captain Sampson, in the coastwise trade. His next voyage 


was to Europe in the ship Powliattan, commanded by Captain Thomp- 

In 1836 our young sailor became a fireman on the steamer Nnv 
England, Captain Nathaniel Kirnball, holding that position until the 
vessel was wrecked off Portsmouth, June 1, 1838. He was then made 
assistant engineer of VaelHiintress, and four years later was promoted 
to the responsible position of chief engineer of this, the fastest steam- 
boat ever on the Kennebec river. In 1850 he went to California as 
chief engineer of the steamship Independence, and ran on a Pacific coast 
route until she was wrecked, February 16, 1853, on Marietta island, 
Lower California. Returning home he was first engineer on Atlantic 
coast .steamers until the summer of 1861, when he succeeded his cousin. 
Captain James Collins, in command of the coast steamer, Eastern 
Queen, in which capacity he was eight months with Burnside's expe- 
dition in North Carolina. The next year (1862) he commanded the 
same boat at New Orleans, under General Banks, getting thereby a 
practical knowledge of the naval operations of the great war. Four 
years later he was assigned to the splendid steamer, Star of the East, 
of 1,400 tons burden, in which responsible position he faithfully .served 
his company and the public, for twenty-four years. 

Upon the completion of the Kennebec, in the construction of which 
he had been the active man on the building committee, he assumed 
the duties of his present position. The details of making, as well as 
of running a boat are familiar to him, having superintended the build- 
ing of several. He has long been an owner in the Kennebec Steam- 
boat Company, and is one of its directors. 

Jason Collins married Louise, daughter of Nathaniel Kinneston, of 
Farmingdale. Their children have been: Anna Augusta, Louise 
Blanche, who died at the age of nineteen; Delia H., Eugenia and Wal- 
lace J., who was educated at Bowdoin College, graduating in 1883. 
Choosing the medical profession, he entered that department of Bow- 
doin, receiving his degree in 1886. He is now practicing at Monte- 
video, Minn. 

Captain Collins has been fond of mechanics and machinery from 
his boyhood, and wisely chose a calling in which his talent has always 
had stimulus and opportunity. His practical ability and sound judg- 
ment brought him to the presidency of the Boothbay Steamboat Com- 
pany, also to a directorship in the Merchants' Bank of Gardiner. 
Captain Collins' life has been useful as well as active. Few men have 
as many acquaintances as he, and fewer still as many friends. 

Besides the passenger steamers on the Kennebec, there were also 
numerous steam tugboats employed in towing sailing craft up and 
down the river, but only brief mention can be made of two of the 
earliest specimens of these craft. The first was th.& Jefferson, built to 
ply on Lake Jefferson. About the year 1838 Captain Wyman Morse 

iQUi^cnA^^Xytr^^y^^ toAd 


purchased this boat, moved her overland to tide water, and launched 
and brought her up the Kennebec, where she became the first regular 
towboat on the river, and the nucleus of the fleet of powerful steamers 
owned a generation later by the Knickerbocker Steam Towage Com- 
pany, in which his son, Captain B. W. Morse, was a large owner and 
also the business manager. This company owned the barge Yosemite, 
that was so well known as a pleasure boat on the river in the seventies. 
The other of the pioneer towboats was that owned by Ebenezer 
Beard, who came to Pittston in 1843, and contracted with Deacon Fo- 
linsbee to build him a sixty-four ton towboat. When completed, he 
took the vessel to Kimball's wharf, where he placed in it two small 
steam engines attached to two screw propellers of an improved model, 
invented by himself. This craft, the first screw propeller ever seen 
on the county's waters, was called the Experiment. 

Railroads.— Turning from the use of steam power on the river to 
its employment on the rail, it is found that the county was somewhat 
backward in sustaining the march of improvement in that direction. 
In 1836 the Kennebec & Portland Railroad Company was chartered, 
with authority to construct a road from Portland to Augusta. Noth- 
ing further was done, however, until 1845, when the time to build was 
extended ten years. In the same year charters were given to the An- 
droscoggin & Kennebec railroad, which was to enter the county at 
Monmouth and pass through Winthrop, Readfield and Belgrade, to 
Waterville, and to the Penobscot & Kennebec railroad, which was to 
start from Augusta, cross the river, and run along its eastern bank 
through Vassalboro and Winslow. meeting the Androscoggin road at 
Waterville, and running thence through Benton and Clinton, toward 
Bangor. Among the early promoters of this extension from Augusta 
were John D. Lang and Eben Frye, of Vassalboro, and Joseph Eaton, 
of Winslow. 

On July 4, 1849, the Androscoggin & Kennebec railroad, known as 
the " back route," entered Winthrop, and on October 8th following, 
the road was completed to Readfield. During this month a daily stage 
line was started from Augusta to connect, as now, with the railroad at 
Winthrop. On November 27th the railroad was opened to Waterville,. 
the event being celebrated by a grand jubilee. 

During this time the Portland & Kennebec railroad, afterward 
tnown as the " main line," was slowly progressing along the west 
bank of the river, and in the spring of 1850 meetings were held at 
Augusta, and at other towns, to assist in pushing forward the read. 
At length the first train entered Gardiner, November 10, 1851, amid 
general rejoicing. On the 15th of the following month the first loco- 
motive entered Augusta, followed on the 29th by the first train of cars; 
and on the morning of the 30th the first train of cars left Augusta for 


These two pioneer roads, and the Penobscot & Kennebec extension 
from Augusta to Waterville and eastward, are now embraced in the 
Maine Central system. From Leeds Junction, which lies in three 
counties, another branch of the Maine Central runs to Farmington, 
touching the corner of Monmouth, thence following the western 
boundary of Wayne, and thence running, within a few miles, the en- 
tire length of the western line of Fayette. 

The Somerset Railroad Company was conceived, planned and its 
construction begun by Reuben B. Dunn and Joel Gray. It was their 
original intention that this road should be a branch of the Maine Cen- 
tral, of which Mr. Dunn was then president. The work of building 
the roadbed was begun in 1868, but in less than three years, and be- 
fore a rail had been laid, the control of the Maine Central passed into 
other hands, and the new management refused to countenance the en- 
terprise. At this crisis, John Ayer, one of the directors of the strug- 
gling company, took the lead in the direction of its affairs, and to his 
■energy and financial ability the existence of the road is undoubtedly 
due. Trains began running to Norridgewock in 1873, and the line, 
forty-one miles long, was subsequently completed to Bingham. The 
Toad was sold, in 1883, on the first mortgage, and reorganized as the 
Somerset railway. Joel Gray was the first president, F. W. Hill, of 
Exeter, Me., the second; and John Ayer has been president since 
1872. George A. Fletcher, the first treasurer, was succeeded in 1874 
by Major Abner R. Small. The superintendent is W. M. Ayer, of 

The Kennebec Central Railroad Company was chartered Septem- 
ber 12, 1889, with a capital stock of $15,000, afterward increased to 
-$50,000. It is five miles long, running from Randolph to Togus, has 
a two-foot gauge, and was opened for business August 1, 1890. The 
first eleven months' operation showed total receipts, $13,242; expenses, 
$8,392. This money was earned with two engines, four passenger, 
two box and six flat cars — the total rolling stock of the road, costing 
$18,200. The road bed, with land damages and terminal facilities, 
■ cost $12,000 per mile — as much as the average cost of a good many 
standard gauge roads. The nine directors are: H. W. Jewett, David 
Dennis, Weston Lewis, E. D. Haley, A. C. Stilphen, J. S. Maxcy, J. 
B. Dingley and S. N. Maxcy, of Gardiner, and Franklin Stevens, of 
Randolph. Weston Lewis is president; P. H. Winslow, treasurer and 
general ticket agent; F. A. Lawton, superintendent; H. S. Webster, 
clerk, and A. C. Stilphen, attorney and auditor. 

Electricity, which is fast superseding horse power on the street 
railways of cities and suburban towns, has as yet been employed in 
the county for that purpose in but two instances. In 1890 the Augusta, 
Hallowell & Gardiner Electric Street Railroad Company was incor- 
porated, with a capital, authorized by charter, of $150,000. The length 


of the line is seven iniles, and the road is reported to be earning a 
substantial income. The officers are: President, J. Manchester 
Haynes, Augusta; superintendent, E. K. Day, Hallowell; treasurer, 
George E. Macomber, Augusta; clerk of corporation, Henry G. Stap- 
les, Augusta. 

The Waterville and Fairfield Power & Light Company, opened in 
July, 1892, the electric road running north from Waterville, on what 
had been operated as a horse car line since 1888. 


Bv Mr. Howard Owen. 

-Newspapers of Hallowell and Augusta. — The Press of Gardiner. — Waterville 
Press. — Newspapers of Oakland and Winthrop. — Journalistic Ventures at 
China, Vassalboro and Clinton. 

AUGUSTA has long been the center of the newspaper business in 
the county, and as far as the number is concerned, the news- 
papers started here have been legion. We shall not attempt in 
this chapter to mention the multitude of publications of world wide 
circulation, issuing from the extensive publishing establishments of 
The Allen Publishing Company, of Vickery & Hill, and of the more 
recently established house of the Gannett & Morse concern. These 
belong more especially to the commercial and manufacturing indus- 
tries of the city and will have attention in another chapter of this 

Several ephemeral newspapers have been started here of the 
" Jonah's Gourd " variety, such as the Ajigtista Courier, the Liberal Re- 
publican, an anti-temperance periodical — not living long enough to es- 
tablish for themselves a place in history. 

The first newspaper in Kennebec county was started in Hallowell 
— then called " The Hook " — August 4, 1794, nearly a century ago. 
It was published by Howard S. Robinson and called the Eastern Star. 
It had the life of a yearling, and was succeeded in 1795 by The Toesiji, 
published by Wait & Baker, of the Falmouth Gazette. In September, 
1796, it was transferred to Benjamin Poor. This paper was also short- 
lived, being discontinued in 1797. 

The American Advocate, a democratic-republican newspaper, was 
begun at Hallowell in the year 1810, and was published first by Na- 
thaniel Cheever, father of the late Rev. Dr. George B. Cheever, of 
New York; then by S. K. Gilman, who published it for six years and 
sold to Calvin Spaulding, who in turn disposed of the establishment 
to Sylvanus W. Robinson and Henry K. Baker, the latter gentleman 
so long judge of probate and still residing in Hallowell. In 1835 the 
paper was united with the Free Press and called the Free Press and Ad- 
vocate. It was sold to the Kennebec Journal in 1836. The Free Press, 


published by Anson G. Herrick and edited by Richard D. Rice, was a 
violent anti-Masonic paper. There was at that time great prejudice 
against the institution of Masonry, and during its brief career the 
paper had an immense circulation. In the meantime a paper called 
the Banner of Light was published for a year or two. 

The Genius of Temperance, a paper of small size, devoted to the 
cause of temperance, was established in Hallowell m January, 1828; 
printed semi-monthly by Glazier & Co., for P. Crandall, editor and 
proprietor. It continued about two years, and then died for want of 

The Liberty Standard, printed at the Halhnvell Gazette office, was 
commenced about 1840 and published in Hallowell by the anti- 
slavery martyr. Rev. J. C. Lovejoy. It was devoted to the cause of 
negro emancipation, Mr. Lovejoy, the editor, wielding a very vigor- 
ous and aggressive pen. Rev. Austin Willey afterward conducted the 
paper with great ability. Its name was finally changed to Free Soil 
Republican, the free soil party having become a factor in politics. It 
was a failure as a business enterprise, and died after a precarious ex- 
istence of about seven years. It was printed by Newman & Rowell. 

For a year or two during the war of the rebellion a paper called 
the Kennebec Courier, was published at Hallowell, by T. W. Newman. 
It was afterward removed to Bath, where it sickened and died. 

A paper with the heavenly title of the Northern Light, was pub- 
lished in Hallowell for a few months, by J. W. May and A. C. Currier. 
The Hallowell Gazette, federal in politics, was established by Eze- 
kiel Goodale and James Burton, jun., in January, 1814, and was pub- 
lished until 1827. 

September 28, 1839, the Maine Cultivator and Weekly Gazette was 
established in Hallowell, by T. W. Newman and R. G. Lincoln. For 
two years its editor was Rev. William A. Drew, afterward of the 
Gospel Banner. It was devoted primarily to agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts, though later it became more of a local organ. It received 
a fair support from the people of Hallowell and surrounding towns. 
Newman & Lincoln continued the publication of the paper until 
March, 1842; T. W. Newman from that date until September, 1843; 
T. W. & G. E. Newman to September, 1845; T. W. Newman and E. 
Rowell from September, 1845, to June, 1852; E. Rowell and H. L. 
Wing to June, 1854; E. Rowell to November, 1859; E. Rowell and 
Charles E. Nash (later of the Kennebec Journal) to June, 1862; E. 
Rowell to June, 1865; Charles E. Nash to September, 1869, and Henry 
Chase from that time until it was discontinued, December 9, 1871. In 
1850 the headings of the paper were transposed to Halloivell Gazette 
and Maine Cultivator; and at the beginning of the fifteenth volume, 
in September, 1853, the second heading was dropped, retaining only 
the Hallowell Gazette. Some time after Mr. Chase became publisher, 


the character of the paper was entirely changed from a local to a story 
paper, and it was called the Saturday Gazette. Mr. Chase tried to imi- 
tate E. C. Allen, but failed. Major E. Rowell, so long identified with 
the paper, continues a much respected citizen of Hallowell. 

The Saturday Gazette died on the hands of Mr. Chase, December 9, 
1871. Hallowell had no paper from that time until December 22, 
1877, when the present Hallozvell Register was established. Its proprie- 
tor and editor, W. F. Marston, not only conducts the paper, but has in 
connection a commercial job printing office. The Register is a spicy 
local paper, filling well its rather limited field. While non-partisan, 
it has republican leanings. 

The first paper established in that part of Hallowell which is now 
Augusta, was the Kennebec Intelligencer, published by Peter Edes, than 
whom no one was more respected by the members of the craft. It 
was established November 14, 1795, and was a little affair, the dimen- 
sions being only eleven by sixteen inches. Political action at that 
time found expression through the federal and republican parties, the 
federalists in this section of the country being in the majority. The 
Intelligencer was changed to the Kennebec Gazette in 1800, and in 1810 
became the Herald of Liberty. Under this name it was published 
until 1815, when it was discontinued on the removal of its proprietor 
to Bangor. 

A non-partisan paper, " far removed from party turmoil," the 
Augusta Patriot, was started March 7, 1817, by James Burton, jun., 
but it died in a year or two for want of patronage. 

The Kennebec Joiirnal grew out of the dominant political sentiment 
which afterward became crystalized in what was known as the whig 
party. In the fall of 1823, two young men, journeymen printers, came 
from Washington, D. C, and started the paper. Their names were 
Luther Severance and Russell Eaton. The Tufts hand press on which 
it was to be printed was set up at what was called the Branch brick 
block, at the corner of Bridge and Water streets, where the first num- 
ber of the Journal was struck off, January 8, 1823. The size of the 
subscription list at that time did not seem to be taken at all into ac- 
count by the publishers. Indeed, they thought they were doing a big 
business if their list of subscribers numbered four or five hundred. 
Advertising was also at a discount; and we have known a publisher 
who in those early days received but forty-two cents a week for a half 
column "ad," taking his pay " in country produce at market prices." 

So the Journal's upward progress was from the smallest possible 
beginning. Luther Severance, whose name is to-day a tower of 
strength in the county, stood at the editorial helm, and gained a great 
reputation among the rank and file of the party for the clear and com- 
prehensive style in which he clothed his editorials. Like Horace 
Greeley, he was able to go to the case and put into type an elaborate. 


unwritten editorial. In 1829 Mr. Severance was called to represent 
his party in the legislature, in 1835-6 in the state senate, in 1839-40 
again in the house, and in 1843 and 1845 in the national house of rep- 
resentatives. Beginning in 1850, he was for three years United States 
commissioner to the Sandwich Islands. But his labors were nearly 
ended. Stricken with a hopeless cancerous disease, he reached his home 
in Augusta on the 12th of April, 1854, and died on the 2oth of Janu- 
ary, 1855, at the age of fifty-seven years. During his last sickness, and 
as a means of diverting his attention from his intense physical suffer- 
ing, Mr. Severance, under the heading of "Brief Mention," weekly 
contributed articles full of wisdom and suggestive thought to the 
columns of his favorite paper. 

In the early .stages of the JonriiaFs career, the two young men 
struggled on, doing most of their own work, with the help of two 
apprentices. Mr. Eaton had special charge of the mechanical and 
business departments of the paper, and here were laid deep and broad 
those principles that ripened so successfully after he became 
connected with the Farmer. Full of years, and highly respected by 
his fellow citizens, Mr. Eaton went to his rest some two years since. 

In June, 1833, Mr. Eaton retired from the /i3«r«rf/, leaving Mr. Sev- 
erance the sole proprietor and manager until the beginning of 1839, 
when he sold half the concern to John Dorr, who had been engaged 
at Belfast in the publication of the Waldo Patriot. Mr. Dorr brought 
business tact and shrewdness to the performance of his tasks, and the 
paper entered upon the high road to success. Mr. Dorr continued as 
clerk and bookkeper in the office under subsequent administrations. 
In 1850 the /£72/r«fl/ passed into the hands of William H. Wheeler and 
William H. Simpson, and was edited by Mr. Wheeler, who afterward 
sold his half to his partner, Simpson, and removed to Bangor, where 
he engaged with John H. Lynde in the publication of the Wliig and 
Courier. Simpson sold the paper in the fall of 1854, to James G. Blaine 
and Joseph Baker. A stock company was formed, new material pur- 
chased, and the paper attained to a new prominence under the able 
and vigorous management of Mr. Blaine, who also contributed to the 
editorial department of the paper long after he had severed his busi- 
ness connection with it. The Maine liquor law now became the lead- 
ing issue in politics, and after a short ownership Mr. Baker sold his 
interest to John L. Stevens, who became one of the most profound 
political thinkers and vigorous writers in the state. Mr. Stevens is at 
present United States minister to the Sandwich Islands, having served 
in similar capacities at Montevideo and at Stockholm. 

In 1857 Mr. Blaine was succeeded by John S. Sayward, who came 
from the Bangor Whig. During a portion of the war of the rebellion 
a daily leaflet, containing the telegraphic news from Washington and 


the seat of operations, was issued from this office; and this was the 
beginning that led to the thought of establishing a permanent daily, 
which appeared later. In May, 1868, Owen & Nash bought Mr. 
Sayward's interest, and the January following the other half interest 
in the paper was sold to Alden vSprague, of \\iQ Rockland Free Press. 
Howard Owen had for fifteen years served in various capacities in the 
Journal office, and Charles E. Nash was of the Hallowell Gazette. The 
new firm was known as Sprague, Owen & Nash, Mr. Sprague being 
the political editor, Mr. Owen the local editor, and Mr. Nash having 
charge of the business affairs. Several times enlarged, the paper was 
again enlarged by the new firm, and \.\iQ Daily Kennebec Journal started 
on the first of January, 1870. 

In August, 1879, the partnership was abolished by the sale of Owen 
and Nash's half to Charles A. Sprague, and the office was conducted 
under the firm name of Sprague & Son. They attained to the entire 
ownership of the paper by the purchase of all the floating stock, and 
sold the entire concern in April, 1887, to C. B. Burleigh and Charles 
Flynt, by whom the paper has since been conducted. The new firm 
enlarged the paper and greatly improved the plant. With a large and 
able corps of editors and correspondents, with excellent arrangements 
for obtaining the telegraphic and other news, the Daily Journal has 
taken its place among the leading dailies of the state, while the 
weekly, enlarged and improved, has attained a large state circulation. 
The adherents of the once despi.sed faith of Universalism, of which 
Hosea Ballou was the pioneer preacher in this country, felt the need 
of an official organ in the state, where afterward they gained a per- 
manent foothold. Accordingly, a weekly religious newspaper, called 
the Gospel Banner, devoted mainly to advocating the doctrine of the 
salvation of the entire human race, was established July 25, 1835, with 
Rev. William A. Drew, editor and proprietor. He was assisted by two 
associate editors, Rev. Calvin Gardiner and Rev. George Bates. Arthur 
W. Berry became in some way interested in the paper, and printed it 
in 1839. It, however, soon returned to the proprietorship of Mr. Drew, 
who, in 1843, sold it to Joseph A. Homan (who retired from active 
business pursuits several years since, and remains one of the respected 
and honored citizens of Augusta), and his brother-in-law, James S. 
Manley, long since deceased. The firm of Homan & Manley pub- 
lished the paper until January, 1859, when they purchased the Maine 
Farmer, and sold the Banner to James A. Bicknell and Rev. R. A. 
Ballou. Mr. Drew, after long and able service, retired from the editor- 
ship of the paper in October, 1854, when he was succeeded by Rev. J. 
W. Hanson, who becam.e editor and part owner. Mr. Hanson, in 1859, 
was succeeded by Mr. Ballou, who was the editor of the paper until it 
was sold, in 1864, to Rev. George W. Quinby, whose vigor and interest 
in the work was not only equal to the editorial tasks imposed, but also 


to the exacting business demands. He was not only an editor, but an 
able author and an aggressive preacher, and was honored by Tuffts' 
College, with the degree of D.D. After a brief sickness, Doctor Quin- 
by died in Augusta on the 10th of January, 1884. 

The Baiiin-r was purchased on the 14th of July, 1888, by Rev. Isaac 
J. Mead and George W. Vickery, Mr. Mead having charge of the edi- 
torial columns, and Mr. Vickery of the business department. A strong 
pressure being made upon his time elsewhere, Mr. Vickery sold his 
interest February 14, 1889, to B. A. Mead, and the paper has since been 
published by The B. A. Mead Company. It was changed to a quarto, 
and enlarged October 9, 1890. 

The Kennebec Journal being at that time the undoubted leader of 
the press in this section, an effort was made in 1827 to establish an 
opposition paper which should advocate the claims of General Jackson 
for the presidency. Accordingly, the Maine Patriot and State Gazette 
appeared on the 31st of October, 1827, published by James Dickman, 
and under the editorship of Aurelius V. Chandler. In May, 1829, the 
paper was sold to Harlow Spaulding, by whom it was published, Mr. 
Chandler continuing the editor. Mr. Chandler went South to recruit 
his health, and died at Charleston, S. C, December 31, 1830, at the 
age of twenty-three. James W. Bradbury took his place in the edi- 
torial chair, but relinquished it July 1, 1831. The following Decem- 
ber the paper was absorbed by The Age, a new paper of similar politi- 
cal proclivities, and the Patriot ceased to exist. 

After the removal of the state capital to Augusta, The Age was es- 
tablished, December 23, 1831, by Ira Berry & Co., Frank O. J. Smith, 
a brilliant lawyer and able journalist from Portland, being its editor. 
One of the earlier incidents of its career was a libel suit growing out 
of one of Mr. Smith's caustic and personal items, charging a promi- 
nent citizen of Belgrade with being a deserter from the army in the 
war of 1812, and that he was tried, convicted and sentenced to be shot. 
The publisher of The Age was arrested and tried on a criminal libel. 
The trial, which excited the most intense interest, lasted a week. The 
result was the sustaining the paper in its charges, and this gave the 
concern a great boom and influence among its political adherents. 
The paper also had the state patronage. Mr. Smith was chosen to a 
seat in congress, and retired from the paper August 10, 1832, when 
George Robinson, a law student, became the editor, and continued in 
that capacity several years. In 1834 Berry & Co. sold the paper to 
William J. Condon, who had been connected with the Saeo Democrat. 
He continued the publication of the paper for about a year, when 
William R. Smith, who came from Wiscasset, and who was at that 
timejworking at the printer's case in the office, bought a quarter in- 
terest, forming a partnership with Robinson, who continued to edit 
the paper. Mr. Smith was a printer almost from birth, having entered 


a newspaper office as an apprentice wlien eight years old. Mr. Ira 
Berry, formerly of The Age, died in Portland in September, 1891, at 
the great age of ninety years. 

Mr. Robinson died in February, 1840, Smith having previously 
bought another quarter interest from him. During this period was 
begun at The Age office the publication of a tri-weekly, during the ses- 
sions of ihe legislature, reporting the proceedings, and afterward giv- 
ing the telegraphic news. Later, the Keimebec Journal eniereA upon 
the publication of a tri-weekly, on alternate days with The Age, the 
two forming a daily paper — the first time the citizens of Augusta were 
favored with such an institution. 

At the death of Mr. Robinson, George Melville Weston', son of the 
late Chief Justice Nathan Weston, became associated with Mr. Smith, 
and conducted the editorial department of The Age. The paper was 
conducted by this firm until August 5, 1844, when it was sold to Rich- 
ard D. Rice, a printer by trade, who afterward rose to the exalted 
position of justice on the supreme bench. Mr. Rice edited the paper, 
controlling its politics in the interests of the democratic party, until 
May, 1848, when he returned to the profession of law, and the paper 
was purchased by William T. Johnson (who afterward became cashier 
of the Granite National Bank). He associated himself with Daniel T, 
Pike, who became its editor. Mr. Pike, who wielded a forceful and 
facetious pen, now retired from the profession, whose ranks he graced 
for more than twenty years, is enjoying a green old age in our 
midst. Messrs. Johnson & Pike conducted the paper until May, 
1856, when they were succeeded by Benjamin A. G. and Melville W. 
Fuller (now the honored chief justice of the United States supreme 
court), who after a number of years disposed of the establishment to 
Daniel T. Pike, and he in turn to Elias G. Hedge and others. They 
sold to Gilman vSmith, of Augusta, a journeyman printer, and the old 
and influential y^^r, which had so long and so safely sailed the politi- 
cal seas, died upon his hands during the war of the rebellion. 

Upon the ruins of The Age rose the Maine Standard, in 1867, a 
democratic sheet, published by Thaddeus A. Chick, a well known and 
accomplished practical printer, and Isaac W. Reed. The paper was 
sold in 1868, to Eben F. Pillsbury, the noted political leader and pol- 
ished lawyer, several times the nominee of the democratic party for gov- 
ernor, though never elected. Mr. Pillsbury, who had formerly edited 
the Franklin Patriot, at Farmington, edited the Standard, and associ- 
ated with him was L. B. Brown, of Starks, now of New Hampshire; 
and at one time, on the editorial force, was Horace :M. Jordan, of 
Westbrook, now of Boston. 

The paper was bought in January, 1881, by Manley T. Pike & Co., 
who dropped its name soon after the purchase, and called it The Neiv 
Age, the name which it has since borne. These proprietors published 


the paper two years and a half, when, in July, 1883, it was sold to 
Harris M. Plaisted and Charles B. Morton. General Plaisted, who 
had been the democratic governor of Maine the two preceding years, 
was the political editor, and for some time Charles B. Chick was con- 
nected with the local department. In December, 1889, Mr. Morton's 
portion was purchased by a son of the senior proprietor, Frederick 
W. Plaisted, and the paper has since been published by H. M. Plais- 
ted & Son. The paper was enlarged and changed to a quarto at the 
beginning of the 2,'5th volume, March 6, 1891. Tlie Nczv Age has a large 
and increasing patronage, being the leading democratic paper of cen- 
tral Maine. 

The Maine Farmer grew out of the necessities of the time, and was 
founded to meet the demands of a more progressive agriculture. Its 
"birth really grew out of the establishment of the Kennebec Agricul- 
tural Society, in 1832. It was started in Winthrop, January 21, 1833, 
bearing the name of the Kennebec Farmer, the publishers being Wil- 
liam Noyes & Co., and the editor Dr. Ezekiel Holmes. It was printed 
in quarto form, and the size of the printed page was 7| by 8-| inches. 
After eight numbers of the paper had been issued, the name which 
was first deemed appropriate was adopted, that of the Maine Farmer, 
adding as the motto for its field of operations, "and journal of the 
useful arts,"' devoting itself not only to the interests of the farmer, 
but also the mechanic. The first four volumes were published in 
Winthrop, when the paper was moved to Hallowell, but in 1838 was 
purchased by Marcian Seavy, and moved back to Winthrop. vSeavy 
sold out the next year to Noyes and Benjamin F. Robbins, the latter 
remaining in the firm but two years. In 1844 Russell Eaton, a former 
publisher of the AV««ci^(Y/ci«r«rt/, purchased the /v7r;«<r, moved it to 
Augusta, changed its form to that of a folio, which it has since re- 
tained, enlarged the paper, and improved it in every respect. Mr. 
Eaton made another enlargement in 1847. In 1860 and 1870 other en- 
largements were made, the last in 1883, representing its present size, 
31i by 46i inches. 

In 1858, after publishing the paper fourteen years, Mr. Eaton sold 
out to Joseph A. Homan and James S. Manley, former proprietors of 
the Gospel Banner. Special attention was now paid to a compilation 
of the general news, making the Farmer a complete family paper, that 
department being edited by Mr. Homan. On account of failing 
health, in 1861, Mr. Manley sold his half interest to William S. Bad- 
ger, the present senior proprietor and manager of the paper, who has 
become a veteran in the service, being the oldest newepaper man in 
continuous service in the state. In 1878 Mr. Homan retired, selling 
his interest to Joseph H. Manley, the present junior proprietor. 

Doctor Holmes continued his position as agricultural editor until 
February, 1866, at which time Dr. N. T. True, of Bethel, took his 


place, continuing four years. Samuel L. Boardman, now employed on 
the editorial force of the Kennebec Journal, was agricultural editor of 
the Farmer from March, 1869, to March, 1879. He had previously 
served as assistant in this department. Dr. William B. Lapham, the 
well known historian and necrologist, who had been employed as gen- 
eral news editor since 1872, became agricultural editor in 1879, which 
relation he continued until November, 1883, when the charge was as- 
sumed by Z. A. Gilbert, of Greene, secretary of the board of agricul- 
ture, who is at this time the agricultural editor. Howard Owen has 
served as general news editor since 1881, and Dr. G. M. Twitchell has 
charge of the horse and poultry departments. The paper has^or forty 
years had an extensive circulation, easily maintaining, against all at- 
tempted competition, its position as the exponent of the interests of 
the intelligent and progressive farmers of the state. Comparing the 
paper at the present time with its earlier efforts, shows to a demon- 
stration the great advances which have been made in the special field 
of practical thought to which, through all these years, it has devoted 

The Co7iy Student is a monthly periodical, started in Augusta in 
1887, and published each year, during the school term, from Septem- 
ber to June, inclusive, managed and edited by a corps of editors and 
publishers selected by and from the students in the Cony High 
School. It is " devoted to the interests of the members of the Cony 
High School," and contains original essays, poems, sketches, notes 
and gossip. It has several times been enlarged, until now it is a cov- 
ered periodical of twelve pages. 

The Home Mission Echo, a monthly paper issued under the auspices 
of the Woman's American Baptist Home Mis,sion Society, has been 
issued in Augusta about five years. It ably champions the cause of 
missions in the home field, and has a circulation of some 9,000 copies. 
Its editor and publisher is the well known writer, Anna Sargent Hunt. 

The Home Farm was started in Augusta by Samuel L. Boardman, 
November 13, 1880. It was designed as a purely agricultural and 
home paper. It contained eight pages, five 18-inch columns to the 
page. In the beginning of volume IV, November 15, 1883, it was en- 
larged to six columns to a page, making a neat, well made up journal. 
It was removed to Waterville and the name changed to Eastern 
Farmer. The first number under the new name appeared September 
30, 1887. During the time it was published, Henry A. Hall, Asa R. 
Boardman, the editor's brother, and George F. Patch were at different 
times connected with the paper as publishers or business managers. 
Samuel L. Boardman was chief owner and editor until its discontinu- 
ance in April, 1888. 

A little sheet, called the Musical Monitor, published by R. M. Man- 


sur, was removed from North Vienna to Augusta. It was principally 
devoted to advertising. 

In 1840 there was published in Augusta for a little while, a bright 
and crisp little temperance paper called TIic WasJiingtonian, growing 
out of the Washingtonian movement that swept like a tidal wave over 
the country. When the wave subsided the paper died. It was pub- 
lished at The Age office by Henry Green, a journeyman printer, who 
had been interested in the reform movement. The articles in the 
paper were all written by " Washingtonians." 

Drew's Rural Intelligencer was a weekly newspaper, devoted to the 
wants and pleasures of rural life, designed to make home pleasant and 
happy. It embraced departments in agriculture, horticulture, me- 
chanic arts, education and general intelligence. It was established 
and conducted by Rev. William A. Drew, who but a few months' pre- 
viously had laid down the editorial pen on the Gospel Banner. He was 
assisted by an able corps of contributors. Mr. Drew had no printing 
office of his own; the type setting was done at the Kennebec Journal 
office, and the press work at the office of The Age. It was a four- 
column quarto of eight pages, enclosed with a tasty border. The 
paper aimed to devote itself more especially to the interests of the 
home. It was started January 6, 1855, and continued to be published 
at Augusta until September, 1857, when it was purchased by R. B. 
Caldwell, of Gardiner, and removed to that city, Mr. Drew continuing 
to edit it. It was is.sued until 1859, when it ceased to exist as a dis- 
tinctive publication. 

The history of the in Gardiner is rather an uneventful one, 
although during the years that have passed quite a large number of 
journalistic enterprises have been launched on the community, flour- 
ished for a season, and finally gone the way of all the living. The 
advent of the newspaper in Gardiner dates back to October 24, 1824, 
when appeared the first number of the Eastern Chronicle, published 
and edited by the late Hon. Parker Sheldon, Gardiner's second mayor. 
January 25, 1827, the Chronicle was merged with the Intelligencer, and 
Rev. William A. Drew, spoken of elsewhere in these sketches, as- 
sumed the editorial management. A monthly magazine known as the 
New England Farmer, and Mechanics' Jonrnal, was also started in 1828, 
by Mr. Sheldon, and twelve numbers, with plates, were issued. It was 
edited by Dr. Ezekiel Holmes, afterward of the Maine Farmer. The next 
journalistic enterprise was the Gardiner Spectator, which began publi- 
cation in December, 1839, Alonzo Bartlett, editor and proprietor. In 
July, 1840, Dr. Gideon S. Palmer, a former well known Gardiner phy- 
sician, who died in Washington, D. C, in December, 1891, assumed 
the management, but after a brief time was succeeded by his brother, 
the late Judge William Palmer, and it continued under his manage- 
ment until September 24, 1841, when it peacefully expired. From its 


ashes, however, arose the Gardiner Ledger, which existed about thirteen 
months, when that, too, went the way of its predecessor. 

In 1842 the now popular Yankee Blade was moved from Waterville 
to Gardiner, and published by William Mathews and Moses Stevens. 
It was located there four years, when it was moved to Boston, its 
present home. The Cold Water Fountain and Washingtonian Journal, 
published in the interests of the temperance cause, was started June 
24, 1844, under the manag-ement of the late General Geoi^ge M. At- 
wood, who was prominent in military circles. He commanded the 
24th Regiment, Maine volunteers, and died a few years ago in Boston. 
He was succeeded in the management of the. Fountain by H.W. Jewell 
& Co., then by H. L. Weston and F. Yates in 1849, who were soon suc- 
ceeded by Weston & Morrell, and they in January, 1851, by H. K. 
Morrell and A. M. C. Heath, who in 1853 sold it to Portland parties, 
and it was moved to that city. The afterward noted humorist, Arte- 
mus Ward, worked for Morrell & Heath as an apprentice on the 

David's Sling was the suggestive title of a little publication, the 
first number appearing February 1, 1845. Its mission was to diffuse 
the peculiar religious views of James A. Clay and Isaac Rowell, but 
after nine months " life's fitful fever ended." The Star of the Fast 
and Fastcrn Light, by H. W. Jewell, and the Busybody, by Thomas H. 
Hoskins, were published in 1845-6. The first number of the Lieor- 
rigible appeared July 1, 1848, edited and published by W. E. S. Whitman 
(Toby Candor), now of Augusta. Only four issues are accounted for, 
but it was succeeded by a smaller sheet known as the Nettle, which 
was also short-lived. But this versatile newspaper man has amply 
demonstrated that as " great oaks from little acorns grow," so great 
correspondents sometimes spring from small beginnings. 

The Gardiner Advertiser made its first appearance February 9, 1850, 
published by Richard B. Caldwell, father of a former editor of the 
Kennebee Reporter. After the second number the name was changed to 
the Kennebec Transcript, and Sedgwick L. Plummer assumed the editorial 
management. In 1856 Mr. Caldwell purchased Drezv's Rural Intelli- 
gencer, and removing it from Augusta, united the two under the name 
of the Maine Rural. Brock & Cheeney, and later Brock & Hacker, pub- 
lished it. A daily, called the Daily Rural, was issued a few months in 
1859, but the offices were burned in 1860, and the papers discontinued. 
James Burns issued six numbers of a radical political sheet, known as 
the Despatch, in November and December. 1858. The publication of 
the Northern Home Journal ^a.s commenced January 1, 1854, A. M. C. 
Heath, editor and proprietor. In 1858 the name of the paper was 
changed to Gardiner Home Journal. Mr. Heath conducted the paper 
until August, 1862, when he enlisted in the Sixteenth Maine, and the 
management of the Journal passed into the hands of H. K. Morrell. 


Mr. Heath, while gallantly fighting- with his regiment before Freder- 
icksburg, December 13, 1862, fell mortally wounded. November 1, 
1864, Mr. Morrell became the sole proprietor of x\vq Journal, and con- 
tinued to control its pages exactly twenty years, when he relinquished 
editorial cares and sold the office to his son, E. W. Morrell, who, as 
editor and proprietor, still conducts the paper with ability. 

The Kennebec Reporter was established in 1866, by Giles O. Bailey 
and James F. Brown. After a few months, Mr. Brown retiring, Rich- 
ard B. Caldwell purchased his interest. G. O. Bailey & Co., with Mr. 
Bailey as editor, continued its management until August 10, 1871, 
when Mr. Bailey sold his interest to his partner. In 1880 William J. 
Landers became associated with Mr. Caldwell in the management of 
the paper, and this firm continued its publication until May, 1888, 
when Mr. Caldwell retired, and the present management, the Reporter 
Publishing Company, assumed control, Mr. Landers having charge of 
its columns. 

In May, 1889, the Gardiner Daily Neios sprung into existence, pub- 
lished by Thomas W. Schurman & Co., with Mr. Schurman in the 
editorial chair. In the summer of 1891 Mr. Schurman purchased his 
partner's interest, and is now sole proprietor of the paper. 

The history of the press in Waterville dates from May, 1823, when 
the first i-ssue of the Waterville Intelligeneer appeared, published and 
edited by William Hastings, the pioneer among Waterville journal- 
ists. The Intelligencer dragged along an uncertain existence until De- 
cember, 1828, when it became The]Vatchnian,yN\W\ Hastings continuing 
as editor and publisher for about one year, when it was suspended for 
lack of support. 

The next attempt in Waterville journalism was made in June, 
1831, when John Burleigh began the publication of Tiie Times. It took 
about two years to demonstrate the failure of The Times venture, when 
that sheet passed out of existence. Mr. Burleigh, however, was not 
discouraged, and in 1834 he began the publication of the Walervillc 
Journal, and continued the same for one year. The demise of this 
paper was followed by a long lapse of time, during which no one was 
ambitious or courageous enough to again take the field, and until 
1842 Waterville was unrepresented by any sheet whatever. In that 
year Daniel R. Wing and William Mathews started The Watervillo- 
nian. From that year dated Mr. Wing's almost uninterrupted career as 
a newspaper man until his death. He was an antiquarian, and his 
local sketches, frequently published, made a valuable feature of the 
papers with which he was connected. The fame which Mr. Mathews 
has since attained in the field of literature needs no comment. 

At the close of the first volume of The Watervillonian its name was 
changed to the Yankee Blade. In 1844 its publishers had become dis- 
couraged with the lack of support the Blade had been able to secure in 


Waterville, and the paper was transferred to Gardiner, and a little 
more than two years after was removed to Boston, where it was finally 
merged in the Olive Branch. 

The Union was the next on the scene in Waterville, its first issue 
appearing in April, 1847, under the management of C. F. Hathaway, 
who published Tlic Union about four months, when he induced Eph- 
raim Maxham, who had enjoyed journalistic experience in Massa- 
chusetts and New Hampshire, to take charge of the sheet, revised and 
re-christened as the Eastern. Mail. Mr. Maxham was not only a ready 
and concise writer, who always chose to keep his paper a clean, in- 
dependent, local journal, but also a practical printer, and under his 
experienced hands the Eastern JAnVbegan a vigorous growth. Daniel 
R. Wing became a partner with Mr. Maxham, July 26, 1849, and the 
firm of Maxham & Wing from that date played an important part in 
the history and development of Waterville. The title of the paper 
was changed to the more distinctive local name of the Waterville Mail, 
September 4, 1863. Daniel R. Wing, the junior editor, died Decem- 
ber 2, 1885. Mr. Maxham stood at his post, although stricken down 
by illness, until January 1, 1886, when the Mail was purchased by 
Charles G. Wing and Daniel F. Wing, who took the firm name of 
Wing & Wing. 

From the Mail office September 30, 1887, was issued the Eastern 
Farmer, formerly the Home Farm (begun at Augusta), and Burleigh, 
Wing & Co. appeared as the name of the new firm. This paper was 
a financial incubus to the concern. The publication of the Eastern 
Farmer was continued up to April, 1888, when the paper was discon- 
tinued, and the remains of its subscription list transferred to the 
Lcwiston Journal. Hall C. Burleigh at the same time retired from the 
firm, which again appeared as Wing & Wing, publishers of the Mail 
alone. They introduced many modern improvements in the Mail 
office and in the paper, making it one of the best local papers in the 
state from a typographical point of view. They also enlarged it and 
made it an interesting weekly visitor to all its readers. The junior 
partner, Daniel F. Wing, died March 21, 1891, and Charles G. Wing 
continued the publication of the paper until April 17, 1891, when it 
was purchased by H. C. Prince, of Buckfield, and E. T. Wyman, of 
Sidney, Me., the present proprietors. Mr. Wyman graduated from 
Colby University in the class of 1890, and was an editor on the Waterville 
Sentinel until he went to the Mail. Mr. Prince was also formerly a 
student at Colby, but left college to go West, where he was in business 
for several years. 

The Waterville Sentinel was first published by E. O. Robinson in 
1880. It was afterward purchased by J. D. Maxfield, who in turn sold 
to Otis M. and L. A. Moore, of Augusta, in 1884. In the following- 
year O. M. Moore bought his brother's interest, and .sold one-half of 


the paper to A. W. Hall, of Rockland. Mr. Hall's father, Hon. O. G. 
Hall, now judge of the superior court for Kennebec county, purchased 
Moore's half in the summer of 1886, since which time the paper has 
been published by O. G. Hall & Son. The firm has lately beenjknown 
as the Sentinel Publishing Company. 

The Kennebec Democrat was established in Waterville by Benjamin 
Bunker,* who issued its first number February 2, 1887. It is a nine- 
column folio. While professedly a democratic sheet, it exercises the 
privilege of a free lance. The characteristic of the sheet is the origi- 
nal cuts by the editor, and the peculiar pungency of its political para- 
graphs. The paper is known as " Ben. Bunker's Democrat." 

The first newspaper in Oakland— then known by the name of West 
Waterville— was started in 187.5, bearing the name of the West 
Waterville Union. The office was well equipped for a general printing 
business, a newspaper seemed to be needed, and with the right person 
at the head of affairs at the time, a permanent and substantial living 
would have been assured. But there was a flippancy and a filthiness 
about the sheet at first that led everybody to mistrust the future, and 
the thing died unlamented. This paper was published by Daniel 
Rowe and Casper Hooper. 

In the meantime Mr. I. J. Thayer, a life-long resident of Oakland, 
was running a small job office, and in 1882 the community was glad- 
dened by the announcement of Mr. Thayer that he proposed to issue 
a monthly paper, the Oakland Observer, the name of the town having 
meanwhile been changed. The .sheet was an unassuming one, the 
size being fifteen by twenty inches. For a time the Observer was ob- 
served each month, then it would lapse; and when, for instance, the 
August number reached the firesides of Oakland on Thanksgiving 
day, its early death would be looked for with an absolute certainty. 
In March, 1887, the proprietor entered into an arrangement with the 
proprietor of the Madison Bulletin to print and publish the Observer. 
which was enlarged to 26 by 40, "patent" outside, and this arrange- 
ment was continued until June, 1888. During that time there was 
nothing in the paper but " locals." The paper came regularly to hand, 
and had a small subscription list. The Bulletin man engaged Mr. J. 
Wesley Gilman as manager and editor, in June, 1888. Mr. Oilman 
wielded a graceful and facile pen; and as he had resided in the town 
for thirty years and been identified with its business interests, he 
knew, presumably, the wants of the community. In the fall of 1888 the 
Observer was printed in the county of Kennebec; advertisements were 
secured and the subscription list increased, and in a larger sense than 
ever before Oakland had a new.spaper which reflected the stability, the 
*In 1880 he established the Pine Tree State at Fairfield, and published it for 
two years, and then bought the Fairfield Journal and conducted it as an inde- 
pendent paper until 1886.— [Ed. 


prominence, the enterprise of the town. Under this arrangement the 
Observer continued until 1890, when pressure of other affairs, together 
with previous engagements, obliged Mr. Oilman to sever his connec- 
tion with the paper. 

About this time Mr. George T. Benson made an arrangement with 
Mr. E. P. Mayo, of the Fairfield Journal, to print and publish the Oak- 
land Enterprise. Outside of the local happenings, the "comings and 
goings," it in no sense represents the people of Oakland, but is, per- 
haps, better than no paper. 

The first newspaper published in Winthrop was the Winthrop 
Gazette, published by William H. Moody, and started in the spring of 
1866. Mr. Moody was at that time principal of Towle Academy, and 
was afterward mail agent on the Maine Central railroad. He was a 
graduate of Colby University. After a brief period the paper was re- 
moved to Mechanic Falls, and its name changed to the Mechanic Falls 
Herald. After a sickly existence of a few years in its adopted home, 
the paper died. 

The next venture in journalism was the Winthrop Bulletin, pub- 
lished by W. B. Berry & Son, and first edited by Rev. D. H. Sherman, 
then principal of Towle Academy. The first issue was dated Septem- 
ber 19, 1867. The .size of the sheet was 21 by 30 inches. Mr. Sher- 
man's connection with the paper was extremely brief. Shortly after, 
the elder Berry sold out to his son, and went to Camden, starting the 
Herald at that place. He died in Massachusetts about two years ago. 
His son, A. N. Berry, conducted the paper until February, 1869, when 
he discontinued it. The Bulletin was a good local paper, and never 
ought to have been allowed to die. Its latest publisher, Mr. A. N. 
Berry, is now doing a good business in Boston as a label printer, 
under the firm name of J. N. Allen & Berry. 

The first copy of the Winthrop Budget, a paper which is now pub- 
lished, was issued in January, 1881, and was dated the 8th of the 
month. . It was started by E. O. Kelly, of Winthrop, who recently 
deceased in that town. It carried a "patent outside," and was com- 
posed of twenty columns. The present publisher, John A. Stanley, 
purchased the paper August 22, 1882, issuing the first number August 
26th. It was continued as a " patent " until February, 1885, when Mr. 
Stanley decided to print the entire paper in Winthrop, and has done 
so ever since. The first issue in August, 1889, was enlarged to its 
present size, 21 by 30 inches, six columns to a page. The paper is 
non-partisan, is devoted principally to local happenings, and has a 
good circulation. 

At East Winthrop, in the same town. The Winthrop Alonthly News, 
with " local news in full, stories, poetry, wit, humor, &c.," was started 
in October, 1875. Although a little sheet, all its matter was original; 
the stories, editorials, news items, and even advertisements, were 


written by the editor, who was a printer as well as editor almost from 
infancy. Mr. Packard also published another little amateur paper 
called the Enterprise, and in October, 1880, he started the Wintlirop 
Banner as a monthlj', printing it on an old " Novelty " press. The 
Banner has had a varying existence, but has steadily gained until it is 
now a weekly sheet 18 by 24 inches, and the publishers are contem- 
plating another enlargement in the near future. The present circula- 
tion is 800. In December, 1889, Mr. Packard formed a partnership in 
the business with J. E. Snow, of Winthrop. Besides the Banner, the 
firm print for Mrs. Hannah J. Bailey the Pacific Banner and the Acorn, 
two monthly papers, having a circulation of from twelve hundred to 
fifteen hundred each. A well equipped job printing office is con- 
nected with the establishment. 

The West Gardiner Observer was issued semi-monthly in 1889, by E. 
E. Peacock, a young man in that town. After a suspension of two 
years he began " Vol. II " as a weekly, his printing being done at the 
Wintlirop Banner office. 

TIic Orb was the name of a paper published at China, by Japheth 
C. Washburn. Vol. I, No. 1, was issued December 5, 1833 — a clean, 
newsy and well scissored quarto. The second volume was begun De- 
cember 6, 1834, and was completed. Although the subscription price 
was two dollars a year, its publication was discontinued at the close 
of the second year, and no further attempt was made at journalism in 
that town. The advertising and job work of that day were very light 
in that purely agricultural town. 

The only paper ever attempted at Vassalboro is the Kennebec ]~allcy 
News, started at Getchell's Corner in August, 1891, by the Kennebec 
Valley News Company, Samuel A. Burleigh, editor. It is published 
weekly, at one dollar per year. 

The Clinton Advertiser, the smallest paper in the county, was started 
in Clinton, June, 1886, by B. T. Foster & Co., editors and publishers. 
It is published weekly; terms, fifty cents per year. No other paper 
was ever started in Clinton. 


THE list of persons, natives or at some time residents of Kennebec 
county, who have in one way or another contributed to the 
literature of the nineteenth century is remarkably long and 
varied. It comprises poets, humorists, novelists, essayists, historians, 
philosophers, moralists and scientists of both sexes and all ages, whose 
work ranges from the level of ordinary merit to heights of superior 
attainment. The personality of several writers of note still resident 
in the county might well be treated at length; and such singularly in- 
teresting work as that of the Hon. James W. North should receive 
more than passing attention; but to treat in extenso the personalities 
and published productions of the entire company of authors named in 
this chapter would require a volume in itself, and would be obviously 
beyond the present purpose. It has, therefore, been deemed advisa- 
ble to do little more than enumerate in their alphabetical succession 
the names of the writers, and briefly indicate, wherever possible, the 
general character of their efforts. 

Though numbers of professional men of literary tastes have con- 
tributed excellent special matter to the pages of various periodicals, 
and though there are many general works devoted to the state, or New 
England, in which Kennebec county is incidentally treated — both 
open practically endless avenues of statistical research upon which it 
is impracticable here to enter; consequently, only those who have con- 
tributed to what may be classed as the general literature of the day 
are mentioned m the succeeding pages. 

Editors whose line of literary effort has been confined solely to the 
columns of the press have received notice in the preceding chapter: 
but in this connection it should be remarked that the majority of the 
authors here catalogued essayed their first flights up the thorny slopes 
of Parnassus through the friendly aid of the editors of the local press, 
to whom is due, in large measure, the credit of producing, either di- 
rectly or indirectly, nearly all of the county's prominent poets and 
story writers, as well as those of humbler attainments. 

The well known Rollo and Lucy books, the Illustrated History series. 


and History of Maine, were from the facile pen of Rev. Jacob Abbott, 
a native of Hallowell, who was graduated from Bowdoin in 1820. 

A popular Yassalboro writer is Howard G. Abbott, who is a cor- 
respondent for several newspapers. 

An early poet favorably known was Josiah Andrews, born in 
Augusta in 1799. One of his poems. To Augusta, appears in Tlie Pcets 
of Maine, published at Portland in 1888. 

Mrs. Frederick (Wimple) Allen, wife of the distinguished attorney, 
possessed superior intellectual abilities, richly developed by education 
and culture. She enjoyed scientific research, geology being her 
special delight. She was one of the first to find marine fossil shells of 
extinct species in this region. Her collection was recognized as of 
great value by Agassiz, Silliman and other scientists with whom she 
was in frequent correspondence. Her longest literary production was 
a poem entitled, A Poetical Geognosy. 

Samuel Lane Boardman'-, the editor of the Daily Kennebec Journal, 
was born at Skowkegan, Me., March 30, 1836. He early developed a 
taste and ability for literary work, and in 1861 became editor of the 
Maine Farmer. For more than seventeen years he filled this import- 
ant position, becoming undoubtedly the foremost writer in Maine 
upon agriculture and kindred topics. Within that period he published 
— in 1867 — History and Natural History of Kennebec County, Maine, 8vo., 
200 pp.; and while secretary of the Maine State Board of Agriculture 
(1872-1877), he published six volumes on Agriculture of Maine; and in 
1885-6 issued two volumes on Pomology of Maine. He has published 
a genealogy of the Boardman family (1876), besides numerous pam- 
phlets and lectures on historical, literary, agricultural and scientific 
subjects. He was editor of the American Cultivator, Boston, 1878, and 
from 1880 to 1888, editor and proprietor of The Home Farm. Mr. 
Boardman is also vice-president of the Kennebec Natural History and 
Antiquarian Society; resident member of the Maine Historical Society, 
and of the New England Historic-Genealogical Society, Boston; and 
corresponding member of the Vermont and Wisconsin Historical So- 
cieties, and of the American Entomological Society, Philadelphia. 

Ira Berry, born in 1801, started The Age at Augusta in 1831, and 
published the Gospel Banner in 1839. His poems. The Androscoggin, and 
Spring, are among the best specimens of his verse. His son, Stephen, 
born in Augusta in 1833, is also the author of several pleasing poems. 

Two brothers are seldom made bishops, but the exception is found 
in the case of the Rt. Rev. George, and Rt. Rev. Alexander, sons of 
*This family name first appears in New England in 1634, when William 
Boardman was a citizen of Cambridge. Mass. One of his descendants, also 
named William, was born at Stratham, N. H., in 1754, and in 1816 his son, Sam- 
uel L., born 1781, removed to Maine, when his son, Charles F. Boardman. the 
■editor's father, was ten years of age. 


Hon. Thoma.s Burgess, of Rhode Island. Rev. George was conse- 
crated bishop of Maine m 1847, becoming also rector of Christ church, 
at Gardiner. A volume of his poems was published after his death, 
in 1866. Rev. Alexander, first bishop of Ouincy, Mass., was rector of 
St. Mark's, Augusta, 1843-1864. He is the author of many printed 
sermons, carols and hymns. 

Many poems and short stories for newspapers and magazines were 
written by Josiah D. Bangs, at one time a resident of Augusta, and 
later, in 1843, a New York journalist. His wife, Pauline, a native of 
Augusta, furnished a few poems for the Ktr>i>i6'6ec /oierna/ a.s early as 
1831. Later she wrote regularly for the Philadelphia Saturday Courier, 
under the pseudonyms of " Ella" and " Pauline." 

The Address delivered by Rev. Doctor Bosworth at the dedication 
of Memorial Hall, Colby University, was published at Waterville in 

Benjamin Bunker, of Waterville, the democratic editor, was born 
in North Anson, Me., in 1837, and has been a resident of this county 
since 1887. He founded The Pine Tree State at Fairfield, in 1880, and 
in 1888 published, under the title Bunker s Text-Book of Politieal Deviltry, 
a humorous criticism upon Maine politics and politicians. The "Jack- 
knife" illustrations by the author is its mechanical characteristic. 

Samuel P. Benson's Historic Address, delivered at the Winthrop 
Centennial celebration in 1871, was afterward published in pamphlet 

John M. Benjamin, of Winthrop, a careful, methodical collector of 
local history, has long been engaged in preserving the earliest data 
relating to that town. His unpublished manuscript is doubtless the 
best literature in existence on the pioneer period of Winthrop before 

Clarence B. Burleigh, of Augusta, son of Governor Edwin C. Bur- 
leigh, is the author of a pleasing story, The Smugglers of Chestnut, illus- 
trated, published by E. E. Knowles & Co., 1891. 

Maine's most distinguished adopted son, Hon. James G. Blaine, of 
Augusta, is the author of the brilliant and instructive book. Twenty 
Years of Congress, published in 1884. His life and work are mentioned 
at length in the chapter on Augusta. 

Judge H. K. Baker, of Hallowell, author of Maine Justice, has also 
written a valuable and interesting volume on Hymnology, issued dur- 
ing the summer of 1892 from the press of Charles E. Nash, Augusta. 

A number of interesting articles in Harper's Magazine have been 
contributed by Horatio Bridge, of Augusta, who was a classmate and 
life-long intimate friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne. His recent Harper 
articles are in relation to Mr. Hawthorne. 

A ready writer, and frequent correspondent of Maine papers, is H. 
J. Brookings, of Gardiner, now a resident of Washington, D. C. 


Hannah J. Bailey, of Winthrop — a well known Christian reformer 
and philanthropist, is a daughter of David Johnston, a Friend minister, 
of Cornwall, N. Y. After the death of her husband, Moses Bailey, 
she wrote and published an appreciative biography of him in a volume 
aptly entitled Reminiscences of a Christian Life. She is now chiefly en- 
gaged in literary work incident to her official position in the W. C. T. U., 
as world's superintendent of its department of Peace and Arbitration, 
editing two monthly publications and devoting great intellectual and 
material resources to the uplifting of mankind. 

Colonel Henry Boynton, of Augusta, is a compiler of historical 
works. He issued The World's Greatest Conflict in 1891. 

Eight interesting volumes from the pen of Rev. Henry T. Cheever, 
of Hallowell, bear title as follows: The Whale and his Captors; Island 
World of the Pacific; Life in the Sandivich Islands; Life of Captain 
Conger; Memoir of Nathaniel Cheever, IStiO; Memoir of Rev. Walter Col- 
ton; Voices of Nature; and Pulpit and Pew, 1852. 

A pleasing writer of poems and short stories for the magazines is 
Gertrude M. Cannon, of Augusta. 

Eunice H. W. Cobb, of Hallowell, wrote hymns and occasional 
poems, and obituary lines that comforted many in affliction. She was 
the wife of Rev. Sylvanus Cobb, D.D., and the mother of Sylvanus 
Cobb, jun., of Boston, the gifted story writer. 

Emma M. Cass, of Hallowell, has gained recognition as a writer 
both of prose and verse. Her little poem. My Neighbors, is especially 

Harry H. Cochrane, of Monmouth, grandson of Dr. James Coch- 
rane, jun., has. among other things, given close attention to historical 
and antiquarian subjects. The chapter on Monmouth in this volume 
is an abridgment of his very elaborate manuscript History of Mon- 
mouth and Wales, which is soon to be published. 

Alexander C. Currier was an early literary light of Hallowell. He 
achieved the distinction of having one of his anonymous fugitive 
newspaper poems quoted by William Cullen Bryant in his Library of 
Poetry and Song. 

J. T. Champlin, D.D., a former president of Colby, was the author 
of a number of valuable text-books and pamphlets, a|Rong them being: 
A Discourse on the Death of President Harrison, published in 1841; De- 
mosthenes on the Crown, 1843: Knhners Elementary Latin Grammar, 
1845; Text-book of Intellectual Philosophy, 1860; and Lessons on Political 
Economy, 1868. 

Golden Gems, a pretty booklet of poems, handsomely illustrated, is 
from the pen of Mrs. Maria Southwick Colburn, a daughter of Jacob 
Southwick, of Vassalboro. Mrs. Colburn now lives in Oakland, Cal. 

An expressive poem. Dominie M' Lauren, is from the pen of Rev. 


Edgar F. Davis, pastor of the Congregational church at Gardiner from 
1881 to 1889. 

• Rev. William A. Drew, of Augusta, was the author of a volume of 
Foreign Travels (1851), published by Homan & Manley, and numerous 
sermons and addresses. 

John T. P. Du Mont, who died prior to 1856, was locally famous as 
a literary man and wit. He was an orator of considerable ability, and 
a valued contributor to the local press. 

A pleasing volume of Poems bears upon its title page, as author, 
the name of Mrs. Mattie B. Dunn, of Waterville. 

Charles F. Dunn, a graduate of Harvard College, possessed an 
excellent gift of poetry, as shown in his published writings; but he 
was buried on a farm in Litchfield during most of his life, and his 
talents never received their full development. 

A brilliant writer of sea letters was Captain John H. Drew, of 
Farmingdale. He was well and delightfully known to readers of the 
Boston Journal ?iS, " Kennebecker." He died in 1891. 

Olive E. Dana, of Augusta, has written several poems of merit for 
various periodicals. One, The Magi, is illustrative of her best ability. 
Other poems from her pen are embraced in TIic Poets of America, is- 
sued in 1891 by the American Publishing Association, of Chicago. 

Henry Weld Fuller, jun., was born in Augusta in 1810. He was a 
graduate of Bowdoin, and later became the law partner of his father, 
Hon. Henry Weld Fuller. The Victim, a fine poem from his pen, ap- 
pears in The Poets of Maine. 

Benjamin A. G. Fuller, born in Augusta in 1818, was an occasional 
contributor to genealogical and other magazines. He was also the 
author of several poems. 

Melville W. Fuller, of Augusta, chief justice of the U. S. supreme 
court, is a man of cultivated literary tastes, as shown m numerous 
published poems. 

The verses of Oscar F. Frost, of Monmouth, have appeared in manj' 
of the leading metropolitan periodicals. His short poem, Brush Awaj 
the Tears. Alollic, which appeared in the Boston Post soon after Presi- 
dent Garfield was assassinated, was set to music by a leading publish- 
ing house. 

R. H. Gardiner was the author of a History of Gardiner. The vol- 
ume may be found in the Maine Historical Society's collection. 

Rev. Eliphalet Gillett, D.D., of Hallowell, was the author of many 
published sermons, ranging in date from 1795 to 1823; and also author 
of Reports of the Maine Missionary Society, 1807 to 1849 (except 1836), 
and A List of the Ministers of Maine, 1840. 

William B. Glazier, who was born in Hallowell, is now a forgotten 
poet, but one who, in his day, contributed many pleasing verses to 


periodical literature. A volume of his poems was published by Mas- 
ters & Co., previous to 1872. 

Several volumes of poems have been written by F. Glazier, of Hal- 

Mrs. Eleanor (Allen) Gay, daughter of Mrs. Frederick Allen, and 
wife of Doctor Gay, of Gardiner, was a woman of rich mental gifts, 
and a writer of much literary merit. She published a volume entitled 
Tlie Siege of Agrigentum. 

An Obituary Record of Graduates of Colby University, from 1822 to 
1870, was compiled by Charles E. Hamlin, and published (66 pp., 8vo.) 
at Waterville in 1870. Mr. Hamlin is also the author of an interesting 
Catalogue of Birds found in the vicinity of Waterville. 

J. H. Hanson, LL.D., principal of Coburn Classical Institute, has 
contributed much to the educational literature of the day, having an- 
notated and published TJie Preparatory Latin Prose Book; Cicero's Select 
Orations; CcBsar's Commeiitarics; and (in association with Prof. W. J. 
Rolfe, of Cambridge, Mass.,) the Hand-Book of Latin Poetry and Selec- 
tions from Ovid and Virgil. 

The literary labors of the late Dr. Ezekiel Holmes, of Winthrop, 
author of The Northern Shepherd, are referred to at some length at 
page 192. 

Mrs. Anne A. Hall, of Augusta, wrote many sweet poems of home 
life, among them The Little Child's Belief and The Nursery. She died 
in Spain in 1865. 

Mrs. Caroline N. Hobart, of Augusta, was the author of Lines on 
Visiting the Old Ladies Home, Childhood's Faith and other short poems. 

Amos L. Hinds, town clerk of Benton, is the author of a beautiful 
legendary poem, of considerable length, entitled Uncle Stephen. 

On the Assabet, a local poem, by Dora B. Hunter, of Waterville, ap- 
peared in the Portland Transcript some years ago and received de- 
served recognition. Miss Hunter is also a contribator to the Congrc- 
gationalist. Christian Union and other papers. 

Ode to the Snow, Good-bye, and the The Men of Auld Lang Syne, (the 
latter sung at the Augusta Centennial celebration, July 4, 1854), are 
from the pen of Joseph A. Homan, the retired editor and publisher, 
of Augusta. 

Mrs. Anna Sargent Hunt, of Augusta, editor of the Home Mission 
Echo, has been a very prolific writer, both of prose and verse. Alpine 
Calls is one of her best poems. 

In 1852 Rev. J. W. Hanson, then pastor of the Universalist church 
in Gardiner, published, in 343 pages, a local history of the old town of 
Pittston, in which is preserved much valuable information. The 
work, now out of print, is, in fact, the best authority extant on the 
early families of Gardiner, West Gardiner, Pittston, Farmingdale and 


Randolph. Mr. Hanson wa.s also author of the Histjry of Norridge- 
wock and Canaan, Me., and the History of Danvcrs, Mass. 

A profound student of ancient and modern languages, and a noted 
Shakespearian scholar, is Prof. Henry Johnson, a native of Gardiner 
and member of the faculty of Bowdoin College. He is at work on a 
variorum edition of Shakespeare, (portions of which have been already 
published), which is intended to give an exact account of all the varia- 
tions of early copies of the great poet, even to the least in spelling or 

Clara R. Jones, of Winslow, is the author of Spinning and other 

The poetic contributions of Cathie L. Jewett, of Augusta, have ap- 
peared in many periodicals, and she has also achieved success in the 
line of story writing. 

The Life of Eli and Sybil Jones was written in 1888, by Rufus M. 
Jones, now principal of Oak Grove Seminary. It is a graphic and 
moving narration of the struggles of these early missionaries, the first 
ever sent abroad by the Friends. Mr. Jones is also the author of the 
chapter in the present work, on The Society of Friends. 

Rev. Sylvester Judd, once pastor of the Unitarian society of 
Augusta, was an author of national reputation. A graduate of Yale, 
and the divinity school at Cambridge, he was an accomplished scholar, 
. a deep thinker, and the master of an elegant and forceful literary 
style. He was the author of Margaret, A Tale of the Real and Ideal; 
Philo, an Evangeliad; Riehard Edney, and several volumes of sermons 
and lectures. His Life and Character, by Miss Arethusa Hall, was pub- 
lished in 1854, the year of his death. 

Dr. William B. Lapham*, of Augusta, is a well known author of 
local histories and genealogies. He has written the following town 
histories: Woodstock, published in 1882; Paris, 1884; Norzvay, 1886; 
Runiford, 1890; Bethel, 1892— all of Oxford county, Me. He is also the 
author of the synoptical history of Kennebec county, and its cities 
and towns, which prefaces the Atlas of Kennebec County, published in 
1879, by Caldwell & Halfpenny; and he has compiled the well known 
Bradbury Genealogy, and eight smaller genealogies of from 20 to 72 
pages each. Doctor Lapham is chairman of the committee on publi- 
cation, of the Maine Historical Society. Though his natural taste is 
for genealogical and historical matters, he has by no means confined 
his pen to this line of work. He began writing for the local papers in 
Oxford county, and wrote also for the Portland Transcript. He was 
editor of the Maine Fanner from 1871 to 1885; he issued the Maine 
Genealogist and Biographer — a quarterly — from 1875 to 1878; and he 
edited the Farm and Hearth two years. 

His style is clear and concise, without any effort at display, but 
*By H. K.' Morrell, Esq., of Gardiner. 



never dull or uninteresting. He ha.s occasionally "dropped into poetry," 
like Mr. Wegg, and has very rarely taken a turn at political sarcasm. 
His pen, though usually as smooth as the stylus of Virgil, can be pro- 
voked to criticism, and is then pointed enough to satisfy any opponent. 
He has a sharp sense of fitness, and feels keenly what he thinks is 
unfairness. His works are such as will always live, so long as the 
sons of Maine take a pride in its history. He once remarked that he 
did not take much interest in a man till he had been dead a century 
or two. This was, of course, a joke, but it indicates the true anti- 
quarian, of which he is a good specimen. Charles IX said, as he 
kicked over the massacred body of Coligny, " There is nothing so sweet 
as the smell of a dead enemy." Doctor Lapham would not go so far 
as that, but there is an odor of sanctity to old books and old heroes 
and pioneers very refreshing to his nostrils. May he live to write the 
obituary and history of all of us— for he will " nothing extenuate, nor 
set down aught in malice." 

Elijah P. Lovejoy, son of the late Rev. Daniel Lovejoy, of Albion, 
graduated from Waterville College in 1826. He was shot by a mob in 
Alton, 111., in 1837, for writing against slavery in the newspaper he 
had established in that place. His poems. The Little Star, and To My 
MotJier, appear in Tlie Poets of Maine. 

Henry C. Leonard, editor of the Gospel Banner during Mr. Homan's 
proprietorship, was a man of fine poetic instincts, instanced in The Old 
Chief and Christinas Eve. 

Prof. J. R. Loomis, of Colby, is the author of a volume on the Ele- 
ments of Physiology. 

Mrs. M. V. F. Livingston, of Augusta, is a constant writer for cur- 
rent periodicals, and is also the author of several remarkable books — 
one of them, Fra Lippo Lippi, having attained a wide circulation. 

Harriet S. Morgridge, of Hallowell, is widely known by her series of 
Mother Goose Sonnets, published in St. Nicholas in 1889. Miss xMor- 
gridge is also the author of many fugitive pieces, in prose and verse, 
that have appeared from time to time in various periodicals. 

John W. May, formerly of Winthrop, is the author of a stirring 
poem first read at the Winthrop Centennial celebration in 1871, and 
afterward published. He also published in 1884, a unique volume of 
legal and local reminiscences, entitled Inside the Bar. 

A very talented writer of verses, Hannah A. Moore, of Benton, was 
introduced to the literary world by N. P. Willis, and her poems found 
favor with Longfellow, Bryant and other celebrated authors. Almost 
Miss Moore's first publisher was Ephraim Maxham, of the Waterville 

HiRAM K. MORRELL, of Gardiner, whose antecedents are noticed 
at page 658, is perhaps as distinctively a literary- man in tastes, habits 
and accomplishments as any non-professional resident of the county. 


His relations to the local press are noticed in the preceding chapter, 
and while editor of his own paper he did much of the literar}^ work 
by which he is now well known in Maine. 

His school days were passed in Gardiner, where he had not only such 
chances of learning as every poor man's son may secure, but also re- 
ceived some help in a private school kept by Frederick A. Sawyer, 
who took a great interest in the boy. He also studied Latin with 
Judge Snell, then teaching in the public schools. He learned the 
brickmaker's trade with his father, and, about 1857, was in partner- 
ship with him for a year. Possessing a natural taste for literature, it 
was not surprising that he soon drifted into newspaper work, where 
he has made a reputation for himself of which any journalist might 
be protid. 

During his long editorial career Mr. Morrell was regarded as 
among the ablest newspaper writers in the state; and his innate hu- 
mor and waggishness (a prominent trait of the Morrells of this gen- 
eration) served him in good stead as a paragrapher, there being but 
few who could equal him in this difficult form of composition. In the 
discussion of topics of the time he wielded a ready and intelligent 
pen. He could be very sarcastic when he chose and sympathetic 
when he thought the occasion required it. 

Though retired from the active duties of the newspaper office, 
whenever he now takes up the pen he handles it with all his old-time 
facility and vigor. His education is varied, and he is able to write 
instructively upon a great variety of topics. He has ever been a 
close student of nature in all her varied forms. He is something of a 
botanist, an intelligent mineralogist, and in several other departments 
of natural history he is well versed. He has been a champion of tem- 
perance from his boyhood, and no man in Maine has written more or 
better upon this subject. He joined the Sons of Temperance October 
8, 1845, and is now the senior member of the order. He was for nine- 
teen j'ears grand scribe of Maine — the longest recorded service in 
that office. In 1862 he joined the National Division. 

For many years he was librarian, treasurer and collector of the 
old Mechanics' Association of Gardiner, which later became the Gar- 
diner Public Library, of which he has been a director from the start; 
and his labors in behalf of the institution have been very valuable to 
the city. His latest literary work will be found in the initial chapter 
of this volume. Honest, open-handed and open-hearted, a hater of all 
forms of hypocrisy, of an intensely sympathetic nature, and an unos- 
tentatious friend of the needy, Mr. Morrell commands the love, ad- 
miration and respect of all who knoiv him. 

Henry A. Morrell, now of Pittsfield, Me., but a native of Gardiner 
(see page 658), is a versatile and interesting newspaper correspondent. 
He is well known under the pseudonym of "Juniper," the signature 

J^ /(". y^l^n^r^^^ 


he gave to a very readable series of articles in the Gardiner Home Jour- 
nal, which he wrote while making an extended tour through the woods 
of Maine, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. His brother, William 
Morrell, of Gardiner, has more than a local reputation as one of the 
most witty writers in Maine. 

Dora May Morrell, of Gardiner, mentioned at page 658, after a very 
successful career as a teacher, devoted herself entirely to her pen. 
She is considered a very able and entertaining writer of short sketches, 
and for the past year has been literary editor of the Massac/nisetts 
Ploughman, of Boston. 

By far the most elaborate, careful and valuable volume of local 
history that has been written by any author of Kennebec county, is 
Hon. James W. North's History of Augusta, issued from the press of 
Sprague, Owen & Nash. This remarkable work is a monument to its 
author that will outlast any of stone or bronze that might be erected 
to his memory. It is a most accurate, painstaking and minute record 
of the persons and events, the customs and manners, the sayings and 
doings of the long procession of years from the earliest settlement on 
the Kennebec down to the year 1870, when the volume was published. 
The infinite care, labor and anxiety attendant upon the undertaking 
can be approximately appreciated only by the student who thought- 
fully peruses its 990 teeming pages. It is filled with curious, as well 
as historical information, confined not only to the locality of Augusta 
itself, but extending far to the north, south and west of that historic 
spot. Interesting as literature, and valuable as history, it is destined 
to perpetuate its author's name through generations to come. 

Captain Charles E. Nash, of Augusta, publisher of the Maine 
Farmers' Almanac, is a careful, concise writer. His style may fairly be 
judged from his Indians of the Kennebec, which appears as Chapter II. 
of this volume. Except while editing newspapers (see page 239), he 
has not made writing his business, but cultivates as a pastime his love 
for historical research. 

Emma Huntington Nason, of Augusta, a daughter of Samuel W. 
Huntington, of Hallowell, is a well known contributor to some of the 
best periodicals. At an early age she gave evidence of literary talent, 
and soon after leaving school she published anonymously several 
short poems and stories in the Portland Transcript. The first article 
appearing under her own name was written in 1874 and was published 
in the Atlantic Monthly. This poem, The Tower, attracted general at- 
tention. It was followed by other poems of acknowledged merit and 
numerous ballads and stories for children, which have since made 
their author familiarly known to the readers of our higher class of 
juvenile literature. In 1888 D. Lothrop Company issued her first pub- 
lished volume— If 7«V(' Sails, a collection of poems and ballads for 
young people. This book, which her publishers issued as a Christmas 


publication, was elegantly illustrated by some of the ablest artists. 
It was well received, and is now one of their leading publications. 
It contains several ballads which have been widely reprinted. Among 
them The Bravest Boy in Town, The Mission Tcaparty, and Off for Boy- 
land have found their way into various collections for declamation 
and recitation. At the dedication of the Hallowell Library in her 
native city, March 9, 1880, she read an original poem, which was pub- 
lished in a souvenir volume by Hoyt, Fogg & Donham, of Portland. 
The work of her pen, already before the public, gives brilliant promise 
for her literary future. 

Howard Owen, the well-known editor, author and lecturer, was 
born in Brunswick, Me., in 1835. He was educated in the public 
schools and learned the printer's trade in the offices of the Lczciston 
Jouriial and Brnnsivick Telegraph. At Brunswick he printed and 
edited the first youth's temperance paper ever published in Maine. 
He has written a number of poems, one, Wanted to be an Editor, ap- 
pearing, in 1888, in The Poets of Maine; and he was the originator and 
author of Biographical Sketches of Members of the Senate and House of 
Representatives of Maine. He has been in the lecture field for many 
years, giving numerous lectures, most of them in a humorous vein. 
He has also delivered quite a number of Memorial Day orations. In 
1879 Colby University conferred on Mr. Owen the degree of A.M. 
The preceding chapter in this volume is by Mr. Owen. 

Rev. A. L. Park, many years pastor of the Congregational church 
of Gardiner, but now of Lafonia, Cal., has had much correspondence 
in Maine papers. 

A bright and favorite writer of juvenile stories and humorous 
sketches is Manley H. Pike, of Augusta, son of Hon. Daniel T. Pike. 
The period of his literary production covers now but about seven 
years. He has contributed to Golden Days, but now writes solely for 
the Youth's Companion, so far as juvenile tales are concerned. In 
humorous writing he has been a constant contributor to Puck, and his 
sketches which have appeared in that periodical are now to be issued 
in book form by the publishers of Puck. Mr. Pike has also at times 
contributed humorous matter to Life, Harper's Bazar, Harper's Monthly 
and the Century. 

By vote of the Maine Historical Society in November, 1802, John 
A. Poor was appointed to deliver a eulogy upon the character and a 
memoir of the life and public services of Hon. Reuel Williams, of 
Augusta, then deceased. This memoir, ably and elegantly writ- 
ten, was read at a special meeting of the Historical Society in Au- 
gusta in February, 1863, and in the following year was published by 
H. O. Houghton & Co. for private circulation. 

A series of twenty-nine interesting historical sketches, by W. Har- 
rison Parlin, that first made their appearance in The Banner, published 


in East Winthrop, were afterward, at the urgent request of many 
friends, incorporated into book form, and issued, in 1891, under the 
title, Rcmuiisccnces of East Winthrop. 

Heaven Our Home: the Cliristian Doctrine of the Resurrection, by Rev. 
George W. Quinby, was issued in 1876 from the Gospel Banner office, 
Augusta. Mr. Quinby also edited a volume of Sermons and Prayers by 
Fifteen Universalist Clergymen, 350 pp., 12mo., published by S. H. 

Artiong the published works of Prof. Charles F. Richardson, a na- 
tive of Hallowell, are: A Primer of American Literature and The Col- 
lege Book, 1878, and a volume of religious poems. The Cross, 1879. 

Dr. Joseph Ricker, of Augusta, a graduate of Colby, and in point 
of service the oldest member of the university's board of trustees, was 
born in 1814. An extract from a Commencement Ode from his pen ap- 
pears in The Poets of Maine. 

Daniel Robinson, a resident of West Gardiner from 1812 to 1864, 
was a school teacher and a man of unusual intellectual gifts. Astron- 
omy v/as his favorite study, and at an early age he was considered an 
adept in the science. He was the editor of several standard school 
books, but his widest reputation rests upon his connection with the 
Maine Partners' Almanac (founded by Rev. Moses Springer, of Gardi- 
ner, in 1818), of which Mr. Robinson was editor from 1821 to 1864. 
He died in 1866, in his ninetieth year. 

The Star of Bethlehem and Dreaming are two poems by Edward L. 
Rideout, who was born in Benton in 1841 and now resides in Read- 
field. Mr. Rideout is a contributor to several periodicals. 

Mrs. Salvina R. Reed, the daughter of Josiah Richardson, of Mon- 
mouth, was for many years one of Maine's popular verse writers. 
She married Daniel Reed, the son of one of the early settlers of Lewis- 
ton. She now resides in Auburn. 

Laura E. Richards, whose work as a writer covers, as yet, but little 
more than a decade, was first known to her readers by her book. Five 
lUiee in a Mouse-Trap, published by Estes & Lauriat in 1880. In My 
Nursery, the Toto Books and others which followed have now a fixed 
place with popular publications for children. Among her books not 
designed for juvenile readers, but often portraying the ever fasci- 
nating child character, are: Crr//«/«/rt;«<rt;-j', perhaps the best known 
of this class; Queen Hildegarde and Hildegardes Holiday, the latter pub- 
lished in 1891. Mrs. Richards has resided in Gardiner since her mar- 
riage with Henry Richards, of that city. Her father was Dr. Samuel 
G. Howe, the philanthropist; her mother, Julia Ward Howe, the author 
and poet. 

Some very pleasing poetical sketches have been written by Dr. A. 
T. Schunian, of Gardiner. His prose writings are also marked by 
grace of diction and fine literary insight. 


A well-known writer of books, and an editor of the Yoiitlis Coiii- 
pauiou, is Edward Stanwood. a native of Augusta. 

Rev. Albion W. Small (noticed at page 99), late president of Colby 
University, is author of the following works: The Bulletin of the French 
Revolution, published in 1887; The Grnvth of American Nationality, 
1888: The Dynamics of Social Progress, 1889; Introduction to the History 
of European Civilization, 1889; vend Introduction to the Science of Sociology, 

Rev. David N. Sheldon, president of Waterville College from 1843 
to 1853, was the author of a volume of sermons. Sin and Redemption, 
published by a New York house in 1856. At the time of the compila- 
tion of these sermons Mr. Sheldon was a Baptist, but some years after 
his resignation of the college presidency he associated himself with 
the Unitarian church. 

Major-A. R. Small, of Oakland, is the author of The Sixteenth Maine 
Regiment in the War of the Rebellion, a book of 323 pages. Of this his- 
tory General James A. Hall says: " The faithfulness with which you 
have produced the record, and the completeness of the tabulations, 
give the work a value not often found m such productions. The bio- 
graphical allusions, the personal reminiscences, and the delineations 
of camp, march, bivouac and battle are so correctly drawn that I pre- 
dict for it the highest place among regimental histories." Major 
Small is also a veteran and valued newspaper correspondent and the 
author of an exhaustive History of lilessahviskee Lodge, of West Water- 
ville, Me., from its organization to the year 1870. 

Miss Caroline D. Swan, of Gardiner, is known to discriminating 
readers as a valued contributor to standard newspapers and maga- 
zines. The productions of her pen sometimes take the form of prose, 
but oftener of poetry, among the latter being The Fire-Fly's Song and 
Sea Fogs, which have been extensively copied. 

Our national hymn, America, and the missionary hymn. The Morn- 
ing Light is Breaking, were written by Samuel Francis Smith, pastor 
of the First Baptist Church at Waterville from 1834 to 1842. 

Nathaniel F. Sawyer, at one time a resident of Gardiner, was a 
writer of great originality, both of prose and poetry. He died of con- 
sumption in 1845. 

A young author of Augu.sta, who died in 1882, was Arthur M. 
Stacy. From the age of fourteen he was a contributor to various 
papers and juvenile magazines. A volume of his verses, T/ic Miser's 
Dream and Other Poems, and a story in book form, Edii>ard Earle, a 
Romance, have been published. 

Captain Henry Sewall, of Augusta, an officer in the revolutionary 
army, left a remarkably interesting diary, in manuscript, of the stir- 
ring events of 1776-1783. It was published in the Historical Magazine 
August, 1871. 


The History of Winthrop. 1764-185.'5, was written by Rev. David 
Thurston, a graduate of Hanover and pastor of the Winthrop Con- 
gregational Church from 1807 to 18!54. It was published by Brown 
Thurston, of Portland, in 18.o5. Mr. Thurston was also the author of 
Letters from a Father to his So// a/t Apprc/iticc and other pamphlets of 
moral tone. 

Rev. Daniel Tappan, born in 1798, and at one time pastor of the 
Congregational church at Winthrop, was the author of several poems 
and numerous addresses. 

Rev. Benjamin Tappan, D.D., for many years pastor of the South 
Parish church, of Augusta, was a ready writer, though plain in style. 
He died in 1863, at the age of seventy-five, leaving a number of pub- 
lished volumes of sermons on a variety of practical themes. 

The chapter on Tlie Town of Fayette in this work is from the pen 
of George Underwood, of Fayette. Mr. Underwood is also an occa- 
sional contributor to several newspapers. 

The literary work of Dr. Benjamin Vaughan, LL.D., of Hallowell, 
author of numerous articles on surgery, and a well-known writer on 
agriculture, is referred to at length in the chapter on Agriculture and 
Live Stock, page 19] . 

Me/ital Beauty, -AxidL other poems of a devotional nature, were written 
by Richard H. Vose, for many years a resident of Augusta. 

Miss Kate Vannah, of Gardiner, has for a series of years thrown 
some of the impressions she has received from people and events into 
that omnipresent mirror of the times — the modern newspaper. Her 
writings seem to be the irrepressible overflow of mental activity. 
Her ideas take the mould of prose or poetry, as best adapted to their 
expression, with equal facility. She has published one volume of 
poems — Verses — and another is ready for the press. With marked 
musical talent and careful training she has found an inviting field 
in composing and publishing songs. 

At the death of the gifted Rev. Sylvester Judd, Robert C.Waterston, 
a native of Kennebunk, was called to Augusta to take charge of the 
vacant pastorate. He was author of a number of fine hymns and 
poems, and memoirs of Charles vSprague, George Sumner, William 
Cullen Bryant and George B. Emerson. 

Some spirited anti-slavery poems were, in years gone by, written 
for the Maine Far//ier by Mrs. Thankful P. N. Williamson, of Augusta. 
She was born in 1819. 

During Prof. W. F. Watson's senior year at Colby University he 
published a volume of miscellaneous and college poems entitled The 
Children of the Stc/i. 

William E. S. Whitman, the well-known " Toby Candor " of the 
Bosto// Jour//al, besides having been the regular correspondent of sev- 


eral daily papers, has written Maine in the War and several other 
books. He was the only son of Dr. C. S. Whitman, of Gardiner. 

Judge Henry S. Webster, of Gardiner, in addition to widely recog- 
nized professional and business qualifications, has also a distinct liter- 
ary reputation as an earnest student and thinker and as a strong and 
accomplished writer. The public know him chiefly in the prose col- 
umns of various newspapers, but his friends know that the finest coin- 
age of his heart and brain come through the mint of verse. 

Samuel Wood, of Winthrop, a valbed contributor to the Maine 
Farmer, is mentioned in the chapter on Agriculture and Live Stock, 
page 192. 

At the age of sixteen Julia May Williamson, of Augusta, published 
a volume of her poems for circulation among her friends; and a sec- 
ond volume, published in 1878, was well received. A third volume, 
recently issued, is entitled Star of Hope and Other Songs. Miss Wil- 
liamson is in her twenty-third year; her noui de guerre is "Lura Bell." 

In 1813 a book was published by J. C. Washburn, of China, under 
the following explanatory title: " The Parish Harmony, or Fairfax 
Collection of Musick, containing a Concise Introduction to the grounds 
of Musick, and a variety of Psalm Tunes suitable to be used in Divine 
vService, together with Anthems, by Japheth Coombs Washburn." 

Nathan Weston, a former chief justice of the supreme court of 
Maine, and long an honored resident of Augusta, was the author of 
an eloquent oration in 1854, at the centennial celebration of the erec- 
tion of Fort Western. It was published by William H. Simpson, Au- 

In 1887 S. H. Whitney, of Vassalboro, published a cursory sketch 
of 122 pages, entitled Early History of Kennebec Valley. 

Oscar E. Young, of Fayette, is the author of a book of poems and 
is also a contributor to the columns of the Chicat^o Sun. 


BY RUFUS JI. JONES, Principal of Oak Grove Seminary. 

David Sands. — First Meeting.— George Fox. — Vassalboro Meeting. — Oak Grove 
Seminary.— China Monthly Meeting.— Fairfield Quarterly Meeting.— Litch- 
field Preparative.— Winthrop Preparative.— Manchester Preparative.— Sid- 
ney Preparative. 

NO man is more intimately and essentially connected, by his life and 
labors, with the rise and growth of the Society of Friends in Ken- 
nebec county than David Sands, a Friend minister from Cornwall, 
Orange county, N. Y. In the year 1775 David Sands, then thirty years 
of age and nine years a member of the Society of Friends, came to 
New England to attend the yearly meeting at Newport, R. I. Again 
in 1777, he felt called to more extended labors throughout the towns 
and villages of New England, and he came with a minute from his 
own meeting for that service. In his journal we find the following 

" We had many meetings, although passmg through a wilderness 
country. I trust they were to the encouragement of many seeking 
minds. We were invited to the house of Remington Hobbie; he re- 
ceived us kindly, and we had two meetings at his house, one on First 
day, where were many of the town's people; this place is called Vas- 
salborough, on the Kennebec River; and another in the evening at a 
Friend's hou,se. These meetings were much to my comfort, feeling 
the overshadowing of our Divine Master. We next proceeded up the 
river for two days, through great fatigue and suffering, haying to 
travel part of the way on foot, to a Friend's house, who received us 
kindly, there being no other Friend's house within forty-five miles. 
We had a meeting among a poor people, newly settled, but to our 
mutual comfort and satisfaction, witnessing the Divine Presence to 
be underneath for our support." 

This is the first of his four visits to the towns of Kennebec county, 
and this account shows the true state of this region at the time. The 
country was only just beginning to be settled. If there were any 
Friends, there was not more than one famijy in a settlement. Each 
visit of David Sands was attended with striking success, showing that 
he possessed peculiar gifts and ability for missionary work among 
these Maine pioneers. Hardly a meeting was begun in the county a 


century ago which did not owe almost the possibility of its existence 
more or less directly to his influence, and a very large number of the 
prominent Friends in these early meetings were convinced by his 
preaching or through his personal efforts. It would be safe to say 
that the position Friends have held here and the work they have been 
able to do, is in great measure owing to the zeal and faithfulness of 
this true and devoted Christian apostle. Nearly twenty years from 
his first visit he made a final journey through the county, of which 
he wrote: 

" I proceeded towards the eastward on horseback "•■ * * on our 
course toward Kennebec, where we arrived 5th month, 9th. 1795, and 
found things greatly altered since my first visit, there being now a 
pretty large monthly meeting where there was not a Friend's face to 
be seen when I first visited the country; but rather a hard, warlike 
people, addicted to many vices, but now a solid good behaved body of 

The first meeting for worship established by the Society of Friends 
in this county was at Vassalboro, on the east side of the Kennebec 
river, in the year 17S0. Members of this society were among the 
pioneer settlers of the towns of China and Vassalboro, and as the set- 
tlers increased many embraced the peculiar views of the so-called 
Quakers. These early Friends were men and women of great strength 
of character; their lives were their strongest arguments in favor of 
the views which they promulgated and, though few in number, they 
at once made their influence felt. They lacked the broad culture of 
the schools and colleges, nor had they gained the intellectual skill 
which long study gives; but they had keen judgment, prompt decision, 
unwavering faith in God, and they looked constantly to him for guid- 
ance. The solitary life in their new homes, where the forests were 
just yielding to give place to fields and pastures, was well suited to 
this people, and they were in many respects peculiarly adapted for the 
only kind of life possible in this county in the last quarter of the last 
century. For a better understanding of these Friends themselves, their 
fitness for their condition and surroundings, and their influence espec- 
ially on the early life of this county, it will be necessary to take a 
hasty glance at the rise and growth of the society, and to consider the 
character of its founder, George Fox, for he is the proper exponent of 

He was born in 1625, and began his active career in about the year 
1649, closing his eventful life, with those words of triumph, "I am 
•clear,'! am clear," in the year 1690. For centuries the truths declared 
to men among the hills of Judea had been unknown to the people; the 
signification of the Incartiation was completely lost to them, symbols 

*This Journal [New York: Collins & Bro., 269 Pearl street] is highly inter- 
esting not only to Friends but to all who love to read the simple record of a good 
■man's life. 


were taken for the things symbolized, mechanical performances took 
the place of vital communion with a loving Father as revealed 
by the vSon; but the rise of modern Protestantism, and the fear- 
ful struggles of the century which followed Luther's first protests 
belong to general history. The unrest which was so noticeable in 
the first half of the sixteenth century goes to show that the people 
were not yet satisfied with the religious condition of the country any 
more than with the political. Numerous characters and various 
societies came forward at this time, each with its own peculiar con- 
ception of the relation which exists between this world and the next; 
between the human creature and the Creator. 

The feeling that outward signs of religion are empty and that the 
relation between God and man is in the highest degree a personal 
matter came, at a very early age, with great force, into the heart of 
George Fox. He had sat on the knee of a mother who came from the 
stock of martyrs, and he inherited a fearlessness which never left him 
when the " voice within " bade him stand in his place. His father, 
who was the " Righteous Christer," taught him by his life and words 
that there is no crown on earth or in Heaven to be compared with a 
'crown of righteousness." He possessed a tender but strong nature 
which could be satisfied by what was genuine alone. Let us see by 
looking a little farther at the experience of George Fox what being a 
*' Quaker "* means. 

He went to keep sheep for a shoemaker, and his work as shoe- 
maker and shepherd combined went on until he was twenty, and 
might have continued through his life, had not He who appeared to 
Saul on his way to Damascus, appeared no less certainly, though dif- 
ferently, to him. Carlyle says: " Perhaps the most remarkable inci- 
dent in modern history is not the Diet of Worms, still less the battle 
of Austerlitz, Waterloo, Peterloo, or any other battle; but George 
Fox's making himself a suit of leather. This man, the first of the 
Quakers, and by trade a shoemaker, was one of those to whom, under 
ruder or purer forms, the Divine idea of the Universe is pleased to 
manifest itself, and across all the hulls of ignorance and earthly 
degradation, shine through in unspeakable awefulness, unspeakable 
beauty in their souls; who therefore are rightly accounted Prophets, 
God-pos.sessed, or even God's, as in some periods it has chanced." 

No man ever instituted a more earnest search for the truth; far and 
near besought for a teacher who could really teach him; he was ready 
to listen on his knees to such an one when he found him, but though 
he traveled as far as London he could find no man who could lift a jot 
of the weight from his burdened heart. The answers he received 
would have completely discouraged a less earnest youth, but he was 
on a quest he could not abandon: " Be sure they sleep not whom God 
* At first a nickname started by George Fox's telling a magistrate to " Quake 
at the word of the Lord." 


needs." At length, when all his hope in men was gone, and as he tells 
us, "When I had nothing outwardly to help me, nor could tell what 
to do; then O 1 then, I heard a voice which said: ' There is one, even 
Christ Jesus, that can speak to thy condition.' " 

He had always heard a dead Christ preached in the churches, but 
he sought a Christ who could teach him and act upon him so as to 
change his life^ only a living Christ could do that. Doctrines about 
Christ and what He has done for man are not Christ himself; and at 
length Fox reached the great truths, as Kingsley says, " That Christ 
must be a living person, and He must act directly on the most inward, 
central personality of him, George Fox;" or again in his own words, 
"Christ it was who had enlightened me, that gave me his light to !e- 
lieve in, and gave me hope which is in Himself, revealed Himself m 
me, and gave me His spirit and gave me His grace, which I found 
sufficient in the deeps and in weakness." 

He and the early Friends were orthodox in regard to the atone- 
ment, but this has sometimes been overlooked, owing to the emphasis 
which they put on the spiritual Christ who is the Light within, the 
constant guest of the soul. Their characterizing peculiarities were, 
then, obedience at all times to the voice within, the maintenance of a 
life in full harmony with their profession, protestation against all 
shams and formality, the use of " thee " and " thou " to show the 
equality of all men,"'- and their refusal to doff" the hat to so-called 
social superiors. Still, farther, they declared the incompatibility 
of war with perfect Christianity; oaths, even in courts of justice, 
they utterly refused; in regard to the two sacraments, baptism and 
the Lord's supper, they held that " they were temporary ordinances, 
intended for the transition period, while the infant church was ham- 
pered by its Jewish swaddling clothes, but unneces.sary and unsuitable 
in 2. purely spiritual religion^ Men and women were equal in the sight 
of God and " the gift for the ministry " was conferred upon both by 
the Head of the church. It was wrong for a minister to receive pay- 
ment for preaching the Gospel, whether from the state or from the 
congregation. vSilent communion was an essential part of their wor- 
ship and it was believed that the true voice could be best heard at 
such seasons. 

To note these distinguishing points in belief, life and conduct, 
taken with the successful efforts of George Fox to gain light and per- 
fect peace, will help the reader to form a just conception of the 
Friends of Kennebec county, who were the inheritors of the princi- 
ples and practices of the men who so aroused and influenced the 
world a hundred years before them. We do not need to speak of the 
fearful persecution which attended their labors; suffice it to say that 

*The use of " you," the plural to superiors, and " thou," the singular to in- 
feriors, was very common then, as it still is, in Germany. 


in central Maine they were allowed peacefully to pursue their manner 
of life, and no remonstrance was raised against their tenets. Here, as 
in England, the Friends marked out no creed, but contented them- 
selves with the life and words of the Lord as recorded by the holy 
men who received the revelation, and they strove to be in their meas- 
ure reproductions of Christ. The following words used by a recent 
writer on the " Quakers " very nearly express their views at all the 
different epochs of their existence: 

" Christianity is a life; the true life of man; the life of the spirit 
reigning over all the lusts of the flesh. * * * Christianit}', we call 
it, because first in Jesus, the Christ, this life was manifested in its 
highest perfection. * * * Our creeds and theologies are human 
conceptions of what the Christian life is; but the Christian life was 
before them all, is independent of them all, and probably no one of 
them is a perfectly true and adequate description of the reality. 
Their diversities, their mutations, prove that they are imperfect. 
Christianity is the life which Christ lived, which lives in us now by 
His Spirit." 

Such, then, was the belief and such, in a measure, the life of the 
little company which met m Vassalboro, on the hill side overlooking 
the Kennebec valley, in the year 1780. The history of the Friends in 
this county can never be adequately written, since from their first ap- 
pearance until the present time they have done, their work in a quiet, 
unobtrusive way, leaving behind them little more record of their 
trials and triumphs than nature does of her unobserved workings in 
the forests; but this fact does not make their existence here unim- 
portant, and no careful observer will consider it to have been so. 

In 1779 John Taber and family moved from Sandwich, Mass., to- 
gether with Bartholomew and Rebecca Taber, brother and sister, and 
established themselves in Vassalboro, being the first Friends to settle 
in this locality, excepting Jethro Gardner, who lived on Cross hill. 
They soon held a meeting at John Taber's house. In 1780 Jacob 
Taber, aged eighty-one, father of the above mentioned John Taber, 
together with Peleg Delano and their families, settled in Vassalboro. 
About two years later Moses Sleeper joined this little group of Friends. 
In the 3d month of 1786 Stephen Hussey and Rebecca Taber were 
married at the house of John Taber, this being the first marriage in 
this meeting. The same year Joseph Howland moved hither from 
Pembroke and brought the first removal certificate which was placed 
upon the records of the meeting. 

Friends Meeting House at Vassalboro was built from 178.) to 1786, 
only one half being finished, and the little company met one, if not 
two, winters without any fire, meeting holding sometimes three 
hours. The meeting house at Vassalboro was rebuilt about fifty years 
ago. In 1787 Joshua Frye moved to Vassalboro. In 10th month, 


1788, Joseph Rowland and Sarah Taber, and Pelatiah Hussey and Lydia 
Taber were married, being the first married in the new meeting 
house. It then being the custom to request for membership, verbally 
and in person, Anstrus Hobble, Levi Robinson and wife, John Get- 
chell, John Baxter and wife, with Ephraim Clark and George Fish, 
of Harlem, went up to Falmouth in 1782 to request the " care of 
Friends," i.e., the rights of membership. 

In most other parts of the land opposition brought out the char- 
acter of the Friends more distinctly and their lives became a part of 
written history; here they were allowed to worship God unhindered, 
and the leaven which they became in the various communities was a 
constantly active, though often unnoticed, force. 

Remington Hobble was at first undoubtedly the strongest and 
most influential member of the little society at Vassalboro. He was 
a magistrate in the place and inhabited a spacious house built like the 
old English homes, with a front hall so large that a " yoke of oxen 
with cart attached could be driven in the front door, up the hall and 
turned around in it," as the neighbors said. When David Sands and 
his companion were in Vassalboro holding their first meetings. 
Remington Hobble said to his wife: " I hear these Quakers are decent, 
respectable looking men; I believe I shall invite them to my, 
as they must be but poorly accommodated where they are." She 
agreed and they were invited. When they came they were shown 
into the common room or kitchen. After being seated, they re- 
mained in perfect silence. Remington Hobble being entirely unac- 
quainted with the manners of Friends, was at a loss to account for 
their remarkable conduct, and attributed it to displeasure at being 
invited into his kitchen. He at once had a fire made in his parlor, 
saying to his wife: " I believe these Quakers are not pleased with 
their reception; we will see how they like the other room." He in- 
vited them in, but the same solemn silence continued, at which he 
became almost vexed, and thought to himself, " they are certainly 
fools or take me to be one." 

As these thoughts were passing in his mind, David Sands turned 
and fixed his eye full in his face and in the most solemn manner said: 
" Art thou willing to be a fool?" when he paused and again repeated, 
" Art thou willing to become a fool for Christ's sake?" He continued 
with such power that Remington Hobbie could not withstand it, and 
in a short time he was fully convinced of Friends' principles and prac- 
tices. He was ever after a most intimate friend of David Sands and 
often his colaborer. " His gift for the ministry was acknowledged," 
and for many years he preached the Gospel acceptably. In the affairs 
of the church he was a " weighty man." 

Moses Starkey was another strong pillar in this Vassalboro meet- 
ing, and he, too, was convinced under the preaching of David Sands, 


in the following remarkable manner. He was a carpenter by trade, 
and if not a rough man, he was at least one who was unconcerned 
about spiritual things. As he was one day riding along the newly 
made road, he was asked by a neighbor passing by if he was going to 
hear the Quaker preach? To whom he replied that he had not thought 
of doing so. A little farther on, the road divided, one branch going 
by the meeting house, where David Sands was to have his meeting, 
the other going to where the village now is. It came into his head 
to let his horse take whichever road he would, and if he should go by 
the meeting house, to go in. The horse took the road leading to the 
meeting house. Moses Starkey went in and sat down by the door. 
As he entered David Sands was preaching. He stopped in the midst 
of his discourse and looking at the new comer said: " So thee left it 
to thy horse, did thee. It would have been well if thee had left it to 
thy horse years ago;" and thereupon he continued his former line of 
thought with wonderful power. Moses Starkey was so deeply stirred 
that his conversion .soon followed; he became a Friend and was ap- 
pointed to the station of minister in due time, sitting for many years 
at the head of the meeting. 

John D. Lang was born in 1789 in Gardiner, Me., where he lived 
until he was six years of age. He went to school only about three 
months, and so was forced to educate himself. While still a young 
boy he worked in the wool carding mill at Fryeburg. He worked 
much of the time with his Bible open before him, and thus early in 
life he became acquainted with the teaching of the Scriptures. In 
1820 he was married to Ann Elmira Stackpole, and about a year later 
they both joined the Society of Friends. They began their married 
life in North Berwick, and at about the age of thirty his gift as a min- 
ister of the Gospel was recognized by the Friends' meeting in that 
place. In the year 1840, in company with Samuel Taylor, he visited 
the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi, and they made an exhaustive 
report of their travels and the condition of these Indians to the yearly 
meeting of Friends for New England, and when U. S. Grant became 
president he appointed John D. Lang commissioner to the Indians. 
In 1846 John D. Lang came to Vassalboro and gained possession of 
the Vassalboro Woolen Mills, which owe much of their prosperity to 
him, he having formerly owned and managed the woolen mill at North 
Berwick, in company with William Hill. For the remainder of his 
life he resided at Vassalboro, near the Kennebec river, where he had 
a beautiful home and entertained many friends. He sat for nearly 
thirty years at the head of the meeting at Vassalboro, and for many 
years occupied the same position at the yearly meeting of Friends at 
Newport, R. I. He died in 1879. 

In four years from their first assembling for worship in Vassalboro, 
a. preparative meeting was held there, and in 1787 a monthly meeting 


was established in that place. This meeting included all the Friends 
in this county, there being no meeting nearer than Durham, Me. The 
system of their meetings was as follows: As soon as a family or two 
settled m a place they held meetings for worship on the Sabbath and 
in the middle of the week. As the number of Friends increased a 
meeting for transacting the business affairs of this little branch of the 
society was held, called the preparative meeting. The members of 
two or more preparative meetings in easy access of each other met 
together once in the month, a week after the several preparative 
meetings, for the transacting of further business. This was called 
the monthly meeting. Again, two or more monthly meetings joined 
to make a quarterly meeting, and, finally, all the quarterly meetings 
of New England were subordinate to the yearly meeting, then held 
annually 'at Newport, R. I. This system applies to the present time, 
except that the yearly meeting is held every other year at Portland, 
Me., and the alternate years at Newport, R. I. The chief settlement 
of Friends was on the eastern bank of tlie Kennebec river; but in a 
few years a " goodly number " gathered in the easterly part of the 
town near the outlet of China lake. 

An early writer says: " Toward the close of the year 1797 it was 
found expedient to establish a meeting for worship there. In the 
summer following, i.e., in 1798, a meeting house was built there. It 
was called the ' East Pond meeting," to distinguish it from the River 
meeting." Two years later a preparative meeting was granted them 
and the Vassalboro monthly meeting was held there half the time. 

Thomas B. Nichols, a minister of the gospel, for many years occu- 
pied an active and prominent place in this meeting, not only being a 
man of weighty counsel, but possessing as well a gift for the ministry. 
His influential life and his gospel labors made him well known 
throughout New England yearly meeting. 

Anna Gates, granddaughter of Benjamin Worth, was one of the 
" endowed women " of the East Vassalboro meeting. She was brought 
closely under the power of the Divine Life while still quite young, 
and through faithfulness to the Master, whom she loved, she became 
of great service to Him in the community, by her words of truth and 
her practical Christian life. Besides her work in New England she 
took a message of the gospel to the yearly meetings of New York and 
Baltimore, closing her earthly life in 1865. 

Sarah W. Newlin, the daughter of Elijah Winslow, was born in 
China, 5th mo. 27, 1826. She was married to Henry Goddard in 1847. A 
great change in her life was wrought by a message which Benjamin 
Jones, a minister among Friends, felt called to deliver to her person- 
ally. Her gift in the ministry was acknowledged by Va.ssalboro 
monthly meeting in 1872. The next year she went on a religious visit 
to Canada, attending the yearly meetings and all the meetings of 


Friends in Canada. In 1876 she attended Ohio and Iowa yearlj- meet- 
ings, working for nine months in the latter state, holding meetings, 
visiting families, jails, prisons and reformatory institutions, and ac- 
complishing great results. Her first husband having died in 1875, 
she was married in 1883 to Jehu Newlin. Since her last marriage 
she, in company with her husband, also a minister, visited England, 
Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, 
France and the Holy Land, in all of which countries much service for 
the Master was accomplished. S,he has attended all the yearly meet- 
ings of Friends on the American Continent, working throughout the 
territory which such meetings cover, while she has been a faithful 
messenger of the Gospel in her own community, exerting a wide in- 
fluence by both life and work. Her membership until her second 
marriage was at East Vassalboro meeting. 

The well known red brick meeting house at East Vassalboro was 
built sixty years ago and remained unchanged until 1891, when the 
inside was entirely remodeled. It is now a very convenient and at- 
tractive place of worship. Vassalboro monthly meeting is now held 
in it every month and the quarterly meeting twice in the year. Be- 
sides those already mentioned, Charles B. Gates, Rachel B. Nichols, 
William Gates and Eliza P. Pierce have been prominent among its 
members. This meeting has recently risen in importance by a large 
addition of new members. 

Prior to the year 1795 Salem quarterly meeting included all Friends 
east of Boston. In 1781, about the time Friends began to settle in 
Kennebec county, to accommodate the members in Maine, the Salem 
quarterly meeting met once during the year in Falmouth, Me. 
Thither the Friends in this county traveled on foot and on horseback 
to attend this meeting and to hear the gospel messages from the min- 
isters who were generally in attendance. In the year 1795 the yearly 
meeting divided Salem quarterly meeting and established Falmouth 
quarterly meeting, which was held circular, viz., at Falmouth, Vassal- 
boro, Durham and Windham, including all the meetings of Friends in 
Maine, except those at Berwick and Eliot, who found it more con- 
venient to remain attached to Salem. From this date Vassalboro 
meeting held a prominent position and received visits from the gospel 
messengers coming from the other states and from England. 

Vassalboro quarterly meeting proper was established in 1813, and 
then included the monthly meetings of Vassalboro, Sidney, Leeds and 
China, with the smaller meetings in their boundaries. It was held 
four times a year at the " River meeting house," viz., in the 2d, 5tb, 
9th and 11th months. 

The provision of Article VII, Section 5, of the State Constitution, 
exempting Friends from military duty, was .secured largely through 


the efforts of the Vassalboro quarterly meeting. On the meeting- 
records is spread tlie report of its committee: 

" The object of our appointment, it seems, was to use our endeavor 
to have our rights and privileges as a society secured in said conven- 
tion, more especially as respects military requisitions, and finding 
many members of the convention, who upon the principles of impar- 
tiality, were not willing to give any sect or society the preference in 
point of privileges, and who thought it but right and just that all of 
every denomination should be involved and equally liable to perform 
military duty, or pay an equivalent, we found it incumbent to urge 
the justice, and, on gospel principles, the necessity of exempting all 
who were principled against war. 

" When we found that to urge so general an exemption was of no 
avail, we then confined ourselves to the narrow limits of our society, 
on behalf of whom we plead that we as a religious society had found 
it incumbent to bear our testimony against war, and that the society 
had for almost two centuries, amidst severe persecutions and suffer- 
ings, supported the same with a firmness and constancy from which, 
under the guardianship of superintending goodness, no penalties in- 
flicted by human policy, however severe, had been able to turn us; a 
testimony and faithfulness to that testimony unexampled by any so- 
ciety on the earth; that while we were engaged, as one general peace 
society, in support of this all important testimony, it would entail 
great hardship and suffering on our society, and on our young men in 
particular, to impose such military requisition, from which we had 
been in great measure exempt under the then existing laws. After 
much labor and care on the part of your committee, with the aid of 
faithful and zealous advocates not of our profession m the convention, 
a clause is inserted in the new constitution by which Friends may be 
exempt from military duty. 

" Now, on our part, we can say with gratitude that the success our 
cause met with was not owing merely to human exertions, but to the 
interference of the hand of Providence, as a member of the conven- 
tion said, ' the hand of Providence is in it.' " 

The report is a long one, and the committee go on to say that the 
statement was made in the convention, as an argument against their 
plea, that " many shelter themselves under your name and yet in 
their external appearance afford no evidence of their scruples as to 
military duty, and though nominally of your religious body, there are 
some among you and especially young men who so nearly assimilate 
with us in dress and address and in their deportment generally, that 
you ought to turn them out, that we may enroll them in our ranks. 
' Your members,' said they, ' ought to certify by their appearance to 
whom they belong,' from which we are led to infer that, though the 
constitution makes provision for our exemption from military requisi- 
tion, yet the enjoyment of this privilege depends principally, if not 
wholly, on our demeaning ourselves in accordance to our high and 
holy purposes." 

Oak Grove Seminary.— It is to the honor of the Society of Friends 
in Kennebec county that its members e.spoused so zealously the cause 
of education. Although the early Friends here were unlettered in 


large degree, and perhaps partly for this very reason, they resolved 
that their children and those of future generations should be wisely 
and carefully taught. The grove of oak trees crowning the top of the 
hill to the northeast of the village at Vassalboro was chosen as the 
location of the school which these Friends founded thirty-four years 
ago. There are few more striking landscape views in the state. The 
eye follows the winding Kennebec through its beautiful course among 
farms and forests until it reaches Augusta, and far beyond the city, 
to where the horizon is skirted with hills. The noted peaks in the 
range of western Maine mountains are prominent in the northwest, 
while Mt. Washington and Mt. Adams are visible over the western 
hilltops. The position could not fail to be a constantly inspiring 
influence; then, too, only a few rods from this spot the first Friends' 
meeting in the county had been held in 1780, and a large body 
of Friends still assembled there for worship. Furthermore, this 
was a center to a large community in which the children had no 
educational advantages beyond the ordinary town school; and, finally, 
in or near this neighborhood lived men who had hearts large enough 
to use their means in laying the foundation to an institution, the good 
work of which had only begun in their life time. 

■ About the year 1850 John D. Lang and Ebenezer Frye, of Vassal- 
boro, Samuel Taylor, of Fairfield, and Alden Sampson and Alton 
Pope, of Manchester, all prominent members of the Society of 
Friends, advocated the establishment of a school where the children 
of Kennebec county might receive careful training, cultivating influ- 
ence, religious impression and broad teaching. To secure its estab- 
lishment they individually gave $1,000. William Hobbie (grandson 
of Benjamin Hobbie), a vigorous spirited man and a natural teacher, 
was the first principal, but the school in these first years not being a 
financial success, it was closed. 

In 1856 Eli Jones, the Friend minister and missionary, whose 
home was in the town of China, advocated that an effort be made to 
open the school; $15,000 being necessary to secure the success of the 
new undertaking, he became chairman of a committee to raise that 
amount, which was nearly all subscribed by six hundred Friends in 
the state. Eli Jones was made principal for the first year and had a 
large and successful school. A large part of the children of Friends 
in the county had the benefits of a longer or shorter period at the 
Oak Grove Seminary, as it was named, and here they have been 
helped to become good citizens and to lead noble and valuable lives. 

In 1880 a fire destroyed the academy building, necessitating the 
close of the school. Five years later a large building for school pur- 
poses was constructed joining the boarding house on the south side 
of the road. In the autumn of 1887, as a large school had just begun, 
the entire structure was burned down by an incendiary. In this time 


of discouragement friends were not wanting and the present set of 
buildings was raised, Charles M. Bailey, of Winthrop, paying for 
their construction in order that all other funds might be used as a 
permanent fund, which has now reached $2U,000. Besides the princi- 
pals already named, it has been under the instruction and care of Al- 
bert K. Smiley, Augustine Jones, Elijah Cook, Franklin Paige, Rich- 
ard M. Jones, Edward H. Cook, Charles H. Jones and Rufus M. Jones, 
some others serving for a short period. 

The seminary is now owned and managed by New England Yearly 
Meeting of Friend.s. Originally the Friends aimed at having " select 
schools " where their children might be taught by themselves; to-day 
their two schools in New England are open to all who are suitable to 
be admitted, and the seminary last year enrolled 131 students. 

All such institutions have an inner history which no one can write 
and an influence no one can measure. Perhaps no other one thing 
which the friends of Kennebec county have started into existence has 
accomplished so much good or has in it so much possibility of future 
blessing, not only to this county, but to the state at large, as Oak 
Grove Seminary; and so long as it stands it will be a noble monument 
to the memory of the faithful and generous men who wrought for it 
in its infancy, who mourned for its reverses, and who lifted it from its 
ashes to its present condition of usefulness. 

China Monthly Meeting.— No Friends' meeting house was built 
in China or Harlem before the year 1807, but there had been scattered 
families of Friends in the town ever since 1774. So long as they had 
no common place for worship, they made their own homes sanctuaries, 
and from the rude house in the gloom of the forest, many an earnest 
cry went up to the loving Father. If there could be no gathering of 
the faithful, there was the beautiful possibility of individual soul- 
communion, and though there was no visible temple except the over- 
arching trees, centuries old, yet to each one of these spiritually-minded 
men and women came the inspired words, " Ye, yourselves, are Tem- 
ples of the living God." It seems never to have occurred to them that 
future generations would care to know what they were doing and suf- 
fering and striving for; at all events, they have given us no record of 
their life history. We are able to judge of them only by what we 
know from results that they must have achieved, and by the influence 
of their sturdy lives on the generation which succeeded them and in- 
herited many of their strong qualities. 

Miriam Clark, wife of Jonathan Clark, sen., the flrst settler of the 
town, and mother of the four Clark brothers, was a member of the 
Society of Friends, as were also two of her sons, Andrew and Ephraim 
Clark; the other two, as well as the father, not being members. One 
daughter, Jerusha, took the faith of her mother, and married a Friend 
from England by the name of George Fish, who was lost at sea while 



on a voyage to England to revisit his native home. His widow, dying 
many years later, was the first Friend buried in the grave yard adjoin- 
ing the " Pond meeting house." Of the four Clark brothers, the two 
Friends chose the eastern, and the other two the western side of the 
lake. The nearest meeting they could attend was at Durham, about 
forty miles away, until the meeting was begun at Vassalboro, in 1780; 
this would require a walk of about ten miles. 

Twenty-one years subsequently, in 1795, David Braley and family 
settled about one mile from the head of the lake, on its east side, 
making them about five miles north of the Clark Friends. Some 
time during the next year their daughter, Olive Braley, became the 
wife of Ephraim Clark. Anna, the wife of David Braley, was a 
woman of great piety and an accredited ministerof the society. After 
the meeting was begun at East Vassalboro in 1797, these Friends could 
easily and regularly attend, as the whole journey could be made by 
boat in summer and across the ice in winter. 

The next year (1798) Benjamin Worth came from Nantucket and 
settled near the Clarks, on the lot now owned by Benjamin Fry. He 
was an able gospel minister, and his labors did much toward strength- 
ening the brethren and arousing the community. Soon after came 
Lemuel Hawkes, a man of precious memory, settling on the lot after- 
ward owned by Bowdoin Haskell, about two miles from the south end 
of the lake. In his house the first regular Friends' meeting in town 
was held, and meetings continued here until 1807; hence the Friends' 
meeting in China dates from 1802. 

Abel Jones left his home in Durham in 1803, and joined this little 
band of Friends on the east shore of China lake. Two years later 
Jedediah Jepson and his son, John, and daughter, Susanna, came 
hither from Berwick. They rode on horseback a distance of 115 miles, 
bringing their few household treasures in saddle bags. The father, 
Jedediah, was a well approved minister and a scholar for his time, so 
that now the meeting, though still quite small, had three members on 
whom the " gift of ministration " had been conferred. Jedediah 
Jepson chose the lot subsequently owned by the late Cyrenus K. 
Evans, for his new home, and in the year following^ his daughter. 
Susanna, was married to Abel Jones. The marriage took place at one 
of the regular meetings, in the house of Lemuel Hawkes, and was the 
first marriage in the town according to regulations of Friends.* 

* The marriage was conducted as follows: After a religious meeting or some 
time during the meeting, the bride and groom arose and taking hands said the 
ceremony, "In the presence of the Lord and before this assembly, I take thee, 
Susanna Jepson, to be my wife, promising to be unto thee a faithful and loving 
husband, until it shall please the Lord by death to separate us." She saying in 
return, "In the presence of the Lord and before this assembly, I take thee, Abel 
Jones, to be my husband, promising to be unto thee a faithful and loving wife, 
until it shall please the Lord by death to separate us." It was concluded by the 
reading of the certificate and the signing of the proper names. 


The first meeting house erected in town, and which stands on its 
original site, was the well known Pond meeting house, situated on the 
east shore of the lake, about three miles from the north end. This 
was erected in 1807, on a piece of land purchased of Jedediah Jepson. 
The society records of 2d month, 1807, say: " This meeting concludes 
to build a meeting in Harlem, 30x40 feet, and 10 feet posts; and 
apportions the expense of building said house to the property of each 
individual member of this meeting." " Reuben Fairfield, James 
Meader, Isaac Hussey and Jedediah Jepson are appointed to go for- 
ward in building said house in a way as to them may appear best, and 
report as the occasion may require." 

The writer remembers having seen, as a boy, a set of wagon wheels 
which must have gone over 10,000 miles in making the journey back 
and forth between a Friend's house and this meeting house, a distance , 
of a little over two miles. This house was used for meetings a few 
years before it was wholly finished. The building was originally 
heated by a wood fire in the potash kettle described elsewhere; fur- 
thermore, the seats were not models of comfort. The society has since 
erected houses at Dirigo, West China and South China. The house at 
Dirigo was built and meetings were held there continuously until the 
house at South China was erected in 1885, on the site of a former Bap- 
tist church which had been burned. The West China house, now a 
venerable structure, is still used for meetings. 

The first meeting for business held in this town by Friends was a 
preparative meeting held 9th month, 1809. In 1813 they were per- 
mitted by the quarterly meeting to hold a monthly meeting in con- 
nection with Friends in Fairfax (now Albion). Since, in 1813, China 
monthly meeting was established, 939 of these monthly meetings have 
been held, and only in one instance has the meeting failed to be held, 
then owing to impas.sable roads. The only way to form an idea of 
Friends in this meeting will be for us to call up some of the best 
known of the individual members who have made their lives useful 
in the community, who have been tools in the hands of the Supreme 
Worker, and have done something which has built itself into other 
lives. In making special mention of a few, we must not forget that 
all the faithful, active members of this society have lived to some 
purpose, and thoi:gh we make no definite record of them, we believe 
"they were a part of the divine power against evil, widening the 
skirts of light and making the struggle with darkness narrower." 

Let us remark here that at this time the Friends in Kennebec 
county were with very few exceptions ignorant, so far as book educa- 
tion is concerned. They were unlettered men and women, with no 
opportunities for culture. The Bible was in many cases their one 
book. The heroes of faith pictured forth in the Old Testament, were 
the only heroes they ever heard about. David and Isaiah were their 
poets. This same book furnished their only history and ethics; it was 


the child's reading book and spelling book. But with all their days 
devoted to stubborn toil, with all the scarcity of books and difficulty 
they had in reading, yet these people in this wilderness grew refined, 
took on a culture and a grace, as they were faithful to the " Spirit of 
Truth." Many will bear witness that who centered their 
thoughts on the things that are pure and lovely, and honest and of 
good report — with what there is of virtue and praise — became decid- 
edly possessed of a courtesy and nobility which stamped them as be- 
longing within a circle where an unseen influence ennobles and refines 
the life. This power of moulding lives and raising the whole indi- 
vidual out of the realm of the ordinary is an almost essential charac- 
teristic of genuine Quakerism, and some exemplars of this truth will 
occur to those who have had familiar intercourse among Friends in 
their various communities through the county. We should be far 
from claiming that all enrolled members of this society show this; it 
only applies to those who have divclt in the " Spirit of Truth and 
Love," to use one of their most expressive phrases. Nor is it by 
any means confined to this society, being true of genuine Christianity 

Among the most important members of China monthly meeting, 
in its early history, and by the favor of long lives, even down to the 
last half of this century, were the two brothers, James and Elisha 
Jones, with their cousin, Stephen Jones, all of whom came into the 
town from Durham. Elisha was an approved minister, Stephen was 
a man of .shrewd and careful judgment, looked to not only in his own 
home meetings, but of great influence in the yearly meeting assem- 
bly, as it met at Newport. He was a man of " ancient dignity," slow 
of speech, but with a clear mind to perceive and set forth the suitable 
line of action. He, as well as his two cousins, was marked by spotless 
integrity, and they made their lives felt widely in the country. Per- 
haps three men who were nearer the ideal of the old time Friend could 
not be found in the state. 

James Jones was known among Friends throughout the United 
States as a minister of the gospel. He was especially marked by his 
power of prophecy. Nearly all who remember the man remember 
how on some particular occasion he saw the condition of some one in 
the meeting, or how he marked out the course in which the Lord 
would lead some one present. In fact his friends and acquaintances 
looked almost as trustingly for the fulfilment of his words of foresight 
as though they had be^n recorded on the same page as those of 
Isaiah. He made at least three religious visits to Friends as far as 
Iowa, going in his own carriage. Some think that he accomplished 
this journey no less than six times. He also visited Friends in North 
Carolina, Canada, Europe, and in various other remote regions. He 
generally drove his own horse to Newport and back at the time of the 


yearly meeting. Nothing gives .stronger evidence of the efficiency of 
his preaching than the influence it had on the young. 

Benjamin Worth was, as has been said, a man univensally loved, 
and a strong preacher of the gospel. He was a great friend of the 
children, and he was accounted a prophet in the community. There 
are some still living who heard him say in a public meeting shortly 
before the "cold year," that the time was soon coming when the chil- 
dren would cry for bread and the fathers and mothers would have 
none to give them, a state of things which was literally realized; for 
in the year 181G there was a frost in every month, and a snow storm 
covered up the fallen apple blossoms the 12th day of sixth month. 
Corn ripened in this vicinity in only one field, on the slope of the hill 
behind the house where Edward H. Cook of Vassalboro now lives. 
Many such utterances, followed by evident fulfilment, made his neigh- 
bors have faith in his word as prophetic. He lived to a good old age, 
and was taken from his work here very much lamented and missed by 
those among whom he had lived and labored. He was at first settled 
in Harlem, but later he was a member of the meeting at East Vassal- 
boro, and the larger part of his service as minister was in the latter 

The writer, when very young, used to count to see if he could find 
in China, as Abraham could not in Sodom, ten righteous persons, so 
that he might rest sure that no fire" and brimstone would be poured 
down there for its destruction. The list generally began with Desire 
Abbot, a sweet and gentle woman, who seemed to be a saint dwelling 
on the earth. She still lives in the memory of many, as a soul ripened 
in the sunshine of God's love. Peace Jones is another who has made 
many lives richer by her presence and work in the world, and though 
happily still among us, she should be spoken of among those who 
have been the saving salt in the community. Even as a child, as she 
sat one day near the back seat of the old meeting house in Albion, she 
longed to be as good as those who sat on the high seats and seemed 
never to have temptations; as these longings were in her heart, a good 
Friend arose and said: " There are some here yearning to have their 
lives like those who seem to have reached a greater perfection. Let 
me tell such ones that if they give their lives wholly to the Lord and 
follow His will fully they will come to experience the life they are 
yearning for." The little girl knew in her heart that the speaker had 
been " led to feel out her condition," and she believed his words, 
which .she has certainly verified. It is safe to say that few women in 
the same sphere of life have reached a fuller Christian experience or 
have been the cause of more blessing to others. She has always 
obeyed the voice when it has called her to labor in more remote places, 
having gone for religious service to Ohio, Iowa, Nova Scotia, and many 
times throughout New England. 


No Other Friend born in the county has made such a wide reputa- 
tion as Eli Jones. He was born in 1807, being the son of Abel and 
Susanna Jones, before mentioned. He received a fairly good educa- 
tion for the time and locality, but this was finely supplemented by a 
life of careful reading and keen observation. In 1833 he married 
Sybil Jones, of Brunswick, a woman wonderfully gifted for the work 
she was to perform, though of slight physical health. She possessed 
in large degree a poetic soul, and she was blessed with a beautiul, 
melodious voice and a flow of suitable words to give utterance to the 
thought which seemed to come to her by inspiration. For forty years 
they worked together, at home and m foreign fields, striving to show 
to as many as possible the meaning of the full gospel of Christ. Their 
first long journey was in 1850, to Liberia, which they made in a sail- 
ing packet. They spent a number of months along the coast preach- 
ing to and teaching the colonists of that young republic. The next 
year after their return from this visit, 1852, they made an extended 
missionary journey to England, Ireland, France, Germany, Switzer- 
land and Norway. Everywhere they found eager listeners, and this 
visit was greatly blessed. 

In 1854 Eli Jones was in the legislature at Augusta, where he did 
much work for the cause of temperance, and being appointed to the 
ofifice of major general, he delivered a speech in declining it which 
for its wit and eloquence is deservedly famous. In 1865 Sybil Jones, 
in obedience to a direct call, visited Washington to work among the 
soldiers in the hospitals, and in the work she carried a message of 
love to no less than 30,000 of these suffering and dying men. In 1867 
Eli and Sybil Jones were liberated by China monthly meeting and 
Vassalboro quarterly meeting for religious work in England, France 
and the Holy Land. One of the results of this visit was the founding 
of two Friends' missions in the Holy Land, one on Mount Lebanon, the 
other, called the " Eli and Sybil Jones Mission," at Ramallah, near 
Jerusalem. Sybil Jones, after a life of continual activity, in which her 
spiritual power made itself remarkably felt in all parts of the world, 
was called to the kingdom of peace and joy in 1873. Eli Jones con- 
tinued to labor for the spread of the gospel, for the missions, for the 
causes of temperance, education and peace until 1890, dying at his 
home on the 4th of second month. His life was one of great value to 
the world. No better example of Friends, as George Fox intended 
them to be, have appeared in New England than Eli and Sybil Jones. 

Alfred H. Jones, born in China, Me., 6th mo. 12, 1825, was educated 
in the public schools of China and Vassalboro, and in Waterville 
Classical Institute. After finishing his course of study he taught for 
eight years in Maine and four years in Ohio, returning to Maine in 
1854. He has in many ways taken active pan in the affairs of the 
town. He was a birthright member of the Society of Friends, and in 


1858 his gift as a minister was acknowledged. In 1868 he was chosen 
superintendent of the Freedmen's schools and other mission work in 
Virginia and North Carolina, under the Friends' Freedmen's Aid 
Association, of Philadelphia, holding this responsible position until 
he resigned in 1880. Since that time he has devoted himself mostly 
to the ministry, doing the larger part of his service in his own meet- 
ing in West China. He was clerk of the meeting for ministry and 
■oversight for New England from 1881 to 1892, besides holding various 
other clerkships in the subordinate meetings. 

China monthly meeting has produced a number of Friends who 
have become well known as educators; among the number, Augustine 
Jones, LL.B., principal of Friends' Boarding .School, Providence, R. I.; 
Richard M. Jones, LL.D., head master of the William Penn Charter 
School, Philadelphia, Pa.; Stephen A. Jones, Ph.B., president of Ne- 
vada State University; Wilmot R. Jones, A.B., principal of Stamford, 
Conn., High School; Rufus M. Jones, A.M., principal of Oak Grove 
Seminary, Vassalboro, Me.; Charles R. Jacob, A.B., professor of mod- 
ern languages in Friends' Boarding School; Arthur W. Jones, profes- 
sor of Latin in Penn College, Iowa. William Jacob and his wife, S. 
Narcissa Jacob, also Frank E. Jones, all ministers in this society, have 
labored faithfully here and elsewhere to extend the blessing of the 

Toward the close of 1810 a meeting for worship was established in 
Fairfax (now Albion) and two years afterward a preparative meeting 
was held at the same place. In a little more than a year after this, 
Vassalboro monthly meeting, to which the Friends in Fairfax had 
hitherto belonged, was divided and a new one established called Har- 
lem monthly meeting, which was to be held one-third of the time in 
F'airfax. A meeting house was built at this place, which is still stand- 
ing, one of the quaintest and most unadorned of the many meeting 
houses in the state. 

The most noteworthy member of this meeting was John Warren, 
a minister. He was a man entirely original and sui gciii-ris, and he 
was undoubtedly endowed with a gift for the ministry. While living 
on the Maine coast as a young man, and concerned only with the 
things of this world, he had been told by a traveling Friend that he 
had a mission in the world. " John, thou must preach," were the 
words spoken to him. and he lived to feel the necessity laid upon him 
for service. He traveled much in the United States, and went on one 
religious visit to the British Isles. 

There are many anecdotes told of him, a few of which may be re- 
lated, as bearing on the character of the man. At one time one of his 
neighbors, of a very irritable nature, became angry with him and said 
many hard things against him. John Warren listened quietly and 
then said: " Is that all thou canst say? If thou knewest John Warren 


as well as I do thou couldst say much more than that against him." 
At another time, being greatly troubled by one of his neighbor's cows, 
which had many times gotten into his field, he went to see the neigh- 
bor, somewhat vexed, though not " unscripturally angry," and said 
with emphasis: " If thee doesn't take care of thy cow I shall— I shall." 
" Well," said the man, " what will you do?" " I shall drive her home 
again!" During one of his visits at a certain place he appointed a 
meeting, through which he sat in perfect silence. As he was coming 
out he overheard a young man say to another, " That beats the Devil." 
John Warren turned to him and said, " That is what it was designed 
to do." It is related that on his return from England John Warren 
returned a portion of the money furnished him from the yearly meet- 
ing's treasury for his expenses, which was spoken of as a wonderful 
thing, never having happened before or since. While John Warren 
lived the meeting was in a flourishing condition; after his death it 
began slowly to decline, and at present the house is unused, there be- 
ing no Friends in the community. 

Fairfield Quarterly MEETiSG.—Litc/iJie/d Preparative.— \r\ the 
latter part of the last century a meeting of Friends was begun in the 
township of Leeds. As this is now not a part of Kennebec county, 
we shall not go into any detailed history of the society there, though 
this meeting gave its name to the monthly meeting which included 
many subordinate meetings which were in the county. 

Joseph Sampson was probably the first member of the society 
there, he having been a soldier in the revolutionary war, but was 
brought over to the society of peace loving Friends through the ef- 
forts of David Sands. Before the end of the last century a large 
meeting had been formed, composed of sturdy, hard-working men and 
women, extremely zealous for their tenets. Perhaps a little too stern 
sometimes in " dealing " with unfaithful members. The intent of 
their hearts was right, they believed greatly in righteousness, and the 
records show that here as well as elsewhere in the county those who 
yearned for a life in harmony with the Divine Spirit became pure, 
true, noble and graceful men and women. 

Until 1813 Leeds Friends made a part of Durham monthly meet- 
ing; after that time they were joined with the Friends in Litchfield 
and Winthrop. In 1803 a religious meeting was commenced in Litch- 
field; this was at first made up of a few families who met for worship 
in a school house near the south end of the lake. The most influen- 
tial member of this meeting seems to have been Moses Wadsworth, a 
man of beautiful life and Christian character, a recognized minister. 
He was for sixteen years clerk of Leeds monthly meeting. Noah Farr 
was another very worthy member of the meeting. There was no 
organized meeting until 1812, when a preparative meeting was estab- 
lished, and on the 20th of second month a new monthly meeting was 


begun covering a large region, and including many Friends. The 
records of this first monthly meeting show the following extract from 
the quarterly meeting held at Windham second month, 1813: '• We, 
your committee to consider the proposal from Durham for setting up 
a new monthly meeting at Leeds, are of the opinion that it will be 
best for Lewiston, Leeds, Litchfield, Winthrop and Wilton * to be set 
off and denominated Leeds monthly meeting." The name of this 
monthly meeting has often been changed, as we shall see. 

In 1812 a proposition had been made in the Litchfield preparative 
meeting to build a meeting house on the farm of Noah Farr, near the 
south end of the lake, but in the 5th month, 1813, the following re- 
port was accepted in the monthly meeting: " The committee ap- 
pointed to visit Friends in Litchfield respecting building a meeting 
house report that they think best to build one near the place where 
they now meet (in the school house) twenty-six x thirty-six and ten 
feet posts." Later we find that they received " a donation of $lo().00 
from Friends toward building the house," and " the Treasurer is di- 
rected to pay $7.42 for the land." 

This house was on the spot where the West Gardiner Friends 
meeting house now stands. The Friends in these meetings during 
the early part of the century were much disturbed by the tendency 
manifested by some members to chose wives outside the limits of the 
society. As a Friend in their eyes was no longer a Friend if he did 
not in every particular conform to " the good order of the society," 
they were often hasty in dropping from membership some who with 
different treatment might have become valuable members, though 
they not unwisely saw that in order to maintain their good name, and 
to keep their principles unchanged through generations, they must 
purge themselves of all who loved the world more than the faith of 
their fathers. The following is a record often appearing: 

•' This may inform Friends that A — W — has so far deviated from 
the good order of Friends as to keep company with a young woman 
not of our society, and going to training as a spectator, and is not in 
the use of plain language or dress, for all of which he has been labored 
with, without the desired effect." 

Th.e military training v^a.s another constant temptation, especially 
to the younger Friends, and any violation of Friends' testimony against 
war was " dealt with " vigorously. One Friend, who had served in 
the revolutionary war, as had a number of Friends before becoming 
members, was " disowned " for receiving a pension from the govern- 
ment for his services. Again, it is recorded that a certain Friend 
" has deviated from the good order of Friends in apparel and conver- 
sation, and he sayeth that if called upon he thinks he should bear 

* There was originally a large body of Friends at Wilton, in Franklin county, 
though there has been no meeting there in many years. 


arms. For these causes he ha,s been labored with to no satisfaction." 

The early records also show that a great efifort was made to keep 
the members of this society free from the use of intoxicating liquors, 
and that, too, when there was no general sentiment against their use; 
and it is certain that their example has had much to do in forming 
the present sentiment in the state. At the very beginning of the 
century we find members were disowned not only for drunkenness, 
but for the use of liquors. Still farther, the little details of every day 
life were looked after with minuteness, and none were allowed to 
stand before the world as Friends if their public life did not stamp 
them as worthy of the name. 

This meeting in Litchfield has continued uninterrupted since its 
start in 1803. The meeting is now called West Gardiner preparative 
meeting, making one of the subordinate meetings of Winthrop 
monthly meeting, which is held in West Gardiner, in second, fifth, 
eighth and eleventh months. David J. Douglas now resides within 
the limits of this meeting. As chairman of the committee on gospel 
work for New England yearly meeting, his field of work is through- 
out the yearly meeting. He has for many years been an earnest and 
active minister of the gospel. 

Winthrop Preparative Meeting. — A statement in the journal of 
David Sands probably gives us the earliest recorded reference to the 
rise of Friends in Winthrop, where is now one of the most flourishing 
meetings in New England. In the year 1777 he wrote: " We went to 
a new settlement called Winthrop, where we had divers meetings. 
Here were several convincements, and many that appeared seeking the 
right way." So far as we know there was not a single Friend in this 
township before David Sands' visit, and it is directly to his preaching 
and influence that we trace the convincement of all the original mem- 
bers of this meeting. A number of the most prominent men who 
were brought to adopt the principles and practices of Friends through 
the work of David Sands had served in the revolutionary war. Among 
these was Stewart Foster, whose father had received from the gov- 
ernment a large tract of land on condition that he would settle in the 
township with his family, which he did. During the war Stewart 
Foster had been taken prisoner and was confined on board an English 
prison ship. One dark night he and another prisoner jumped over- 
board and swam to the shore, and so escaped in safety to their own 
homes. After his return to Winthrop he settled on the farm now 
owned by Hannah J. Bailey, where he reared a large family of boys 
and girls. After his convincement he continued through his long 
life to be a faithful Friend and a steady attendant of the meeting. 

Another convinced member and former soldier was John Whiting, 
who lived not far from the so-called Snell school house. He was a 


very genial, cheerful man, much loved and respected in the neighbor- 
hood. He was a good example of a gentle, sweet Christian, and 
though he lived to be old, he was considered " very young for such 
an old man." He was chosen to act as clerk during the first year of 
Leeds monthly meeting in 1813, and was always a strong man in con- 
ducting business. 

Ezra Briggs was one of the first Friends in Winthrop. A Friend 
minister, doubtless David Sands, came to his house one day and had 
a " religious opportunity " with his family. The service over, the 
minister started on his way, but had not gone far before he came back 
and said, " Ezra, it is high time thee requested and became a Friend;" 
this advice was followed and for the rest of his life Ezra Briggs was 
an active Friend. He acted as clerk at the first session of Leeds 
monthly meeting, was appointed an elder, and was prominent in all 
the business of the meeting. 

We find from the journal of Joseph Hoag, the famous preacher 
and traveller from Vermont, that he visited Winthrop in the summer 
of 1802. He makes the following entry under the date of 7th mo., 
25th: " After a meeting at Leeds we rode to Winthrop; here we found 
a little company of goodly Friends among rigid Presbyterians. We 
had a large and favored meeting here." 

In these days, when such harmony prevails among different sects, 
it will do no harm to call to mind an anecdote which the oldest may 
still remember. The Presbyterians above referred to were building 
a church or, as Friends would have said, a " steple house " in Win- 
throp. The men sent out to invite the neighbors to the "raising" 
were strictly charged to ask no " Quakers." The day came for the 
raising, and sad to relate, for lack of men or for some reason the frame 
fell back and killed three men. The Friends rejoiced that they had 
received no invitation. The next day an effort was again made to 
raise the frame which had so disastrously fallen, when a part of it once 
more fell, very nearly killing another man. As superstition still lin- 
gered in the minds of some, it would not be strange if the Friends 
drew their own conclusions. 

The first regular meeting for worship was established in Winthrop 
in 1793; nine years later, in 1802, a preparative meeting was started, 
being subordinate to the Sidney monthly meeting, which was also be- 
gun that year, Stewart Foster being the first representative from Win- 
throp to Sidney monthly meeting. Six years later the meeting became 
very small and came near dying out. Sidney monthly meeting 
records for third month, 1808, have the following entry: " The com- 
mittee to visit the meeting at Winthrop report that they have visited 
that meeting and think Friends there are not in a capacity to hold a 
preparative meeting to the reputation of society, which the meeting 
accepts, and after due consideration thereon discontinues said pre- 


parative meeting." The Friends at Winthrop continued to attend the 
Sidney monthly meeting until 1813, when they were included in the 
new monthly meeting held at Leeds and Litchfield. 

About this time the Friends at Winthrop began to increase in num- 
bers, and the meeting, which seemed likely to have a short existence. 
showed signs of strength and vigor, so that in the year 1816 it seemed 
best to grant them a preparative meeting, this time .subordinate to 
Leeds monthly meeting, on whose records is the following minute: "8th 
mo. 16th, 1816. Friends at Winthrop sent a few lines to this meeting 
requesting the liberty to hold a preparative meeting at that place, which 
after consideration this meeting concludes for them to hold on 4th day 
of the week. Paul Collins, Moses Wadsworth and Joseph Sampson 
were appointed to attend the opening of this meeting." 

This was the turning point in the history of this meeting. Since 
the above date the course of the meetings has been a progressive one. 
Three times it has been necessary to replace the meeting house by a 
larger one, and the present large meeting room is filled on the Sab- 
bath. The first Friends' meeting house in Winthrop stood on a piece 
of land owned by Stewart Foster, nearly opposite the location of the 
present meeting house. This was a very small house. It was warmed 
by the old-fashioned " potash kettle," as were all the early meeting 
houses. A framework of brick was built up about two feet in circu- 
lar form; in the front of the brick work was a door to receive wood, 
in the back an opening to apply a smoke funnel; over this brick work 
a large iron kettle was turned, bottom up, which served as cover for 
the " stove." Those who desired had " foot warmers," or bricks or 
soapstones for their respective seats. A partition was arranged 
fastened to a beam in the ceiling by hinges, so that the whole parti- 
tion could swing up and be fastened, making the whole house into one 
room, while the same partition could be let down when the men and 
women Friends desired separate rooms for business meetings. Some 
still living remember the stuffed arm chair near the stove, in which 
the wife of Stewart Foster used to sit. 

This house was sold and has since been used as a blacksmith's 
shop. The house which was built to take its place was across the 
road, where the present house stands, and was larger than the former 
one, being about twenty-four by thirty. One Friend thought the 
house was too large, but it was not very long before this was sold for 
a dwelling house, and a still larger one raised on the same spot; and 
this last in its turn gave place to the present imposing and still more 
spacious one, which was built in 1888, as it appears in the illustration 
on page 292. 

This meeting has been in a growing condition throughout nearly 
its whole history. Though it has raised up few who were specially 
endowed with a gift for the ministry, yet it has always had a goodly 
number of y strong, active, spiritual members. Reuben Jones, whose 


home was in Wilton, after living in Leeds for a few years, moved to 
Wmthrop in 1839. He was a minister of considerable strength and 
for fully thirty years he sat at the head of this meeting and frequently 
preached to the people. No less than 412 ministers from other meet- 
ings have attended the meeting at Winthrop and have stirred the 
hearts of Friends there by their messages of love, often borne from 
lands far away. 

In the year 1873 a general meeting was held in Winthrop, at 
which time the spirit of the Lord was abundantly poured out. Fully 
three thousand people attended the meetings in one day and many 
souls were brought from darkness to light. This is certainly one of 
the most memorable dates in the history of the meeting, and since 

this time the meeting has almost constantly grown in size and in life. 
Charles M. Jones and Harriet Jones were the only ministers living 
within its limits until 1887. During that year Jesse McPhearson, 
from North Carolina, settled with his family at Winthrop, where he 
has ever since resided, giving his whole time to the work. 

While Winthrop meeting has not produced many ministers, it has 
had a good number of influential men and women, such as Friends 
call " weighty members." Prominent among these have been Charles 
M. Bailey, who has been very useful in evangelizing work and has 
largely assisted the cause of education. Moses Bailey, for many years 
clerk of the quarterly meeting, was a splendid example of a strong, 
pure hearted, earnest Christian, one who adorned the name " Quaker." 


Hannah J. Bailey, wife of the latter, has exerted a wide Christian 
influence, filling important positions in her own religious society, as 
well as in other organizations, using her means freely for the advance- 
ment of good causes, and showing herself a broad minded Christian 

Levi Jones has, through his long and busy life, been very active 
in the affairs of the church, and has illustrated the Quaker idea of a 
business man. 

Here, as in all the other meetings of the county, there has been 
work done which no pen can record, an influence has gone out which 
no human eye can measure, and lives have been lived here the worth 
of which only the-Divine F'ather knows. To a casual observer there 
would seem to have been a decided change in views and methods 
during the hundred years of this meeting's existence, and so there 
has in appearance, but in heart, in purpose and in hope there has 
been little or no change. The fathers wrought in their way; the chil- 
dren work for the same end differently, but as sincerely. 

. Manchester Preparative Meeting. — In 1832 a new preparative 
meeting was established in what is now the town of Manchester, 
though it was then a part of Hallowell. This meeting has at various 
times been called Hallowell, Kennebec and Manchester preparative 
meeting. There had been Friends in this region for a number of 
years before the meeting was begun. These Friends had been a part 
of Litchfield preparative meeting. Paine Wingate, one of the first 
to settle northeast of the lake, had married a wife from among 
Friends, and it was not long before he found himself of her views 
and became an active Friend. Proctor Sampson, a son of Joseph 
Sampson, the first member of Leeds meeting, brought his young 
bride to this shore of the lake and made the second Friends' family. 
Jacob Pope came about the same time and gradually others came, 
while still others joined the society, being convinced that their neigh- 
bors' faith was the true one, from the life and character of the persons 
professing it. 

These Friends felt the need of a house where they could hold a 
meeting of their own, and so avoid the long ride to Litchfield twice in 
the week, and in 1838 they became numerous enough to have a meet- 
ing established in their midst. During that year a meeting house 
was built, where, though changed, it still stands on the summit of the 
high hill at the northeast end of the lake. (Nearly all the Friends' 
meeting houses in the county have been on or near the bank of some 
body of water.) The committee to build this house reported that 
they contracted to have it built for $985, and we find from the records 
that these Friends had much difficulty in raising this amount at that 
time. There was no minister in this meeting for many years. Week 
after week the Friends here, as in all the early meetings, met together 


to worship. They did not listen with critical ear to the nicely turned 
sentences of some teacher humanely wise, but 

" Lowly before the unseen Presence knelt 
Each waiting heart, till haply some one felt 
On his moved lips the seal of silence melt. 

" Or, without spoken words, low breathings stole, 
Of a diviner life from soul to soul. 
Baptizing in one tender thought the whole." 

Some here as elsewhere may have thought of business or other things 
of this world, but the ideal was a glorious one and was attained by 
many a true, sensitive soul, all open to the divine touch. 

For many years Paine Wingate, a good, upright man, sat at the 
head of this meeting. Like Winthrop meeting, this has received 
messages from a great number of ministers from other places, and 
though there have been few of its members especially endowed with 
a gift for the ministry, there have been many raised up whose lives 
have been influential in a more or less extended degree. Alden 
Sampson was for many years a prominent member of this meeting. 
Widely known as a business man, he was also a man whose influence 
was far reaching in the line of religious activities, giving of his means 
and his energy for bettering the world. I. Warren Hawkes has for 
some years held an active place in the work of the society here and 
he is a minister approved by the church, being a man of deep piety 
and sincerity. 

In 1839 Leeds monthly meeting was changed in name to Litch- 
field, and still later it has been changed to Winthrop monthly meet- 
ing. In the year 1841 Vassalboro quarterly meeting was divided, and 
from the meetings at Litchfield (now West Gardiner), Leeds, Hallo- 
well (now Manchester), Winthrop, Sidney, Belgrade, Fairfield and 
Saint Albans, a new quarterly meeting was established called Fair- 
field quarterly meeting. This meeting has had the following clerks: 
Samuel Taylor, jun., 1841-2; Sage Richardson, 1842-64; Alden Samp- 
son, 1864-7; Moses Bailey, 1867-81; I. Warren Hawkes, since 1881. 

Sidney Preparative Meeting.— The Friends' meeting was begun 
in Sidney in 1795, the preparative meeting being granted them in 
1800; a monthly meeting was established in 1802, called Sidney 
monthly meeting. This was for the accommodation of Friends in 
Sidney and Fairfield, being held alternately at each place. Phineas, 
Jeremiah and Obed Buttler, with their respective families, were the 
earliest Friends in Sidney, they being Friends when they moved into 
the town. Then a number of families came there from Sandwich, 
Mass., among them Isaac Hoxie and family, Benjamin Wing, Adam 
and Stephen Wing, also John Wing Kelley, and their families. 

Most of the money for the first meeting house was raised in Sand- 


wich. the heads of the various families in the town doing all the car- 
penter work themselves. This house stood until 1S55, when it was 
torn down and built over into a new one. Edward Dillingham was 
another useful member in the early days of the meeting; he finally 
moved to Saint Albans. Deborah Buttler was an acknowledged min- 
ister, while Daniel Purington generally had a message for the meet- 
ing, though he was not an appointed minister. Samuel Pope was an 
elder of prominence in somewhat later times, and Mary Alice Gifford, 
a highly gifted and endowed minister of the gospel, a woman of great 
faith and of unblemished life, lived in this meeting during the pres- 
ent generation, until she felt her place of labor to be in Newport, 
R. I., where she spent the remainder of her valuable life, which ended 
in the spring of 1889. The Friends in Sidney have been few in num- 
ber, but a meeting has always been held there since it was first begun 
in 1795. Sidney monthly meeting includes the Friends in Fairfield 
and is still held, as at first, alternately at each place. 

In 1801 a meeting for worship was begun in Belgrade. Calvin 
Stewart and Samuel Stewart, with their families, were the earliest 
Friends in the town; Eleazar Burbank, a revolutionary soldier, was 
another of the first Friends in this meeting, but he was afterward 
dropped from the society for- receiving a military pension from the 
government. Samuel Taylor was the first minister in this meeting; 
he was a very good man and a good preacher of the gospel, having 
had a deep Christian experience, and he had the approval of all who 
knew him in daily life, or who heard his words of love. The Friends 
who lived in Belgrade had no separate meeting for business, but were 
joined with those who lived in Sidney. This meeting was always 
small, and gradually decreased in size until it was closed in 1879; its 
members having died or moved into other places. 

A meeting for worship was begun in the city of Augusta, 8th 
month, 1SS8, and another in Hallowell the same year, both of which 
are now under the care of Winthrop monthly meeting, and though 
small in numbers they are in a flourishing condition. The meeting 
at Hallowell is about to construct a commodious meeting house. 

More than a hundred years have passed since the members of the 
Society of Friends began to organize themselves in this county. They 
were then very few in number, comprising only one distinct monthly 
meeting in the county and only one preparative meeting was estab- 
lished before this century began. At the present date there are two 
quarterly meetings, composed of seven monthly meetings, which in 
turn are composed of fourteen preparative meetings, enrolling a mem- 
bership of 1,033, most of whom live in Kennebec county. It is cer- 
tain that the Friend of to-day is, in appearance at least, unlike the 
Friend of one hundred years ago, and it is a question whether the 
heads of the first families here would recognize that they were among 


their own people could they return to the meeting houses where they 
so faithfully worshipped a century ago. The onward movement of 
the years has brought change everywhere, and the Friend who seemed 
a century ago so unmindful of the transitions going on about him has 
been swept on by the wave, which now at its flood has left nothing 
unstirred. The question still remains, have the members of this so- 
ciety been true or untrue to the legacies of the fathers? and while 
the outward, the externals, have in a measure felt the touch of time, 
have they guarded as their dearest and truest possession the spirit of 
truth bequeathed by those who gained it at so dear a price? We have 
no right to speak here more than our own opinion, and that is that 
the " live members," to use an expression which carries its own mean- 
ing, are to-day, as they always have been, seeking to hear and obey 
the true Voice, are seeking to have their lives shaped and moulded 
by the ever living Christ, who stands as their Redeemer, their Saviour 
and their constant Teacher. They have the faith and the hope and 
the love which characterized their predecessors — 

' ' And if the outward has gone, in glory and power 
The Spirit surviveth the things of an hour." 



BY Judge William Penn Whitehouse, 
Of the Supreme Judicial Court. 

Juridical History of the County. — Early Tribunals. — The Superior Court of the 
Province. — Supreme Judicial Court. — Costumes of Early Magistrates. — Su- 
preme Court Justices from Kennebec County. — Court of Common Pleas. — 
Court of Sessions. — County Commissioners. — Probate Court and its Chief 
Officials. — Municipal Court. 

THE judiciary is the conservative force that maintains a just and 
stable relation between other branches of the government. It 
is the indispensable balance-wheel of ever}^ enduring political 
system. All the functions of government are performed with an ulti- 
mate reference to the proper administration of the laws and the im- 
partial distribution of justice. But like every other permanent insti- 
tution of government the judicial court is found to be the outgrowth 
of the experience and conflicts of men in their efforts to preserve the 
rights of property and maintain social order; and a knowledge of its 
growth and development is essential to a full apprehension of its 
authority and influence. 

The juridical history of Kennebec county is not wholly separable 
from that of the entire state, for prior to 1760 the District of Maine 
constituted but a single county, the county of York. The history of 
the early jurisprudence of Maine is mingled with that of Massachu- 
setts, whose jurisdiction extended over the territory of Maine for 
more than 150 years prior to the separation in 1820. But the .story of 
the patient and heroic efforts of the early settlers of New England to 
establish and maintain in the wilderness institutions representing all 
that ages had done for human government will never cease to interest 
their descendants. From the time of the first settlement on our 
coast to the time of the purchase of Maine by Massachusetts, in 1677, 
the records of judicial proceedings in the state are but fragmentary. 
On the 21st of March, 1636, a court was held at Saco by Captain Wil- 
liam Gorges, deputy of Sir Ferdinando, who had taken possession of 
the province l}nng between the Piscataqua and Kennebec rivers. 
This court was composed of four commissioners and is said to have 


been the first legal tribunal constituted by authority which existed in 
Maine. It assumed jurisdiction over the whole province, not only of 
the rights of parties, but of matters of government. Actions of tres- 
pass, slander, incontinency, and for drunkenness and " rash speech " 
were frequently brought, and generally tried by a jury of six or more 
persons. This tribunal was of a primitive character and the pro- 
cedure marked by great directness and simplicity. Among the crim- 
inal records we find, March 25, 1636: " John Wolton is by order of 
court to make a pair of stocks by the last of April or pay 40s. 8d. in 
money. Also he is fined 5s. 8d. for being drunk." 

In 1639 Sir Ferdinando obtained a charter which conferred upon 
him unlimited powers of government, and named his territory the 
" Province of Maine." Thomas Gorges, a lawyer educated at the Inns 
of Court, and the first and only one (unless we except Thomas Mor- 
ton, who was driven out of Massachusetts in 1645) who resided in 
Maine for the first hundred years after its settlement, was appointed 
deputy governor, with six councillors. They compo.sed not only the 
executive council for the province, but a court for the trial of all 
criminal offenses and for the settlement of all controversies between 
party and party. They also had probate jurisdiction. The first ses- 
sion of this court, held June 25, 1640, has a record of administration 
on the estate of Richard Williams, being the first granted in Maine. 
There was also a complaint in the nature of a bill in equity relating 
to the title to a thousand clapboards. Besides this court and an in- 
ferior court in each section of the province, commissioners correspond- 
ing to the modern trial justices were appointed in each town for the 
trial of small causes, with jurisdiction limited to forty shillings, from 
whose decision an appeal lay to the higher court. But as a result of 
the controversy which raged among the rival claimants to authority 
over the province, the administration of the law continued to be un- 
certain and feeble until in 1677 Massachusetts purchased all the inter- 
est of Gorges in the province of Maine for i^l,250. 

It should be observed here that under the colonial charter of 
Massachusetts prior to 1692 there was in Massachusetts no supreme 
or superior court properly so-called. The jurisdiction and powers 
which were subsequently conferred upon that court had been exer- 
cised under the charter of 1628 by the governor or deputy governor 
and his councillors or " assistants," who constituted the upper branch 
of the " Great and General Court." They at first assumed unlimited 
jurisdiction, including all matters of divorce and the settlement of 
estates, and subsequently exercised appellate jurisdiction over all 
matters from the county courts. 

It must not be overlooked, however, that the province of Pema- 
quid had been under a different jurisdiction. Although as early as 


1630, the year that Boston was founded, this province is said to have 
had a population of five hundred persons and Pemaquid " City " to 
have been a port of entry with paved streets; yet for a period of 
twenty years from that time there seems to have been a weak govern- 
ment and a very inefficient administration of the laws. Abraham 
Shurt was agent of the proprietors and chief magistrate of the colony; 
but there appears to be no record of the enactment of laws or the 
establishment of courts. To Shurt's skill as a scrivener, however, is 
attributed the concise formula for the acknowledgment of deeds 
which is still in use in this state and Massachusetts. 

In 1673 Pemaquid province became an appendage of the colony of 
New York under the Duke of York, and was represented in its gen- 
eral assembly. On the 24th of June, 1680, it was ordered by the coun- 
cil sitting in New York " that a person be appointed to go from here 
to Pemaquid for holding courts;" and June 26th: " Sagadahoc magis- 
trates and officers to continue, the courts to try only for forty shillings 
instead of for five pounds as formerly." A " court of sessions " was 
also established " to act according to law and former practice." 

The inhabitants on the Kennebec, however, had meanwhile been 
under the dominion of the Plymouth colony by virtue of a charter 
granted to William Bradford in 1620, and by him assigned to the 
Plymouth colony in 1640; but the settlers were few and scattered and 
no regular government was established until the Duke of York took 
possession. But in 1686 the duke, now James II, transferred to Massa- 
chusetts all his interest in the port and county of Pemaquid; and in 
1691 the new charter was granted to Massachusetts, which united 
with the old Bay colony that of Plymouth and the whole territory of 

A new era was now inaugurated in the history of these provinces. 
Under the new charter of 1691 an act " setting forth general privi- 
leges " was promptly passed by the general court of Massachusetts, 
comprising the familiar doctrines of Magna Charta, and the cardinal 
principles afterward enunciated in the Declaration of Independence 
and her own bill of rights. Courts were also promptly established 
substantially the same as they existed for the next fifty years. There 
were justices of the peace for the trial of small cases, the quarter ses- 
sions corresponding to our court of county commissioners, the inferior 
court of common pleas and the superior court. The governor and coun- 
cil were by the new charter made a court of probate. 

The superior court of the province consisted of a chief justice and 
four associate justices, namely, William Stoughton, C.J., Thomas Dan- 
forth. Wait Winthrop, John Richards and Samuel Sewall, none of 
whom had been educated as lawyers. Two sessions of this court 
were held in the several counties each year, except that all causes 


arising in Maine prior to 1699 were tried in Boston and Charlestown. 
Thereafter one term was granted to the state of Maine until 1760, 
when the counties of Cumberland and Lincoln were established. At 
that time Lincoln included the territory of the Kennebec patent, and 
the proprietary company erected buildings for the new county at 
Pownalborough, now Dresden. The old court house has been con- 
verted into a dwelling house and is still in a good state of preserva- 
tion, a conspicuous object of historic interest to all those passing 
up and down the river. The first term of the superior court held in 
Lincoln county was in 1786, and the first term at Hallowell, now Au- 
gusta, commenced July 8, 1794, in a church prepared for the occasion, 
the court house in Market Square erected in 1790 being insufficient in 
size for the accommodation of this court. It was held by Judges Rob- 
ert Treat Paine and Sumner and Dawes. They were attended by 
three sheriffs wearing cocked hats and carrying swords, each with his 
long white staff of office, and they were accompanied by such cele- 
brated lawyers as Theophilus Parsons and Nathan Dane. Judge 
Weston relates that having no bell to summon the court, the judges 
" moved by beat of drum in a procession not a little imposing, pre- 
ceded by their officers and followed by the bar." It was an important 
event, which caused " the elite " of the surrounding country to as- 

After the organization of Kennebec county in 1799, Augusta, 
which had been set off from Hallowell two years before, became the 
shire town of the new county, and July 16th of that year a term of the 
superior court of Massachusetts was held there by Judges Paine, 
Bradley and Dawes, and thereafter regularly each year. At the 
famous trial of the Malta Indians, charged with the murder of Paul 
Chadwick, the court was held at Augusta November 16, 1809, by four 
judges — Sedgwick, vSewall, Thatcher and Parker. 

Supreme Judicial Court. — The constitution of 1780 changed the 
title of the superior court to that of the Supreme Judicial Court, but 
with the same powers and jurisdiction as its predecessor and with the 
same number of judges. Those first appointed by the new govern- 
ment were William Cushing, Nathaniel P. Sargent, James Sullivan, 
Daniel Sewall and Jedediah Foster. At first all jury trials were had 
in the presence of not less than three members of the court, but the 
nisi prius system was gradually introduced, under which the law terms 
only were held by a majority of the judges and the trial terms by a 
single judge, except in capital cases. Until 1792 the judges appeared 
on the bench in robes and wigs, the robes being of black silk in the 
summer and of scarlet cloth in the winter. 

The records of this court were kept in Boston until 1797, when 
they were transferred to the custody of the clerks of the common 


pleas of the several counties, except those of Lincoln, Hancock and 
Washington in Maine. Jonathan Bowman, jun., was appointed by the 
court clerk for this county, his residence to be at Pownalborough. 

When Maine became a separate state, in 1820, it was provided in 
the constitution that the "judicial power of the state shall be vested 
in a supreme judicial court and such other courts as the legislature 
shall from time to time establish." By act of June 24, 1820, a supreme 
judicial court was established, consisting of a chief justice and two 
associate justices, any two of whom should be a court and have cog- 
nizance of all civil actions between party and party which might be 
legally tried before them by original writ, writ of error, or otherwise, 
and of all capital crimes and other offences and misdemeanors which 
might be legally prosecuted before them. They also had general 
superintendence of all courts of inferior jurisdiction, with power to 
issue writs of error, certiorari, mandamus, prohibition and quo warranto, 
and to exercise its jurisdiction agreeably to the common law of the 
state not inconsistent with the constitution or any statute. They also 
had jurisdiction as a court of equity of specific classes of cases where 
the parties did not have a plain and adequate remedy at law. It was 
also made the supreme court of probate. 

By the act of 1823 and subsequent amendments this court was re- 
quired to be holden annually by a majority of the justices in each of 
the twelve counties, the term of Kennebec to be held at Augusta in 
May; and an additional term for jury trials was to be held by one of 
the justices in each of the counties except Franklin, Piscataquis, 
Washington and Hancock; that for Kennebec to be held on the first 
Tuesday of October. Capital cases were to be tried by a majority of 
the court. In 1847 the number of judges of this court was increased 
to four, and in 1852 to seven. 

As now constituted, the supreme judicial court of Maine consists 
of a chief justice and seven associate justices, appointed by the gov- 
ernor for a term of seven years, whose jurisdiction extends over the 
whole state. The general jurisdiction and powers are substantially 
the same as when first established, with the exceptions to be hereinafter 
noted. In 1874 the equity powers of this court were enlarged, and in 
1881 the procedure in equity was definitely prescribed and greatly sim- 
plified. The court now has full equity jurisdiction, according to the 
usage and practice of courts of equity, and is always open in each 
county for the transaction of equity business. When sitting as a court 
of law to determine questions arising in suits at law or in equity, the 
court is composed of five or more justices who hear and determine 
such questions by the concurrence of five members; and in any civil 
action in which there is a subsisting verdict, if a majority of the 
justices do not concur in granting a new trial judgment must be ren- 


dered on the verdict. For the purposes of the law courts this state is 
divided into three districts, the western, middle and eastern, and the 
annual sessions of the law court are held at Portland on the third 
Tuesday of July, at Augusta on the fourth Tuesday of May, and at 
Bangor on the third Tuesday of June. For the trial of civil actions 
or persons accused of offences two or more sessions of the court are 
annually held by one justice in each county, the terms for Kennebec 
being holden on the first Tuesday of March and the third Tuesday of 
October of each year. Although no general code of civil procedure 
has been adopted in this state, the rules of common law pleadings 
have been so far abrogated or modified, and in the administration of 
the law such liberality is exercised respecting amendments to declara- 
tions and pleas, that the substance of right is never sacrificed to the 
science of statement. 

In the supreme judicial court the following from Kennebec county 
have been justices: Nathan Weston, of Augusta, appointed in 1820, 
and chief justice 1834-41; Richard D. Rice, Augusta, 1852-63; Seth 
May, Winthrop, 1855-62; Charles Danforth, Gardiner, 1864-90; Arte- 
mas Libbey, Augusta, 1875-90, being reappointed in the latter year; 
and William Penn Whitehouse, Augusta, appointed in 1890. Samuel 
Wells, of Portland, who was appointed in 1847, and resigned in 1854, 
practiced at one time his profession in Hallowell. 

Reporter of Decisions. — This office was established in 1820, and 
the decisions of the supreme judicial court, sitting as a " Law Court " 
from that time to 1893 have been published in eighty-four volumes 
of " Maine Reports." The reporter is appointed by the governor, and 
is to be a person " learned in the law." It is made his duty to publish 
at least one volume yearly, and he is entitled to the profits of the 
work. The names of the two reporters from this county, with their 
respective terms of service, are: Asa Redington, Augusta, 1850-54, 
who published volumes 31 to 35; and Solyman Heath, Waterville, 
1854-56, who published volumes 36 to 40. 

Court of Common Pleas.— Reference has already been made to 
the "inferior court of common pleas," organized for each county un- 
der the province charter of 1692. This court was composed of four 
justices in each county, three of whom to be a quorum for the trial of 
all civil actions of whatsoever nature, the party " cast" in this court 
to have the liberty of a new trial on appeal or writ of error to the 
superior court by giving recognizance to prosecute the appeal with 
effect and abide the order of court. The judges were to be substan- 
tial persons, but practically were not learned in the law. Indeed, 
there seems to be no evidence that prior to the beginning of the pres- 
ent century any member of this court in Maine was an educated law- 
yer. Prior to 1736 no term of this court was held east of Wells; after 


that time one was held annually in June at Falmouth, now Portland, 
William Pepperell, afterward Sir William, being then chief justice. 
When the coutity of Lincoln was organized, in 1760, one term of this 
court was held for that county at Pownalborough, now Dresden. Un- 
der the Massachusetts constitution of 1782 this court was continited 
with all its jurisdiction and powers, and in 1786 provision was made 
for an additional term in Lincoln county, to be held annually at Hallo- 
well, now Augusta. In North's History of Augusta, it is said: " The 
first term was held on the second Tuesday of January, 1787, at the 
Fort Weston settlement in Ballard's tavern, by William Lithgow, 
James Howard and Nathaniel Thwing. These with Thomas Rice 
were the four persons commissioned as judges of the Court of Common 
Pleas. Judge Howard died in May following, and Joseph North was 
appointed in his place. At that time no lawyer resided on the river 
above Pownalborough. In the following year William Lithgow, Jr., 
removed to town and opened an office in Fort Weston." At the time 
of the organization of Kennebec county the judges of this court were 
Joseph North and Daniel Cony, of Augusta, and Nathaniel Dummer 
and Chandler Robbins, of Hallowell. 

In 1804 the number of justices was reduced to three for each 
•county, and in 1811, under the administration of Governor Gerry, the 
old system, which had existed for 112 years, was superseded by the 
" circuit court of common pleas," with a chief justice and two asso- 
ciates for each of the three circuits in Maine. For the second circuit, 
embracing Lincoln, Kennebec and Somerset, Governor Gerry appointed 
Nathan Weston, of Augusta, chief justice, Benjamin Ames and Eben- 
ezer Thatcher, associates. In 1814, Josiah Stebbins, and in 1821 San- 
ford Kingsbury were judges in this court. This court continued until 
1822, when a " court of common pleas" was established, consisting of 
a chief justice and two associates, with jurisdiction extending over the 
entire state, the terms to be held by a single judge, who received a 
salary instead of fees for compensation. The justices first appointed 
for this court were Ezekiel Whitman, of Portland, chief justice, and 
Samuel E. Smith, of Wiscasset, and David Perham, of Bangor, asso- 
ciates. In 1833 John Ruggles, of Thomaston, and in 1837 Asa Red- 
ington, of Augusta, became judges of this court. In 1839 the court 
of common pleas was superseded by the establishment of a district 
court comprising the counties of Lincoln, Kennebec and Somerset, in 
each of which three terms of this court were annually held by one of 
the justices. It had original and exclusive jurisdiction of all civil 
actions where the debt or damage demanded did not exceed two hun- 
dred dollars, and concurrent jurisdiction above that sum. It had also 
jurisdiction of all crimes and misdemeanors previously cognizable by 
the court of common pleas. The aggrieved party could carry his 
•cau^e forward by appeal or on exceptions to the supreme judicial court, 


held by a single justice, by giving recognizance to the adverse party 
to prosecute his appeal and pay the intervening damages and costs. 
Judge Redington,of the court of common pleas, was appointed judge 
of the district court for the middle district, and continued on the 
bench until 1847, when he was succeeded by Richard D. Rice, of 
Augusta, who served until 1852, when this court was abolished, and he 
was transferred to the bench of the supreme court. 

Thus this intermediate system of courts which had existed for 150 
years under different names, and with slightly varying jurisdiction 
and powers, had become so inefficient in its practical operation that it 
could no longer endure. The facility with which appeals could be 
taken to the supreme court was its fatal defect. Two trials were 
thus granted to parties almost as a matter of course, when one would 
ordinarily have answered the same purpose. It was therefore abol- 
ished by act of the legislature of 1852, and all its duties and powers, 
including appeals from justices of the peace, transferred to the 
supreme court, the number of judges of that court being increased to 

But under the great accumulation of small cases resulting from 
this change, the docket of the supreme court in the larger counties 
soon became crowded and unwieldy, and as a consequence suitors 
were unreasonably delayed. A demand for a more prompt adminis- 
tration of justice was heard; and in 1878, in pursuance of the example 
in Cumberland county ten years before, an act was procured estab- 
lishing a superior court for Kennebec county, which obviated the ob- 
jection to the old system of common pleas and the district court by 
giving to the jury trial the same legal effect it had in the supreme 
court. The act provided for five terms of this court to be holden at 
Augusta, but by amendment in 1889 provision was made for holding 
two terms in the city of Waterville. William P. Whitehouse, of Au- 
gusta, was appointed judge of this court in February, 1878, for the 
term of seven years, and served by re-appointment until April 15, 
1890, when he resigned to accept an appointment on the bench of the 
supreme court. Oliver G. Hall, of Waterville, was appointed to fill 
the vacancy occasioned by the promotion of Judge Whitehouse. After 
the establishment of this court its jurisdiction was enlarged by suc- 
cessive amendments to embrace all civil matters except real actions, 
complaints for fiowage, and proceedings in equity, including libels 
for divorce, and exclusive original and appellate jurisdiction of all 
criminal matters, including capital cases. By act of 1891 the jurisdic- 
tion was restricted to cases where the damages demanded do not ex- 
ceed $500, and in trials upon indictments for murder one of the judges 
of the supreme court must preside. All appeals from municipal and 
police courts and trial justices in civil and criminal cases, are cogniz- 


able by this court. The clerk of the supreme court is also clerk of 
the superior court. 

Court of Sessions; County Commissioners. — Prior to the prov- 
ince charter of 1691 the county court of Massachusetts, held by the 
magistrates living in the different counties, combined the principal 
duties of the superior, inferior and probate courts which were subse- 
quently organized, the general court or court of assistants retaining 
original appellate jurisdiction in certain cases. Under the province 
charter " a court of General Sessions of the Peace " was established, 
to be held in each county by the justices of the peace of the same 
county, empowered to hear and determine all matters relating to the 
" conservation of the peace and the punishment of offenders." to lay 
out highways, to superintend houses of correction, and to have charge 
of the prudential and financial affairs of the county. In 1804 all its 
criminal jurisdiction was transferred to the court of common pleas, 
and in 1807 the court was reorganized so as to have a fixed number 
of judges instead of an indefinite assembly of justices of the peace. 
The number of judges in Kennebec was .six, besides the chief justice. 
In 1808 the name was changed to the " court of sessions." In 1819 it 
was made to consist of a chief justice and two associate justices. In 
Maine the court of sessions continued to exist until 1831, when it was 
superseded by the present court of county commissioners, composed 
in each county of three persons elected by the people. Its records 
are kept by the clerk of the supreme court. The names of the several 
Kennebec county commissioners, with the year in which their terms 
respectively commenced, are as follows: William Read, Barzillai Gan- 
nett, Thomas Fillebrown and Charles Hayden, 1807; Samuel Titcomb. 
James Parker and Ithamar Spauldiug, 1808: Ashur Spatildin, 1809: 
Ariel Mann and Solomon Bates, 1811; Nathan Cutler, 1812; Nathan 
Weston, Josiah Stebbins, Ebenezer Thatcher, Samuel Wood and Sam- 
uel Moody, circuit court of common pleas. 1814; vSamuel Redington, 
court of sessions, 1819; Charles Hayden, Samuel Moody and Ariel 
Mann (the latter of Hallowell), 1820; James Cochran, Monmouth, 1821; 
Samuel Redington and Charles Morse, 1822; Asa Redington, jun., 
and Asaph R. Nichols, of Augusta, 1831; Edward Fuller, Readfield, 
1833; Benjamin Wales, Hallowell, 1835; John Russ, 1836; J. B. Swan- 
ton, Hallowell, 1838; Joseph Stuart and Stillman Howard, 1839; Wil- 
liam Clark, Hallowell, David Garland, Winslow, and Levitt Lothrop, 
1841: Benjamin Cook and David Coombs, 1843; John S. Blake, 1844; 
Moses B. Bliss, Pittston, 1845; Daniel Marston, Monmouth, 1847; 
Thomas Eldred, Belgrade, 1849; Moses Taber, Vassalboro, 1850; Wel- 
lington Hunton, Readfield, 1853; John B. Clifford, Clinton, 1855; Sam- 
uel Wood, Augusta, John Merrill and William C. Barton, Windsor, 
1856; Nathaniel Graves, Vienna, 1859; Ezekiel Hubbard, Hallowell, 


1860; Nathaniel Chase, Sidney, 1861; Asbury Young, Pittston, 1865; 
Mark Rollins, jun., Albion, 1867; Orrick Hawes, Vas.salboro, 1873; 
Daniel H. Thing, Mount Vernon, 1874; Reuben S. Neal, Farmingdale, 
1875; E. G. Hodgdon, Clinton, 1876; George H. Andrews, Monmouth, 
1880; Horace Colburn, Windsor, 1881; Japheth M. Winn, Clinton, 
1882; C. M. Weston, Belgrade, 1883; James M. Carpenter, Pittston, 
1885; Charles Wentworth, Clinton, 1889; and John S. Hamilton, Hal- 
lowell, 1891, and Samuel Smith, Litchfield, elected in 1892 to succeed 
G. H. Andrews. The board in 1892 consisted of George H. Andrews, 
chairman, Charles Wentworth and John S. Hamilton. 

The clerks of courts since 1799, have been: John Tucker, Edmund 
P. Hayman, Joseph Chandler, John Davis, Robert C. Vose, William 
Woart, John A. Chandler, William M. Stratton, A. C. Otis, and the 
present incumbent, W. S. Choate. Mr. Stratton served as assistant to 
Mr. Chandler for a period of ten years, succeeding him as clerk in 1844, 
and continued to occupy the place by successive elections until 1881. 

Probate Court. — It has been noticed that under the Massachu- 
setts colonial charter of 1628 the " general court," composed of the 
governor and deputy governor and the " assistants," exercised juris- 
diction in matters of probate until 1639, when it was transferred to 
the county courts. The general court assumed jurisdiction in Maine 
in all matters relating to the administration of estates until 1691. By 
the province charter of that year probate jurisdiction was conferred 
on the governor and council, but being authorized to delegate their 
power they appointed judges of probate in each county. In March, 
1784, the Massachusetts legislature passed the first probate act. This 
established a court of probate in the several counties, to be held by 
some able and learned person in each county to be appointed judge, 
from whose decision an appeal lay to the .supreme court. As thus 
constituted this important court, through which passes all the estates 
in the community once in about thirty years, was continued with 
essentially the same jurisdiction and power by act of the Maine legis- 
lature of 1821. In 1853 the office of both judge and register was made 
elective, with a tenure of four years. 

" Each judge may take the probate of wills and grant letters testa- 
mentary or of administration on estates of all deceased persons who 
at the time of their death were inhabitants or residents of his county, 
or who, not being residents of the state, died leaving estate to be ad- 
ministered in his county, or whose estate is afterward found therein; 
also on the estate of any person confined to the state prison under 
sentence of death or imprisonment for life, and has jurisdiction of all 
matters relating to the settlement of such estates. He may grant 
leave to adopt children, change the names of persons, appoint guar- 
dians for minors and others according to law, and has jurisdiction as 
to persons under guardianship." The probate judge is also judge of 
the court of insolvency. 


Since the organization of Kennebec county, the judges of this 
court, and their first year of service, have been as follows: James 
Bridge, Augusta, 1799; Daniel Cony, Augusta, 1804; Ariel Mann, Hal- 
lowell; H. W. Fuller, Augusta, 1828; Williams Emmons, Hallowell; 
Daniel Williams, Augusta; Henry K. Baker, Hallowell; Emery O. Bean, 
Readfield, 1881; Henry S. Webster, Gardiner, 1885; and Greenlief T. 
Stevens, Augusta, 1893. 

The registers of probate have been: Chandler Robbins, Hallo- 
well, 1799; Williams Emmons, Hallowell; and E. T. Bridge, George 
Robinson, Joseph J. Eveleth, J. S. Turner, Francis Davis, William 
R. Smith, Joseph Burton, Charles Hewins and Howard Owen, of 

Municipal Courts. — In the county of Kennebec are four munic- 
ipal courts, one in each of the four cities — Hallowell, Gardiner, 
Augusta and Waterville — established in the order named. Originally 
the judgeship of these courts was an elective office, filled by vote of 
the people, but since 1876 it has been an appointive office, filled by the 
appointment of the governor and council, the term being four years. 
The court at Hallowell was established in 1835, with Samuel K. Gil- 
man as judge, elected February 19th of that year. His successors 
have been: Benjamin Wales, March 9, 1852; Samuel K. Gilman, Jan- 
uary 3, 1854; Austin D. Knight, March 15, 1876; Mahlon S. Spear, 
April 24, 1888, and Eliphalet Rowell, March 29, 1892. Of the Gardi- 
ner court, the judges have been: George W. Bacheldor, January 14, 
1850; William Palmer, May 11, 1852; Edmund A. Chadwick, March 4, 
1872; Henry Farrington, July 1, 1881; and James M. Larrabee since 
July 24, 1885. At Augusta Judge Benjamin A. G. Fuller opened the 
municipal court May 7, 1850, and has been succeeded by George S. 
Millikin, February 21, 1854; Samuel Titcomb, October 17, 1857; H. W. 
True, February 20, 1878; and Albert G. Andrews, since March 16, 
1882. The Waterville police court was opened in 1880 by Horace W. 
Stewart, appointed judge April 21st of that year. On the 29th of 
March, 1892, his successor, W. C. Philbrook, was appointed. 

The jurisdiction and powers of these four courts, as originally con- 
stituted, were substantially the same, comprising for the most part 
matters previously cognizable by justices of the peace; but by act of 
1891 the municipal court of Waterville was invested with jurisdiction 
concurrent with the superior court in all civil actions wherein the 
debt or damages demanded, exclusive of costs, did not exceed one 
hundred dollars; provided, however, that any action in which the debt 
or damages demanded exceed twenty dollars may be removed to the 
superior court on motion of the defendant under certain conditions 
prescribed in the act. Its jurisdiction in criminal matters was also 
greatly enlarged. 


Bv Hon. James W. Bradbury, LL. D. 

MY acquaintance with the Kennebec Bar commenced sixty-one 
years ago. In April, 1830, I opened my office in Augusta. 
The new granite court house had just been completed, and 
the May term of the law court was held in it by Chief Justice Mellen 
and his two associate justices, Weston and Parris. This was my first 
opportunity of seeing any considerable number of the members of the 
Kennebec bar, or of hearing any of them in the argument of their 
causes. The Kennebec bar was at that time one of marked ability. 
Many of the members were eminent in their profession, several 
achieved national distinction, and all left an honorable record upon 
which their descendants and surviving friends can look with pleasure 
and pride. They have all passed away. I do not recall a .single one 
of the whole number, then so active and prominent, now surviving: 
yet they left a character that is fresh in the memory of all. To name 
them is to bring the individuality of most of them distinctly to 
mind. Without an opportunity of refreshing my memory by refer- 
ence to records, I will undertake to recall them. There were in 
WaterviUe, Timothy Boutelle, Samuel Wells and James Stackpole; in 
Augusta, Reuel Williams, Daniel Williams, Henry W. Fuller, Williams 
Emmons, John Potter, Richard H. Vose and Frederick A. Fuller, the 
father of the present chief justice of the United States; in Hallowell, 
Peleg Sprague, Sylvanus W. Robinson, John Otis, William Clark and 
Mr. Warren; in Gardiner, Frederick Allen, George Evans, Eben F. 
Dean and S. S. Warren; in Winslow, Thomas Rice; and in China, 
Jacob Smith. 

Timothy Boutelle, born at Leominster, Mass., November 10, 1777, 
was a son of Colonel Timothy and Rachel (Lincoln) Boutelle, and a 
lineal descendant of James Boutelle, who came from England to 
Salem, Massachusetts, in 1635, and died there in 1651. Timothy 
graduated from Harvard in 1800, read law with Abijah Bigelow in his 
native town, and on being admitted to the bar, in 1804, came to 
WaterviUe. where he practiced until his death, November 12, 1855. 
In 1811 he married Helen, daughter of Judge Rogers. Of their large 

FF;iri:/iv7z.t,E. M/>'^ 


family, one daughter was the wife of Edwin Noyes, a prominent 
Waterville lawyer, and one son was well known as Dr. N. R. Boutelle, 
of Waterville. Timothy Boutelle was presidential elector in 1816, 
life member of the board of trustees of Waterville College from 1821, 
and in 1839 received the degree of LL. D. from that institution. He 
was president of Waterville bank for over twenty years, from its or- 
ganization in 1814, and was president of the Androscoggin & Ken- 
nebec Railroad Company the first three years of its existence. 

Mr. Boutelle was an acute and discriminating lawyer. In his early 
practice he refrained from public life. When the question of separa- 
tion came up, he gave his influence in favor of making Maine an in- 
dependent state, and after it was accomplished he was the first of the 
senators from the Kennebec senatorial district. He .served six years 
in the senate and six in the house, and was an influential and im- 
portant member. In his incursions into public life he did not abandon 
his profession. As a citizen he took a deep and active interest in 
everything he deemed calculated to promote the prosperity and im- 
provement of the beautiful town he had chosen for his residence, and 
continued this interest unabated up to his death. 

Reuel Williams was a man whose strong common sense and great 
business ability would have enabled him to attain eminence in any 
community. After a common school and academic education, he read 
law with Judge Bridge, who was the attorney of the "Proprietors of the 
Kennebec Purchase," and upon his admission to the bar the judge 
took him into partnership. In a few years the judge, who was an 
eminent lawyer, retired from the firm- to attend to his own large pri- 
vate estate and left the legal business in the hands of Mr. Williams. 
As agent and attorney for the proprietors of the unsold part of so 
large a tract of land, the business of the office was immense. Numer- 
ous conflicts with settlers, squatters and adverse claimants, and ques- 
tions of unsettled boundaries were constantly arising. 

The questions of law applicable to these cases, all relating to real 
estate, were so thoroughly examined by Mr. Williams, and became so 
familiar to him that he, by common consent, was regarded as standing 
at the head of the bar in that department of the law. His arguments, 
whether before the jury or court, were concise, plain, strong and calcu- 
lated to impress. They were an appeal to the reason by a strong mind, 
without any attempt at oratorical display. His manner was calm and 
self-possessed. Williams, in public life, attained a reputation that 
was national. He served with distinction in the house and senate of 
the state, and in the senate of the United States; was offered a place 
in his cabinet by President Van Buren, and filled with distinction 
several important public commissions. As a citizen he stands pre- 
eminent. He may be regarded in some sense as the founder of the 
Hospital for the Insane in Augusta. He started the enterprise by a 


donation of $10,000 at a time when that sum was equal to four times 
the amount now. It was the first public donation of any considerable 
amount by any of the citizens. 

Daniel Williams, his brother, who became a partner in his office 
business, was a lawyer of good standing, and continued in the law 
office until he retired from active practice. He was judge of probate 
for several years, state treasurer, member of the legislature and mayor 
of Augusta. 

Frederick Allen settled in Gardiner in 1808. He was a lawyer 
who loved and was devoted to his profession, and early rose to a lead- 
ing position at the bar of this county; his practice extended into Lin- 
coln, where he first settled, and Somerset counties. He was a close 
student, and had at command all of the law that was applicable to the 
case in hand. He did not rely upon the graces of oratory, but ably 
presented the law and the facts with perspicuity and strength, 
and with a perseverance in trial after trial that seemed determined 
never to be beaten. He was sometimes so absorbed in his studies as 
to be quite absent-minded; and it is said he has been known to rise in 
the night and go to his office to consult a book upon which his mind 
had been dwelling. 

George Evans, of Gardiner, was a native of Hallowell. He gradu- 
ated at Bowdoin College in 1815, and at the close of his legal studies 
with Mr. Allen, settled in Farmingdale. He was a man of signal 
ability. The country has produced few men who surpassed him in 
native intellectual power. His mind was of the Websterian order. 
When he made a great effort it was difficult to see how anything 
could be added to his side of the question or more forcefully presented. 
The subject would be exhausted. The speaker would be forgotten in 
the thought of the argument. Mr. Evans was twelve years in con- 
gress — six in the house of representatives and six in the senate — and 
by his marked ability, acquired a national reputation. At the close 
of his public career he returned to the practice of the profession that 
his abilities and genius have honored. 

Henry W. Paine was born in Winslow in 1810. His father was 
Lemuel Paine, of Massachusetts, who removed to Winslow and prac- 
tised law there in partnership with General Ripley, the hero of Lundy's 
Lane in the war of 1812; and his mother was Jane Warren, a niece of 
General Joseph Warren, who fell at Bunker Hill. Mr. Paine graduated 
from Waterville College (now Colby University) in 1830, with the 
highest honors of his class, and was a tutor in the college for a year. 
Upon admission to the bar, he commenced practice at Hallowell in 1834, 
and pursued it there with signal success for twenty years, when he 
removed to Cambridge, Mass., and opened an office in Boston. He 
was three years in the legislature and five years county attorney, and 
before he left the state he was offered a seat on the bench of the 



/to^ l^^nUc^y^ 


supreme judicial court, but declined the honor. From 1849 to 18<)2, 
he was a member of the board of trustees of Waterville College. In 
1851 he was elected a member of the Maine Historical Society, and in 
1854 his Alma Mater conferred upon him the degree of doctor of 
laws. During his successful career at the bar he was often called 
upon to act as referee. 

In 1863 and 1864 Mr. Paine was nominated by the democratic 
party as a candidate for the office of governor. With much reluctance 
he accepted the nomination, and he did not regret the defeat which 
he expected. Upon the resignation of Chief Justice Bigelow, of 
Massachusetts, in 1867, the office was offered by Governor Bullock to 
Mr. Paine, who declined to accept it. For ten years, from 1872, he 
was lecturer on the law of real property at the law school of the 
Boston University, and was so thorough a master of his subject that 
he lectured extemporaneously with great credit to himself and profit 
to the class. It is an honor to Kennebec that she can count among 
her native children three so able lawyers as Reuel Williams, George 
Evans and Henry W. Paine. 

George Melville Weston, the third son of Judge Nathan Weston, 
was born in Augusta in 1816. His mother was Paulina B., daughter of 
Daniel Cony. He was graduated at Bowdoin College in 1834, studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1887, and practiced in Augusta five 
years. In 1840 he became editor of The Age for four years, when he 
was succeeded by Richard D. Rice. In 1846 he removed to Bangor, 
and was for several years in business there, in the meanwhile con- 
tributing largely to various newspapers. He soon established a 
reputation as a political writer of great ability. While at Augusta in 
1839 he was appointed county attorney. In 1855 he received the ap- 
pointment of commissioner to prosecute the claims of the state upon 
the United States for compensation for lands ceded to fulfill national 
obligations under the Ashburton treaty of 1842. While in Washing- 
ton as commissioner he became editor of the National Republiean, a free 
soil paper published in that city. He also published a political work 
on the progress of slavery in the United States. He subsequently 
turned his attention and pen to financial subjects. He died at Wash- 
ington February 10, 1887, leaving two children: Paulina C. (Mrs. 
Robert D. Smith) and Melville M., a lawyer in Boston. 

Mr. Sprague was also a man of national reputation. He came to 
Kennebec county in 1815 and opened an office at Augusta, but soon 
moved to Hallowell. The style of speaking of the leading members 
of the bar, as I have said, was a calm and forcible appeal to the judg- 
ment of the court or jury, without any attempt at oratorical display. 
Mr. Sprague added to a cultivated mind, well grounded in the princi- 
ples of the law, a good voice and a graceful presence: and he intro- 
duced a style of elocution of a more showy and declamatory kind. He 


arg-ued with eloquence and with a good deal of action and rhetorical 
display. He was a very pleasing and popular speaker. Everything 
he said, even to the making of a motion in court, was said with ele- 
gance and finish. He never forgot himself. When he had closed one 
of his appeals the natural exclamation would be, " What an eloquent 
orator ! " Mr. Sprague was elected to the United States senate in 
1829, where he served with distinction until his resignation in 1835, 
when he removed to Boston. In 1841 he was appointed judge of the 
district court of the United States. Notwithstanding his almost total 
loss of sight, he filled this high office with great ability and accept- 
ance until his death. 

Mr. Wells began the practice of his profession at Waterville in 
1825. He subsequently moved to Hallowell, and, after several years' 
practice there, settled in Portland, and received the appointment of 
justice of the supreme court of the state. He filled that station with 
honor, was elected governor in 1855, and, upon the close of his ser- 
vice in that high office, moved to Boston and continued the practice 
of his profession in that city to the close of his life. At the bar he 
showed himself to be an able lawyer and good advocate. He always 
did justice to his case, and long held a position among the leading 
lawyers of the state. 

Mr. Vose was born in Augusta November 8, 1803, graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1822, studied his profeesion in Worcester, prac- 
ticed law there for a year and then removed to his native city and 
opened an office there in 1828. He soon made himself prominent as an 
agreeable speaker and a popular advocate with the jury. His style of 
speaking was earnest and impassioned, accompanied with a good deal 
of appropriate action to give his argument effect. With the jury he 
was a dangerous antagonist, especially when he had the close — draw- 
ing away the attention of the jury from the material points in a cause 
by his learned and impassioned appeals. He was county attorney for 
several years. He was a representative to the legislature for three 
years, and senator in 1840-1, during which time he was president of 
that honorable body. But he adhered to his profession, and retained 
an extensive and valuable business to the close of his life in 1864. 

Judge Emmons, a son of Rev. Nathaniel Emmons, was born 
in 1783, studied law with Judge Wilde in Hallowell, commenced 
practice in Augusta in 1811, and formed a copartnership with Benja- 
min Whitwell in 1812. He was well read in his profession, and a pru- 
dent and safe counsellor. He had ample learning and a logical mind, 
well cultivated. He argued with clearness and point, but not in a 
manner especially taking with a jury. He was an honorable prac- 
titioner, held a good rank at the bar, and filled with credit the office 
of judge of probate from 1841 to 1848. 


I have thus far named particularly onlj- those members of the bar 
with whom I had come in personal contact in the trial of causes. I 
would like to speak of the rest, but I can only add that they all left an 
honorable record like that, for instance, of Hiram Belcher, whose in- 
tegrity, and candor, and fair mode of arguing his cases to the court 
or the jury, gave him a high standing and great success in his profes- 
sional life. He was born in 1790. studied with Wilde & 'Bond, of 
Hallowell, and was admitted to the bar in 1812. He died in 1857. 

I would like also to say something of the other names that were 
added to the list of attorneys after I came to Augusta. There were 
Wyman B. S. Moore, of Waterville, who had one of the most ener- 
getic minds that, in my long life, I have chanced to meet; and had he 
stuck to his profession he had the ability to make himself one of the 
ablest lawyers in New England: Joseph Baker, of Augusta, who at- 
tained a good standing in the very front rank of his profession; 
Richard D. Rice, who as printer, merchant, lawyer, judge, president 
and manager of railroads, succeeded in all. A man of great ability, 
he had a mind of originality and acted upon his own conclusions. 
There were also Edwin Noyes, one of the ablest railroad lawyers I 
have ever met; and Lot M. Morrill, who left the practice of law early 
to enter upon a distinguished career of public life; but not before he 
had become one of the most eloquent jury lawyers we have had at 
the bar. 

I have thus briefly presented the honorable record of some of the 
men now deceased who aimed to raise the standard of the profession, 
and to secure the confidence and respect of the community. It is an 
honorable profession. History records the services it has rendered in 
the establishment of law in the place of force. In all the great con- 
tests for human liberty its members have stood in the front ranks, and 
left a character of which the bar may be justly proud. It is a useful 
profession, essential to the well being of every community and to the 
protection of life, liberty, and the blessings of civilized society. With- 
out law civilization is impossible. Brute force would have absolute 
rule, and the weak would have no defense against the strong. But the 
law, to accomplish its mission, must be justly administered. To secure 
this just administration we need not only learned and upright judges, 
but also an able and honorable bar. The causes of the feeble and the 
ignorant, as well as of the influential and intelligent, need to be pre- 
pared and presented, the facts collected and arranged, and the princi- 
ples of law involved considered and discussed, in order to arrive at a 
just decision. Here is the field for the bar — to aid the court in ad- 
ministering justice between man and man, and between the state and 
those charged with a violation of the laws; in fine, to maintain the 
authority of law that means to society protection against violence, 
anarchy and barbarism. It may justly be written that the deceased 


members of the bar referred to have left a fair record. It is for their 
successors to preserve it untarnished.* 

Augustus Alden, of Middleboro, Mass., a graduate of Dartmouth, 
came to Winthrop from Augusta, but was more at home in religious 
than in legal work. He removed to Hallowell and died there subse- 
quent to 1810. 

Frederick Allen, born December 22, 1780, at Martha's Vineyard, 
was the youngest son of Jonathan Allen, who was a graduate of Har- 
vard in 1757. Mr. Allen began the study of law with his brother, 
Homer, at Barnstable, Mass., and later with Judge Benjamin Whit- 
man, of Boston. In 1805 he began the practice of law at Waldoboro, 
Me., and three years later he came to Gardiner, where he was a 
prominent lawyer until within a few years of his death, September 
28, 1865. His wife was Hannah B., daughter of Colonel Oliver Whip- 
ple, who was a graduate of Harvard in 1770. Their children were: 
Frederick, who died when he was about to graduate from Harvard; 
Charles Edward, of Boston, a graduate of Bowdoin Law School: Han- 
nah F., who lives in Farmingdale; Margaret (Mrs. Prof. Romeo Elton), 
deceased; Eleanor (Mrs. Dr. Martin Gay), deceased, and Augustus O., 
who was a graduate of Bowdoin Law School, and practiced in Boston 
until his death. 

A. G. Andrews, judge of the municipal court of Augusta since 1882^ 
was born at Freedom, N. H., in 1841. He studied law in 1865 with 
Hon. C. R. Ayer, of Cornish, Me., and was admitted to the bar of 
York county in 1867. He first came to Augusta in 1879 as a member 
of the legislature, and was subsequently a year with John H. Potter. 
Judge Andrews spent some fifteen years as a teacher m the common 
schools and academies. 

Charles L. Andrews, a son of George H. Andrews, was born m 
Monmouth in 1864. He graduated from Coburn Classical Institute in 
1881, read law for three years with A. M. Spear at Hallowell, and was 
admitted to the bar in October, 1885. After one year's clerkship with 
E. W. Whitehouse, he practiced a while at Winthrop, and is now 
partner with his brother-in-law, Mayor Spear, of Gardiner. 

Joseph E. Badger, son of William S. Badger, of the Jlahie Fanner^ 
read law with S. & L. Titcomb, was admitted in 1879, and practiced 
in Augusta until 1883, when he went to Minneapolis, where he re- 
mained until 1891. 

Kenry K. Baker, treasurer of the Hallowell Savings Bank, was 
born at Skowhegan, in 1806, and received there the foundation of his 
education. He perfected himself in the art of printing, and at the 
age of twenty years became the editor of the HalhnvcU Gazette, and 
afterward of the Free Press and Advocate. Preferring the profession 
* Mr. Bradbury's manuscript ends here ; but we are under obligation to him 
for much that is of interest in several of the following paragraphs. — [Ed. 


of law to that of journalism, he read with Judge Samuel Wells, and 
was admitted to the bar in 1840. He served in the legislature three 
terms, was clerk of the house in 1855, and in the latter year was ap- 
pointed judge of probate for Kennebec county by Governor Anson 
P. Morrill, and held the position for nearly twenty-six years. 

Joseph Baker was born at Bloomfield, now Skowhegan, June 23, 
1812, and died at Augusta, November 29, 1883. After preparing for 
college, partly at China Academy, he entered Bowdoin at the age of 
twenty, and graduated in the class of '36. He then came to Augusta 
as assistant principal in the high school and completed there the 
study of law with Williams & McCobb, and Vose & Lancaster. After 
his admission, in August, 1839, he opened an office in Augusta, and 
nine years later became the law partner of Sewall Lancaster. Aside 
from the short interval as editor and publisher, noticed at page 241, 
his life was devoted to the practice of law. He was a member of both 
branches of the city government, was in the state senate in 1847, and 
in the house of representatives in 1870. For four years he was city 
solicitor, and he served also as county attorney. Spaulding, in vol- 
ume seventy-nine of the Maine Reports, pays a high tribute to Mr. 
Baker's political and professional character, and says that his profes- 
sion was his pride, and that he became the leader of the bar of Ken- 
nebec county. 

Orville D. Baker, son of Joseph, was born in Augusta in 1847. He 
was graduated from Augusta High School in 1864, and from Bowdoin 
College with the class of '68. He then traveled in Europe, studying 
language, until November, 1870. He read law with his father and 
was admitted to the bar in March, 1872. He took the full course at 
Harvard Law School, graduating there in June, 1872. He served four 
years as attorney general, being elected in 1885, and reelected in 1887. 
He is well known as an orator through his literary and political 

Judge Emery Oliver Bean has been an ative and often a promi- 
nent figure in the legal and judicial forces of Kennebec county and 
central Maine almost half a century. He comes of pure New Eng- 
land blood. Joshua Bean, his great-grandfather, in the fourth Ameri- 
can generation from Scotch ancestry, was born in Brentwood, N. H., 
in 1741. He married Mary Bean, and came to Hallowell in 1780, and 
to Readfield in 1784, where he died in 1814. Elisha, the oldest of 
their fourteen children, was born in Brentwood, September 10, 1764, 
married Olive Shepard, who was born in Epping, N. H., May 16, 1765. 
They had nine children. Oliver, their fifth child, was born in Read- 
field, November 15, 1797. He married Patience Nickerson, of Chat- 
ham, Mass. She died in February. 1869, and he in June of the same 

Of their five children, Richard Nicker.son Bean, the oldest, died in 


infancy. The second child, Emery Oliver, was born in Readfield, 
September 10, 1819, and the third. Nelson Shepard, was born Decem- 
ber 24, 1824, and died June 12, 1843. The fourth child, Philura Ann 
(Mrs. Joel Howard, of Presque Isle), was born February 25, 1828, and 
the youngest, Everline Marilla (Mrs. Stephen W. Caldwell, of Caribou, 
Me.), was born October 1, 1829. Joshua, Elisha and Oliver Bean were 
all land owners and farmers, and each built and operated early saw, 
grist or bark mills in Readfield. 

Emery O. was born near the head of Lake Maranacook, then known 
as Chandler's pond. Like most Maine farmer boys, he was nurtured 
in a good home, with plenty of work and the limited advantages of 
the district school. In his case these were supplemented with a term 
or two at Kents Hill and a few terms at Monmouth Academy. With 
a natural bent for legal pursuits he entered the law office of Timothy 
O. Howe, of Readfield, where he spent many months in the same 
rooms, pouring over the same volumes, from which Mr. Howe had 
acquired the rare equipment that carried him so far and so high. In 
1843, at the age of twenty-four, he was admitted to the bar and went 
from the office of his noted preceptor to Hallowell, where he had the 
great good fortune to spend the opening year of his practice with 
that consummate master of his profession, Henry W. Paine, now of 
Boston. The next year he returned to his native town and opened 
an office. The fact that his old preceptor made him his partner the 
year following is significant. The firm of Howe & Bean continued 
until 1848, when Mr. Howe removed to the West. 

For the next twenty-eight years Judge Bean remained in the same 
office alone, working hard, with a constantly growing practice and 
reputation. In the meantime his son, Fred Emery Beane,had grown 
to manhood. Had adopted his father's profession, had been admitted 
to the bar, and in 1876 father and son became partners, opening an 
office in Readfield, which was occupied by the firm until the fall of 
1878. Fred Emery then opened an office in Hallowell, where he still 
resides, and of which city he has served as mayor. In 1878 the firm 
of Bean & Beane opened an office in Hallowell, and, in 1890, one in 
Gardiner, and now prosecute their legal business in the three places, the 
senior partner remaining m Readfield. The court records show the 
name of Emery O. Bean and the firm name of Bean & Beane, to have 
been entered in a greater number of cases than any other attorneys 
now living in Kennebec county. Here closes the record of the forty- 
ninth year of Judge Bean's legal career. 

He married Elizabeth Hunton, daughter of Colonel John O.Craig, 
of Readfield, October 8, 1844. She was born in Readfield, April 18, 
1818, and died January 22, 1892. Large-brained and large-hearted, 
cordial, cultured, devoted to her family, her friends, and to all human 
duties, Mrs. Bean was a most womanly woman, whose departure was 



everybody's loss. Nelson Shepard Bean, the older of their two chil- 
dren, now a resident of Maiden, Mass., with business in Boston, was 
born July 18, 1845. Fred Emery Beane, the younger son, was born 
May 14, 1853. 

In politics Judge Bean was first a whig, and was by that party 
elected to the state legislature in 1851. Again in 1856 he served his 
fellow citizens— this time as state .senator— and in 1879 Governor Gar- 
celon appointed him one of the trustees of the Maine State College 
of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, in which capacity he served for 
the term of seven years. In 1880 he was elected judge of the pro- 
bate and insolvency court of Kennebec county, by a plurality of 600, 
holding the office four years. Viewed from any standpoint this was 
a remarkable event for a democrat to receive such a public approval 
in a county with from 2,000 to 3,000 republican majority. No appeal 
from Judge Bean's decisions in probate matters was ever sustained 
by the supreme court of probate, and only one in insolvency proceed- 
ings. He is a leading member of the Universalist church of Read- 
field, in which faith his father was also a staunch and life-long 

Judge Bean's characteristics as a lawyer have been a cool, dispas- 
sionate judgment, plain common sense, devotion and diligent loyalty 
to his client, and thorough hard work for the mastery of the matter 
in hand. In all the kindly relations of acquaintance, neighbor and 
friend, the genial and manly elements that constitute the truest bond 
of human intercourse are conspicuous ingredients in his character. 

Alexander Belcher came from Northfield, Mass., and practiced 
law in Winthrop from 1807 till his death in 1854. 

Samuel Page Benson, son of Dr. Peleg Benson, of Winthrop, 
graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825. He and his brother, Gustavus, 
studied law in China with Abisha Benson, their uncle. Samuel P. 
opened an office in his native town in 1829, and became prominent in 
the political field. He was secretary of state in 1838 and 1841; and 
in 1853 and 1855 represented the Kennebec district in congress. 

R. W. Black was born, in Waldo county in 1840. The study of 
law, which he early began, was interrupted by his entering the army; 
but at the close of the war he resumed his studies with Sewall Lancas- 
ter, and was admitted in 1866. His business relations with Mr. Lan- 
caster continued until the latter's death. 

Henry F. Blanchard was born at Rumford, Me., April 26, 1838. He 
studied law with McCunn & Moncrief, New York city, and afterward 
with W. W. Bolster, then of Dixfield, now of Auburn, Me. He was 
admitted to the bar of Oxford county in 1859, and was in the practice 
of his profession at Rumford Point at the outbreak of the rebellion. 
After the war, in which he served, he located at Augusta, and since 


1874 has been a member of the firm of Weeks & Blanchard in that 

Thomas Bond was graduated from Harvard in 1801, studied law 
with Samuel S. Wilde at Hallowell, and was received by him into 
partnership at the time he was admitted to practice. Their connec- 
tion in business continued until 1815, when Mr. Wilde was appointed 
to the supreme bench. Mr. Bond died suddenly in 1827. 

George K. Boutelle, son of Dr. Nathaniel R., and grandson of 
Timothy Boutelle (page 308), was born in Waterville in 1857, gradu- 
ated from Harvard University in 1878 and from Harvard Law School 
in 1882. He read law with E. F. Webb and was admitted to the bar 
in 1888, in which year he opened his present office in Waterville. He 
is secretary for Maine of the Harvard Law School Association, and in 
1891 was elected a director of the Ticonic National Bank, with which 
his father and grandfather had been for so long a period connected. 
In October, 1891, he married May Wheelock, granddaughter of Judge 
Seth May. 

Thomas Bowman, of Augusta, son of Jonathan Bowman, was born 
in May, 1774, graduated at Harvard in 1794, read law with Judge 
Bridge, and was admitted to the bar in 1797. He married Sally How- 
ard and lived and died in Fort Western. 

James Ware Bradbury, LL.D.,* was born at Parsonsfield, July 10, 
1802. He is the son of Dr. James Bradbury, a successful practitioner 
in Parsonsfield for more than forty years, and of his wife, Ann, daugh- 
ter of Samuel Moulton, of Newbury, Mass. He is a lineal descendant 
in the seventh generation from Thomas Bradbury, who came from 
Essex county, England, in the first half of the seventeenth century, 
as the agent of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, proprietor of the territory now 
comprising the state of Maine. 

James W. Bradbury attended the common schools of Parsonsfield, 
the academies at Saco, Limerick and Effingham, and finished his 
preparatory course under the tutorship of Preceptor Nason, at Gor- 
ham. In the autumn of 1822 he entered Bowdoin College one year in 
advance, and graduated with the famous* class of 1825, among his 
classmates being Nathaniel Hawthorne, John S. C. Abbott, Henry W. 
Longfellow and George B. Cheever. Mr. Bradbury and two others 
are the sole survivors of the class. 

Soon after graduating Mr. Bradbury came to the Kennebec and 
became preceptor of Hallowell Academy, which position he retained 
for one year, when he resigned to commence the study of law, read- 
ing first with Rufus Mclntire, of Parsonsfield, and then with Ethan 
and John Shepley, of Saco. Having completed the necessary course 
of study, and while waiting for admission to the bar, he opened a 
school in Effingham, N. H., for the training of teachers; it being 
* By the Editor. 



among the first, if not the very first attempt at a normal school in 
New England. 

He was admitted to the bar in 1830 and located at Augusta. In 
connection with his legal practice he became for one year editor of 
the Mame Patriot, a democratic paper then published in the town. In 
1833 he formed a law partnership with Horatio Bridge. His subse- 
quent law partners were Lot M. Morrill, J. M. Meserve and Richard 
D. Rice, Mr. Bradbury in each case being the senior partner. 

In 1835 Governor Dunlap appointed him attorney for Kennebec 
county, a trust which he faithfully discharged for four years. He 
has always been a democrat, and in 1846 was elected to the United 
States senate for the term of six years, from March 4, 1847. He was 
placed upon the committees on printing, claims, and the judiciary. In 
his duties upon the latter his legal knowledge soon gave him promi- 
nence, and he was continued upon it to the end of his term. He ad- 
vocated the compromise measures offered in the senate by Mr. Clay 
July 24, 1850, and in 1852 he made the leading argument in favor of 
the French Spoliation bill. 

He was the originator of the movement which led to the establish- 
ment of the court of claims, and introduced and advocated the meas- 
ure to indemnify Maine and Massachusetts for land conveyed to set- 
tlers under the treaty of Washington. He also secured the passage 
of a bill for the payment to the state of Maine of interest on money 
advanced for expenses incurred in the eastern boundary troubles, and 
it was through his efforts that the first appropriation was made for 
improving the navigation of the Kennebec river. 

At the expiration of his term he resumed the practice of the law 
at Augusta. He is a railway director, a bank director, the head of 
the board of management of Bowdoin College, and a member of the 
standing committee of the Maine Historical Society. He has been a 
resident of the state for three generations and of Kennebec county 
for two. He has outlived all his contemporaries and early business 
associates, and is still in the enjoyment of fairly good health. He has 
long been a communicant of the Congregational church. He married, 
November 25, 1834, Eliza Ann, daughter of Captain Thomas West- 
brook and Abigail (Page) Smith, of Augesta. The father of Mrs. 
Bradbury came from Dover, N. H., to Augusta in 1805, and was a suc- 
cessful merchant. He was related to the Westbrooks, Waldrons and 
other noted New Hampshire families, and remotely to Mr. Bradbury, 
through Elizabeth Bradbury,daughterof Thomas, the immigrant. Mrs. 
Bradbury was a woman of great energy of character and of remark- 
able executive ability. She died very suddenly, January 29, 1879, 
greatly mourned, and by none more sincerely than by the poor, to 
whom she had been a true friend and benefactor. Of their four sons, 
all of whom grew to manhood, only one remains, and he, with a 


granddaughter, constitutes the sum total of Mr. Bradbury's descend- 

Ebenezer Bradish, a graduate of Harvard, came to Hallowell and 
began practice in 1795 or 1796. About 1800 he removed to the West. 

Newell W. Brainerd read law with E. F. Webb, was admitted to 
the bar in 1886, and in that year began practice in Fairfield, opening, 
a few months later, an office in Clinton also, where he continued in 
practice until November, 1890, when he removed to Skowhegan, and 
the following month assumed the duties of clerk of courts. 

Judge James Bridge, of Augusta, eldest son of Edmund Bridge, 
was born in 1765, graduated at Harvard in 1787, studied law with 
Judge Parsons, established himself at Augusta in 1790, and was made 
the first judge of probate of Kennebec county. He resigned this 
office in 1804. In 1820 he was appointed one of the joint commission- 
ers of Massachusetts and Maine " to adjust the personal concerns of 
the two states." He died in 1834. 

Horatio Bridge, third son of Judge Bridge, was born in 1806. He 
graduated from Bowdoin in 1825, studied law, and began practice in 
Augusta, but soon removed to Skowhegan, where he practiced awhile, 
and then resumed practice in Augusta. 

Edmund T. Bridge, eldest son of Judge Bridge, was born in 1799. 
He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1818, studied law at Augusta, 
with Judge Fuller, and became his law partner. He was an active 
democratic politician; edited the Maine Patriot and Tlic Age for a num- 
ber of years, and was the most influential promoter of the enterprise 
of building the Kennebec dam, by which he at first made, and after- 
ward lost, a fortune. He was a writer of ability, and possessed rare 
business talents. He died in 1854. 

Nathan Bridge was born in 1775, studied law with his brother, 
James, in Augusta, was admitted to the bar in 1798, and settled in 
Gardiner, being the first lawyer there. He died in 1827. 

Simon S. Brown, son of Luke and Polly (Oilman) Brown, was born in 
Clinton July 6, 1833. He fitted for college under Dr. J. H. Hanson, at 
Waterville Academy, and entered Waterville College in 1854, from 
which institution he was graduated in 1858, among the first in his 
class. He was admitted to the bar in 1859, and began practice at 
Fairfield in 1864. He removed to W^aterville in 1881: was elected 
member of governor's council in 1879, and served as member of the 
board of education for several years, both in Fairfield and Waterville. 
At the organization of the city of Waterville, in 1888, he was elected 
a member of the board of aldermen, of which board he has been 
chairman continuously to the present time. He has an extensive 
practice, embracing nearly all the counties of the state. He was a 
member of the democratic national nominating conventions in 1880 
and in 1884; and has been for seven years a member of the democratic 


State committee, and for four years its chairman. He was elected 
representative in 1892. 

Daniel Campbell, a graduate of Dartmouth in the class of 1801, 
practiced in Readfield, 1808-1818, and then came to Winthrop. In 
1824 he abandoned his profession, and entered the Congregational 

John A. Chandler, born May 19, 1792, a son of General John Chand- 
ler [see page 770], was a lawyer, and in 1832 became clerk of the courts. 
He died at Norridgewock in 1842. 

James Loring Child, born at Augusta, May 31, 1792, attended the 
Hallowell Academy; commenced the study of law with Whitwell & 
Fuller, and finished with Bridge & Williams. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1812, and practiced in Winslow, in partnership with Thomas 
Rice until 1816. From 1818 to 1822 he practiced at Augusta, in which 
city he resided for thirty years prior to his death, in 1862. 

Winfield S. Choate, born in Lincoln county in 1850, studied law 
with Artemas Libbey, was admitted to the bar in March, 1872, gradu- 
ated at Harvard Law School in June, 1872, and was in practice at Au- 
gusta until January, 1889, when he began service in his present posi- 
tion as clerk of the courts for this county. He was several terms city 
solicitor of Augusta, and August 5, 1889, became lieutenant colonel of 
the First Regiment, Maine State Militia. 

Fred W. Clair, born November 26, 1866. at Old Town, Me., was 
educated in the schools of his native town and Oakland, and gradu- 
ated from Coburn Classical Institute in 1886. He read law in the 
office of S. S. Brown, and was admitted in 1891. In April of that 
year he opened an office in Waterville. He has been city clerk since 
March, 1891, and became city solicitor in 1892. 

William Clark, a native of Hallowell, practiced law there for many 
years. His son, William H., admitted in 1840, practiced there also, 
but went to California in 1849. 

Oliver Barrett Clason' (Pell', Charle.s°, Jonathan', Jonathan*, Jona- 
than', SamueP, Stephen') was born September 28, 1850. He fitted for 
college at Monmouth Academy, and graduated from Bates in the class 
of '77. He taught school three years, read law with Judge Henry S. 
Webster, was admitted in 1881, and has since enjoyed a lucrative prac- 
tice in Gardiner. He has been in both branches of the city govern- 
ment: was thirteen years on the school board; is one of the trustees 
of the State Normal School; president of the board of trustees of Bates 
College, and while a member of the legislature introduced, in 1889, 
the free text-book bill, and, in 1891, the Australian ballot, which be- 
came a law, and by which he is best known. Stephen Clason was 
married in Stamford, November 11, 1654. [See page 664]. 

Lorenzo Clay enjoyed a good practice at Gardiner from his admis- 


sion in 1845. His son, Benjamin B. Clay, admitted in 1878, became 
his partner. 

Samuel Dudley Clay, of Gardiner, admitted in 1863, was a promi- 
nent practitioner at the Kennebec bar. He died about the year 

Daniel Cony, mentioned in the chapter on Augusta, was appointed 
judge of probate of Kennebec county in 1804, having previously been 
a judge of the court of common pleas. He died in 1842, in his 
ninetieth year. 

Leslie Colby Cornish, of Augusta, is the only son of Hon. Colby 
C. Cornish, of Winslow, and was born in that town October 8, 1854. 
He was fitted for college at Coburn Classical Institute and graduated 
from Colby University in 1875. He was principal of the high school 
at Peterboro, N. H., in 1876 and 1877, and a member of the state 
house of representatives from his native town in 1877-8. He com- 
menced the study of law with Baker & Baker, of Augusta, m August, 
1878, and finished his studies at Harvard Law School in 1879-80. In 
October, 1880, he was admitted to the Kennebec bar and in October, 
1882, formed a partnership with his instructors, under the name of 
Baker, Baker & Cornish. He has been a member of both branches 
of the city government, a trustee of the Lithgow Library since 1883, 
of Colby University since 1889, of the Augusta Savings Bank since 
January, 1892, and is secretary and treasurer of the Maine State Bar 

Louis O. Cowan, admitted in 1843, practiced but a short time in 
Augusta, and then went to Biddeford, where he published the Bidde- 
ford Journal. He died in 1872. 

Nathan Cutler was born in 1775, admitted to the Massachusetts bar 
in 1801, removed to Maine in 1803, and was a member of the state 
senate in 1828-9. 

County Attorneys. ^When Maine was made a state, the act pro- 
viding for this office made it appointive by the governor and coitncil, 
the tenure depending upon the pleasure of the executive. Ebenezer 
T. Warren, of Hallowell, was appointed November 24, 1820; Peleg 
Sprague, of Hallowell, March 23, 1821 (resigned December 22, 182]); 
and Henry W. Fuller, of Augusta, March 30, 1822. 

In February, 1824, the tenure of office was made four years, though 
it seems the executive power could find means of creating a vacancy 
whenever it suited their convenience. Chapter III, of the Laws of 
1842, made the office elective, and changed the tenure to three years; 
and in March, 1880, the term was again shortened to two years. The 
successive incumbents of this important office have included some of 
the leading lights of the Kennebec bar. Henry W. Fuller, of Augusta, 
was reappointed March 16, 1826; Robert Goodenow, January 18, 1828, 
and February 17, 1832; James W. Bradbury, Augusta, January 17, 


1834; Henry W. Paine, Hallowell, March 27, 1838; George M. Weston, 
Augusta, January 18, 1839; Henry W. Paine, April 6, 1841; George M. 
Weston, January 26, 1842; Henry W. Paine, January 2, 1843, and Jan- 
uary 1, 1846; Richard H. Vose, Augusta, January 1, 1849, and January 
1, 1853; Sewall Lancaster, Augusta, January 9, 1856; Charles Dan- 
forth, Gardiner, January 3, 1859, and January 1, 1862; Lorenzo Clay, 
Gardiner, January 1, 1865; Samuel C. Harley, Hallowell, January 1, 
1868. Mr. Harley died in office, and William P. Whitehouse, of 
Augusta, was appointed October 12, 1869. F. E. Webb, of Winthrop, 
was elected that fall, but died before the next January, and Mr. White- 
house filled the continued vacancy during 1870. He was elected in 
1870 for the full term, beginning with January, 1871, and again for 
the term beginning January, 1874. His successors have been: Ed- 
mund F. Webb, Waterville, January 1, 1877; Herbert M. Heath, 
Augusta, January 1, 1880; William T. Haines, Waterville, January 1, 
1883, and January 1, 1885; Leroy T. Carleton, Winthrop, January 1, 
1887, January 1, 1889, and January 1, 1891. 

The present County Attorney, Leroy T. Carleton, of Winthrop, is a 
grandson of Joseph Carleton, who came from New Hampshire to 
Byron, Me., prior to 1810, and married. Miss Marston, of Andover, 
Me. Joseph's son, Thomas, was born in Byron, in April, 1815, and 
reared in Berlin, now a part of Phillips, Me. He married Hannah, 
daughter of Esquire William Parker, of French Huguenot extraction. 
Esquire Parker was a trial justice, and for many years was counsellor 
of the people, and arbiter of their differences, in all that section of 
Franklin county. His wife was the daughter of a Freewill Baptist 
clergyman, Rev. Mr. Wilbur. 

Thomas Carleton died in March, 1882. His son, the subject of 
this sketch, was born in Phillips, February 8, 1848. In the intervals 
of farm work, for which he received the munificent compensation of 
twenty dollars a month, he attended the district schools, and there 
imbibed the desire for a more extended education which, by diligent 
self-training, he afterward acquired. But the breaking out of the re- 
bellion diverted for a time the lad's thirst for the knowledge of books, 
and being then of the mature age of fourteen, he determined to ac- 
quire a knowledge of the world instead. Stating his age at eighteen 
— a patriotic falsehood at which his recording angel must have surely 
winked — he enlisted in the 9th Maine Volunteers, and with his gun 
and knapsack went to the front. At the expiration of his service 
with the 9th, he reenlisted as a veteran in the 32d Maine, his service 
with both regiments comprising three and a half years. He was in 
thirteen engagements, and was three times wounded — at Cold Har- 
bor, Fort Wagner and at the Burnside Mine Explosion, where his 
regiment of 300 was engaged and but 27 came out of the fight. He 


was mustered out at the close of the great struggle as a non-commis- 
sioned officer. 

He then taught school for a time, during which period he fitted 
for college under Doctor Torsey, at Kents Hill Seminary. He next 
worked three years in the Bailey oilcloth shops, at the same time 
reading law with Ezra Kempton at Winthrop. He was admitted to 
the bar in 1874, at the August term of the supreme judicial court, and 
opened his office in Winthrop, where he has since resided. He mar- 
ried Nellie M., daughter of George A. Longfellow [see page 864]. Their 
only child, George L., born May 7, 1875, was a student at Kents Hill 
in the collegiate preparatory course, but died May 19, 1892, after a 
brief illness. 

Mr. Carleton was elected county attorney in 1886, and entered 
upon the duties of the office in January, 1887. By successive reelec- 
tions he has held the position to the present time, and in September, 
1892, was again elected for the term ending with December, 1894, the 
longest service ever accorded to an incumbent of this office. He is 
best known through his administration of this difficult office. The 
courage, tact and ability he has displayed have won for him the con- 
tinued support of the people. During the last five years 131 different 
commitments to jail for violation of the prohibitory law have been 
made, and $44,265 has been paid the county treasurer in fines and 
costs, as against fifty commitments and $16,161 in fines and costs, for 
the same length of time before he was county attorney; and the 
salary of the office, which was $600 per annum before Mr. Carleton's 
incumbency, has been increased by the state to $1,000. There is no 
fiction in figures, no fancy in facts; and his official record speaks for 

Evans A. Carleton read law with his brother, Leroy T., in Win- 
throp, and was admitted to the bar in 1891. His home is now in 
Helena, Mon. 

Charles Danforth, son of Israel and Sally (Wait) Danforth, was 
born in Norridgewock August 1, 1815. After attending school at the 
academies in Farmington and Bloomfield, he studied law in the office 
of John S. Tenney, and was admitted to the bar in 1838. He moved 
to Gardiner in 1841, opening an office with Noah Woods, under the 
firm name of Danforth & Woods. In 1854 Mr. Woods retired from 
legal practice. Mr. Danforth continued alone until 1864, when, on 
January 5th of that year, he was appointed to the judicial bench. He 
married Julia S., daughter of Deacon William W. Dinsmore, of Nor- 
ridgewock, January 11, 1845. Two children were the issue of their 
marriage: Edwin, born November, 1845, died September, 1849; 
and Frederick, born 1848. 

Ebenezer Furbish Deane, born in 1801 at Minot, Me., graduated 

C>\^^^^^e^^^ ^^/^/^.^^<^^:V^^^ 


from Bowdoin College in 1824, and practiced in Gardiner until his 
death, September 22, 1848. 

Franklin M. Drew graduated from Bowdoin College in 1858, was 
admitted in 1861, removed to Augusta about 1872, where for five years 
he was pension agent, and then went to Lewiston, and is now judge 
of probate for Androscoggin county. 

Everett R. Drummond, son of Clark Drummond, is a native of Win- 
slow. He received his education in the district schools of Winslow, 
the Vassalboro and Waterville Academies, and Kents Hill Seminary. 
He read law with his older brother, Josiah H. Drummond. He prac- 
ticed law in Waterville from the time of his admission to the bar 
until 1874. He was a partner with his brother for a time, and two 
years a member of the law firm of Drummond & Webb. He has been 
treasurer of the Waterville Savings Bank since June, 1874, and was 
justice of the peace and trial justice for several years. Since 1874 his 
law practice has been confined to probate and conveyance business. 
He was several years town clerk, one year a member of the city 
council, and since 189] member of the board of aldermen. He has 
been superintendent of the Methodist Sunday school seventeen years. 
His wife was Aubigne M. Bean. Their children are: Viola B., Clark 
W., Albert F. and Aubigne. 

Josiah H. Drummond, now of Portland, practiced at Waterville 
several years after his admission in 1850. 

John P. T. Dumont, a leading whig, and for many years a leading 
member of the bar, practiced at Hallowell prior to 1836. 

David Dunn, now of Poland, Me., was born in. Cornish, Me., in 
1811, and was the first lawyer who settled at Oakland. 

Larkin Dunton, admitted in 1858, was for a short time partner with 
Reuben Foster, of Waterville, but abandoned the law and became a 
successful teacher in Boston, and is now at the head of the Boston 
Normal School. 

Harvey D. Eaton was born September 20, 1862, at North Cornville, 
Me. He entered Coburn Classical Institute in 1881, and graduated 
from Colby University in the class of '87. He read law one year un- 
der a private tutor, and in 1891 received his degree from Harvard, 
having taken a three years' course at that university. He was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1889. He began practice at Waterville July, 

Loring Farr, of Augusta, admitted to practice here in 1877, is a son 
of Elijah, and grandson of Noah Farr [see page 673], who died in 
West Gardiner at the age of ninety-eight. Mr. Farr was in the civil 
war, was promoted to finst lieutenant of Company G, 19th Maine, was 
wounded at Cold Harbor, was promoted to captain of Company C, 
19th Maine, and subsequently became the ranking captain in Han- 
cock's Corps. 


Henry S. Farrington, cashier of the Merchants' National Bank of 
Gardiner, was educated as a lawyer in Waldoboro, where he was born 
in 1837. Before coming to Gardiner, in 1876, he had practiced in 
Lincoln county, where for four years he was county attorney. In 1881 
he was appointed judge of the police court of Gardiner, to succeed 
William Palmer, but before the expiration of his term became cashier 
of the bank, and retired wholly from the practice of law. 

George W. Field, son of John L. and Sarah W. Field, was born 
October 20, 1856, at St. Albans, Me. He was educated there and at 
Bloomfield Academy, and read law with James O. Bradbury, at Hart- 
land. He was admitted in 1884, and began practice at Harmony, but 
soon came to Oakland, where he is now located. He has been for 
three years a member of the school board of the town. His wife is 
Hattie A., daughter of George A. Farnum. 

Alfred Fletcher was born in China in 1818, read law with Sandford 
A. Kingsbury, and practiced in China all his life. He was a graduate 
of Bowdoin College, and served two years in the state .senate. 

Eugene S. Fogg was born in 1846, read law with Daniel C. Robin- 
son, and was admitted in 1878. He now occupies Mr. Robinson's 
office at Augusta. He has served one term as city solicitor. 

Reuben Foster, born in 1833, in that part of Bethel which is now 
Hanover, Me., is a son of Reuben B. and Sarah A. Foster. He fitted 
for college at Gould's Academy, Bethel, and at Bridgeton Academy, 
and was graduated from Colby University in the class of '55. He 
read law with J. H. Drummond, was admitted to the bar in 1858, and 
has since practiced law in Waterville. He has served in both branches 
of the state legislature. His wife was Dorcas C. Howe. Their only 
son, Dana P., a graduate of Colby University, '91, is a student at the 
Yale Law School. 

Freeman & Freeman came from Milo, Me., to Winthrop, where in 
1884 they practiced law about a year. 

Henry Weld Fuller, born at Hanover in 1784, studied law with 
Benjamin Whitwell, of Augusta, and afterward became his partner. 
In 1828 he was appointed judge of probate for Kennebec county, and 
held the office until his death in 1841. Frederick A., Judge Fuller's 
oldest son, and father of the present chief justice of the United States, 
was born in 1806, and died in 1849. Henry Weld, jun., Frederick A.'s 
younger brother, was born in 1810, graduated from Bowdoin in 1828, 
practiced law in Augusta, and was afterward clerk of the U. S. circuit 
court in the Massachusetts district. Benjamin A.G., youngest brother 
of Frederick A., graduated from Bowdoin in 1839, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1840, establishing his office at Augusta. 

W. W. Fuller is remembered as a strong anti-Mason. He was in 
full practice in Hallowell in 1825, but afterward removed to the 


Edward Fuller practiced law in Readfield in 1824. He died about 

Asa Gile was born in Mt. Vernon, admitted in 184H, and practiced 
until 1865 at Readfield. 

Allen Gilman, a sound and discriminating lawyer, was born in 
1773, graduated from Dartmouth in 1791, and began practice at Gardi- 
ner in 1796. In 1798 he removed to Hallowell, and the following year 
left the county. 

Samuel K. Gilman was born at Exeter, N. H., May 2, 1796, read 
law with Peleg Sprague at Hallowell, and was admitted in 1831. He 
was many years police judge at Hallowell. 

Samuel P. Glidden was the first lawyer who opened an office in 
Readfield, whither he came in 1797, at the age of thirty-six. He died 
in 1818. 

Anson Morrill Goddard, a son of Judge Charles W. Goddard, of 
Portland, was born in Auburn, Me., in 1859. His early life was spent 
in Portland, where he attended the high school. He graduated from 
Bowdoin College in 1882 and studied law with Judge Samuel Titcomb 
and in Harvard Law School, and was admitted in 1884. Since March, 
1887, he has been city solicitor of Augusta. In 1889 he was clerk of 
the special tax commission. 

Josiah H. Greeley, born in 1826, is a grandson of Jacob and son of 
Jose Greeley. The latter was in trade at Branch Mills, and married 
Anna, daughter of Joseph and Phoebe (Day) Hacker, by whom he had 
four children — Josiah H. and three girls — two of whom are deceased. 
Josiah H. was admitted to the bar at St. Paul, Minn., in 1856, and in 
1867 was admitted to practice in Kennebec county. He was one of 
the selectmen of China for several years, and in 1861 was elected to 
represent that town in the legislature. 

William T. Haines, son of Thomas J. and Maria L. (Eddy) 
Haines, was born at Levant, Me., in 1854. After leaving the public 
schools of his native town he attended the East Corinth Academy, 
and graduated from Orino in 1876 and Albany Law School in 1878. 
Two years later he received the degree of LL.B. from the Albany, 
N. Y., Law School. He taught school several terms while pursuing 
his studies. In May, 1879, he began the practice of law at Oakland, 
and in October of the following year he came to Waterville. He 
served for four years as county attorney and two terms as state sena- 
tor. He was a trustee of the State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanical Arts from 1882 to 1892, and at the present time is an alum- 
nus member and secretary of the board. He has been president of 
the Kennebec County Mutual Fire Insurance Company since its 
organization. He is a member of the executive board and council 
for the Waterville Building Association, clerk of the Masonic Build- 
ing Association, and clerk and member of the board of managers of 


the Waterville Safe Deposit Company. His wife was Edith S. Hem- 
ingway, and their family consists of two daughters and one son. 

Oliver G. Hall was born at South Thomaston in 1834. From the 
common schools of that town he continued his education at Kents 
Hill and at Bucksport, and when seventeen years of age began teach- 
ing in Rockland, in the meantime prose